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Wenxia Chen, Jiasheng Fang, Yiwei Zhang, Guangliang Chen, Shuo Zhao, Chao Zhang, Ran Xu, Jiehua Bao, Yuming Zhou, Xin Xiang
Semiconductor nanostructures have received considerable attention in the field of photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. However, eco-friendly, high efficiency, and low-cost semiconductor materials are still desired. In consideration of this, herein, we design a new and economic noble-metal-free CdS/Znx Co3-x O4 (CdS/ZCO) nanohybrid photocatalyst using a metal-organic framework (MOF) template, which is a framework structure composed of organic ligands and metal ion nodes with different numbers of connections. The as-prepared CdS/ZCO composites with a large specific surface area and porous hollow structure exhibit remarkable catalytic activity and high stability for hydrogen generation...
February 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Sung-Fu Hung, Zhi-Zhong Chen, Chun-Chih Chang, Chia-Shuo Hsu, Ming-Kang Tsai, Chia-Cheng Kang, Hao Ming Chen
II-VI semiconductors exhibit unique behaviors that can generate dual-holes ("heavy and light"), but the application in photocatalysis is still missing. Herein, an empirical utilization of light/heavy holes in a hybrid metal cluster-2D semiconductor nanoplatelets is reported. This hybrid material can boost the hole-transfer at the surface and suppress the recombination. Different roles are enacted by light-holes and heavy-holes, in which the light-holes with higher energy and mobility can facilitate the slow kinetics of water oxidation and further reduce the onset voltage, while the massive heavy-holes can increase the resulting photocurrent by about five times, achieving a photocurrent of 2 mA cm-2 at 1...
February 19, 2018: Small
Hossain M Fahad, Niharika Gupta, Rui Han, Sujay Bharat Desai, Ali Javey
There is an increasing demand for mass-producible, low-power gas sensors in a wide variety of industrial and consumer applications. Here, we report chemical sensitive field-effect-transistors (CS-FETs) based on bulk silicon wafers, wherein an electrostatically confined sub-5 nm thin charge inversion layer is modulated by chemical exposure to achieve a high sensitivity gas sensing platform. Using hydrogen sensing as a 'litmus' test, we demonstrate large sensor responses (> 1000%) to 0.5% H2 gas, with fast response (< 60 sec) and recovery times (< 120 sec) at room temperature and low power (<50µW)...
February 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Koyeli Girigoswami
In the recent times, nanomaterials are used in many sectors of science, medicine and industry, without revealing its toxic effects. Thus, it is in urgent need for exploring the toxicity along with the application of such useful nanomaterials. Nanomaterials are categorized with a particle size of 1-100 nm. They have gained increasing attention because of their novel properties, including a large specific surface area and high reaction activity. The various fundamental and practical applications of nanomaterials include drug delivery, cell imaging, and cancer therapy...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sang Hwa Lee, Sung-Ho Shin, Morten Madsen, Kuniharu Takei, Junghyo Nah, Min Hyung Lee
The epitaxial layer transfer process was previously introduced to integrate high-quality and ultrathin III-V compound semiconductor layers on any substrate. However, this technique has limitation for fabrication of sub-micron nanoribbons due to the diffraction limit of photolithography. In order to overcome this limitation and scale down its width to sub-50 nm, we need either a costly short wavelength lithography system or a non-optical patterning method. In this work, high-quality III-V compound semiconductor nanowires were fabricated and integrated onto a Si/SiO 2 substrate by a soft-lithography top-down approach and an epitaxial layer transfer process, using MBE-grown ultrathin InAs as a source wafer...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wanyue Dong, Yutang Liu, Guangming Zeng, Shuqu Zhang, Tao Cai, Jili Yuan, Hui Chen, Jing Gao, Chengbin Liu
In photocatalyst designing, quick recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs in the bulk or on the surface of semiconductors is a major limiting factor in achieving high photocatalytic efficiency, which is one of the most knotty scientific issues. For this purpose, a series of Cd 1-x Zn x S twin nanocrystal (NC) zinc blende/wurtzite (ZB/WZ) homojunctions photocatalysts were synthesized by a facile solvothermal route and innovatively employed in photocatalytic degradation. In sample Cd 0.6 Zn 0.4 S, ZB and WZ phases have the largest distribution and closest interconnection at atomic level...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
C Chen, S N Holmes, I Farrer, H E Beere, D A Ritchie
InGaAs based devices are great complements to silicon for CMOS, as they provide an increased carrier saturation velocity, lower operating voltage and reduced power dissipation (International technology roadmap for semiconductors ( In this work we show that In 0.75 Ga 0.25 As quantum wells with a high mobility, 15 000 to 20 000 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at ambient temperature, show an InAs-like phonon with an energy of 28.8 meV, frequency of 232 cm -1 that dominates the polar-optical mode scattering from ∼70 K to 300 K...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Mathew J Cherukara, Daniel S Schulman, Kiran Sasikumar, Andrew Joseph Arnold, Henry Chan, Sridhar Sadasivam, Joerg Maser, Wonsuk Cha, Saptarshi Das, Subramanian K R S Sankaranarayanan, Ross J Harder
Emerging 2-D materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides show great promise as viable alternatives for semiconductor and optoelectronic devices that progress beyond silicon. Performance variability, reliability and stochasticity in the measured transport properties represent some of the major challenges in such devices. Native strain arising from interfacial effects due to the presence of a substrate is believed to be a major contributing factor. A full three-dimensional (3-D) mapping of such native nanoscopic strain over micron length scales is highly desirable to gain a fundamental understanding of interfacial effects but has largely remained elusive...
February 16, 2018: Nano Letters
Bryan A Rosales, Miles A White, Javier Vela
Many technologically relevant semiconductors contain toxic, heavily regulated (Cd, Pb, As) or relatively scarce (Li, In) elements, and often require high manufacturing costs. We report a facile, general, low-temperature, and size tunable (4-28 nm) solution phase synthesis of ternary APnE2 semiconductors based on Earth-abundant and biocompatible elements (A = Na, Pn = Bi, E = S or Se). The observed experimental band gaps (1.20-1.45 eV) fall within the ideal range for solar cells. Computational investigation of the lowest energy superstructures that result from 'coloring', caused by mixed cation sites present in their rock salt lattice agree with other better-known members of this family of materials...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Pengcheng Wu, Xianyin Song, Shuyao Si, Zunjian Ke, Cheng Li, Wenqing Li, Xiangheng Xiao, Chang-Zong Jiang
Metal-oxide semiconductor TiO2 shows enormous potential in the field of photoelectric detection, however, the only UV-light absorption always restricts its widespread application. It is considered that nitrogen doping can improve the visible light absorption of TiO2, but the effect of traditional chemical doping is far from being used for visible light detection. Herein we dramatically broadened the absorption spectrum of TiO2 nanowire (NW) by nitrogen ions implantation and applied the N-doped single TiO2 NW to visible light detection for the first time...
February 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
Fajun Li, Xiaolong Xie, Qian Gao, Liying Tan, Yanping Zhou, Qingbo Yang, Jing Ma, Lan Fu, Hoe Tan, Chennupati Jagadish
Radiation effects on semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have attracted the attention of research community due to their potential applications in the space and/or atomic field. The effective implementation of NW devices in a radiation environment would be a matter of concern. Here, the photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements were performed on both GaAs and InP NWs at room-temperature before and after 1 MeV H&lt;sup&gt;+&lt;/sup&gt; irradiation with fluences ranging from 1x10&lt;sup&gt;11&lt;/sup&gt; to 5x10&lt;sup&gt;13&lt;/sup&gt; p/cm&lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt;...
February 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
Wei Sun, Chee-Keong Tan, Jonathan J Wierer, Nelson Tansu
A novel III-Nitride digital alloy (DA) with ultra-broadband optical gain is proposed. Numerical analysis shows a 50-period InN/GaN DA yields minibands that are densely quantized by numerous confined states. Interband transitions between the conduction and valence minibands create ultra-broadband optical gain spectra with bandwidths up to ~1 μm that can be tuned from the red to infrared. In addition, the ultra-broadband optical gain, bandwidth, and spectral coverage of the III-Nitride DA is very sensitive to layer thickness and other structural design parameters...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Biqin Huang, Xiwei Bai, Stephen K Lam, Kenneth K Tsang
In this letter we report the first diamond fin field-effect transistor (diamond FinFET) without a hydrogen-terminated channel. The device operates with hole accumulation by metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures built on fins to maintain effective control of the channel conduction. Devices with 100-nm-wide fins were designed and fabricated to ensure that the channel pinched off at zero gate bias. The transfer characteristic of FinFET showed a greater than 3000 on/off ratio, successfully demonstrating the transistor behavior...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Srimanta Pakhira, Kevin P Lucht, Jose L Mendoza-Cortes
Bilayer graphene (BLG) is a semiconductor whose band gap and properties can be tuned by various methods such as doping or applying gate voltage. Here, we show how to tune electronic properties of BLG by intercalation of transition metal (TM) atoms between two monolayer graphene (MLG) using a novel dispersion-corrected first-principle density functional theory (DFT) approach. We intercalated V, Nb, and Ta atoms between two MLG. We found that the symmetry, the spin, and the concentration of TM atoms in BLG-intercalated materials are the important parameters to control and to obtain a Dirac cone in their band structures...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Teresa Oh
ZTO was prepared on SiOC/ITO glass and the electrical characteristics were analyzed in accordance with the annealing temperature to research the temperature dependence and an amorphous structure. SiOC annealed at 150 °C as a gate insulator became an amorphous structure. The ZTO annealed at 150 °C had the capacitance without any variation. However, the capacitance of ZTO on SiOC annealed at 150 °C was increased due to the reduction of energy loss. ZTO/SiOC transistor was observed the ambipolar transfer characteristics with high stability and mobility in accordance with the decrement of drain voltages as a result of tunneling effect...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
David Rais, Miroslav Menšík, Bartosz Paruzel, Ivana Šeděnková, Jiří Pfleger
The localized surface plasmon (LSP) photophysical phenomenon occurring in metal nanostructures is often presented as a way to effectively couple light into sub-wavelength-scale photovoltaic devices, which would otherwise suffer from a weak light absorption. The simultaneous complementary effect of localized optical field depletion receives far less attention. We studied a system consisting of a planar gold nanoparticles array (AuNP) deposited at the surface of a semiconducting polymer thin film (P3HT). By comparing the UV-vis spectra of P3HT with and without the AuNP array, we have estimated that the AuNPs screen the optical absorption in the interfacial layer of about 3...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Liguo Wei, Shishan Chen, Yulin Yang, Yongli Dong, Weina Song, Ruiqin Fan
Graphene has attracted a lot of attention because of its unique mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties. In this study, a double layered structured photoanode consisting of a graphene/TiO2 composite layer and a TiO2 nanoparticles (P25) underlayer was developed. The photoelectric properties of as-prepared double layer structured photoanode were studied with comparison of the anatase TiO2 photoanode. Graphene was prepared by reduction of graphene oxide (GO) under a hydrothermal conditions and graphenen/TiO2 composite semiconductor materials were prepared by mixing graphene into TiO2 paste...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Ting-Wei Chen, Szu-Cheng Cheng
This paper presents numerical studies of cavity polariton solitons (CPSs) in a resonantly pumped semiconductor microcavity with an imbedded spatial defect. In the bistable regime of the well-known homogeneous polariton condensate, with proper incident wave vector and pump strength, bright and/or dark cavity solitons can be found in the presence of a spatially confined potential. The minimum pump strength required to observe the CPSs or nonlinear localized states in this parametric pump scheme is therefore reported...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Ernst M Bomhard
Indium oxide (In 2 O 3 ) is a technologically important semiconductor essentially used, doped with tin oxide, to form indium tin oxide (ITO). It is poorly soluble in all so far tested physiologic media. After repeated inhalation, In 2 O 3 particles accumulate in the lungs. Their mobilization can cause significant systemic exposure over long periods of time. An increasing number of cases of severe lung effects (characterized by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, emphysema and/or interstitial fibrosis) in workers of the ITO industry warrants a review of the toxicological hazards also of In 2 O 3 ...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Artem Skabeev, Ute Zschieschang, Yulian Zagranyarski, Hagen Klauk, Klaus Müllen, Chen Li
A series of π-extended cycl[3,3,2]azines (3) bearing additional carbonyl groups were synthesized via aldol condensations. Two strong electron acceptor molecules (4 and 5), with low-lying LUMO energy levels of -3.99 and -3.95 eV, respectively, were obtained. Organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on the cyanated cyclazine derivatives 5 were fabricated by vapor deposition, exhibiting extraordinarily stable n-type semiconductor character under ambient condition with the highest electron mobility of 0.06 cm 2 V -1 s -1 consistently for more than 30 months...
February 15, 2018: Organic Letters
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