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Yong Qiu, Jing Zhang, Bing Li, Xianghua Wen, Peng Liang, Xia Huang
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environment have become a growing public concern, due to their potential to be obtained by pathogens and their duplication along cell division. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) was reported to be responsible for ARGs dissemination in microbes, but the HGT feature in environmental biofilm was still unclear due to insufficient assay tools. To address this challenge, we applied a novel microfluidic system to cultivate thin biofilm by continuous supply of nutrients and close contact between cells...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
R Perrier, A Pirog, M Jaffredo, J Gaitan, B Catargi, S Renaud, M Raoux, J Lang
On-line and real-time analysis of micro-organ activity permits to use the endogenous analytical power of cellular signal transduction algorithms as biosensors. We have developed here such a sensor using only a few pancreatic endocrine islets and the avoidance of transgenes or chemical probes reduces bias and procures general usage. Nutrient and hormone-induced changes in islet ion fluxes through channels provide the first integrative read-out of micro-organ activity. Using extracellular electrodes we captured this read-out non-invasively as slow potentials which reflect glucose concentration-dependent (3-15 mM) micro-organ activation and coupling...
June 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Rui Ran, Haofei Wang, Yun Liu, Yue Hui, Qi Sun, Arjun Seth, David Wibowo, Dong Chen, Chun-Xia Zhao
Precise engineering of nanoparticles with systematically varied properties (size, charge surface properties, targeting ligands, etc.) remains a challenge, limiting the effective optimization of nanoparticles for particular applications. Herein we report a single-step microfluidic combinatorial approach for producing a library of single and dual-ligand liposomes with systematically-varied properties including size, zeta potential, targeting ligand, ligand density, and ligand ratio. A targeting ligand folic acid and a cell penetrating peptide TAT were employed to achieve the optimal synergistic targeting effect...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Martin Raasch, Enrico Fritsche, Andreas Kurtz, Michael Bauer, Alexander S Mosig
Complex cell culture models such as microphysiological models (MPS) mimicking human liver functionality in vitro are in the spotlight as alternative to conventional cell culture and animal models. Promising techniques like microfluidic cell culture or micropatterning by 3D bioprinting are gaining increasing importance for the development of MPS to address the needs for more predictivity and cost efficiency. In this context, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer new perspectives for the development of advanced liver-on-chip systems by recreating an in vivo like microenvironment that supports the reliable differentiation of hiPSCs to hepatocyte-like cells (HLC)...
June 14, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Manabu Tokeshi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Abhishek Ray Mohapatra, Shahrokh Sepehrirahnama, Kian-Meng Lim
Acoustophoresis is a form of contact-free particle manipulation in microfluidic devices. The precision of manipulation can be enhanced with better understanding of the acoustic radiation force. In this paper we present the measurements of interparticle radiation force between a pair of polystyrene beads in the Rayleigh limit. The study is conducted for three different sizes of beads and the experimental results are of the same order of magnitude when compared with theoretical predictions. However, the experimental values are larger than the theoretical values...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Erdem Kucukal, Anton Ilich, Nigel S Key, Jane A Little, Umut A Gurkan
In sickle cell disease (SCD), 'disease severity' associates with increased RBC adhesion to quiescent endothelium, but the impact on activated endothelium is not known. Increased concentrations of free heme result from intravascular hemolysis in SCD. Heme is essential for aerobic metabolism, and plays an important role in numerous biological processes. Excess free heme induces reactive oxygen species generation and endothelial activation, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and thrombosis...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
Megan A Catterton, Austin F Dunn, Rebecca R Pompano
Many in vivo tissue responses begin locally, yet most in vitro stimuli are delivered globally. Microfluidics has a unique ability to provide focal stimulation to tissue samples with precise control over fluid location, flow rate, and composition. However, previous devices utilizing fixed ports beneath the tissue required manual alignment of the tissue over the ports, increasing the risk of mechanical damage. Here we present a novel microfluidic device that allows the user to define the location of fluid delivery to a living tissue slice without manipulating the tissue itself...
June 15, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Marina Danilenko, Robert Stones, Neil Rajan
Transcriptomic profiling of skin disease using next generation sequencing allows for detailed information on aspects of RNA biology including gene expression, non-coding regulatory elements and gene splicing. The application of RNA sequencing to human skin disease and cancer is often hampered by degraded RNA. Here we describe a protocol that allows for consistently intact RNA to be extracted from snap frozen skin biopsy samples, which has been validated in a clinical trial setting. Human skin tumour punch biopsies (n=28) ranging from 4-6mm in diameter were obtained from 14 patients with an inherited skin tumour syndrome (CYLD cutaneous syndrome) and frozen in liquid nitrogen prior to being stored at -80°C...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Elizabeth D Clawson, Val Blair, Julia F Nepper, Matthew D Stilwell, Travis Tangen, Douglas B Weibel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Pelle Ohlsson, Klara Petersson, Per Augustsson, Thomas Laurell
Sepsis is a common and often deadly systemic response to an infection, usually caused by bacteria. The gold standard for finding the causing pathogen in a blood sample is blood culture, which may take hours to days. Shortening the time to diagnosis would significantly reduce mortality. To replace the time-consuming blood culture we are developing a method to directly separate bacteria from red and white blood cells to enable faster bacteria identification. The blood cells are moved from the sample flow into a parallel stream using acoustophoresis...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Guilong Peng, Yi Chen, Ruoyu Deng, Qiang He, Dun Liu, Ying Lu, Jin-Ming Lin
In this study, a convenient, sensitive, rapid and simple method was developed on microfluidic chip which was integrated with on-line complexing and laser-induced fluorescence detection. A rhodamine derivative (RD) was developed as a fluorescent chemosensor for Hg(II). It exhibited high selective recognition toward Hg(II) over other examined metal ions in water samples. Under the optimized conditions, the response was linearly proportional to the concentration of Hg(II) in the range of 0-70 μM with a detection limit of 0...
June 7, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Jerome J Nash, Patrick T Spicer, Kendra A Erk
Through several complementary experiments, an investigation of the bulk and interfacial flows that emerged during the coalescence of two water-in-oil droplets with asymmetric compositional properties was performed. By adding surfactant to one of the coalescing droplets and leaving the other surfactant-free, a strong interfacial tension gradient (i.e., solutal Marangoni) driving energy between the merging droplets generated pronounced internal mixing. The contributions of two distinct types of surfactant, anionic ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) and cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the rate of coalescence bridge expansion and on the generation of opposing flows during coalescence were investigated...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jian Dong, Yanli Jin, He Dong, Jiawei Liu, Senbin Ye
The profile, apparent contact angle (ACA), contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and wetting state transmission energy barrier (WSTEB) are important static and dynamic properties of a large volume droplet on the hierarchical surface. Understanding them can provide us with important insights to functional surfaces and promote the application in corresponding areas. In this paper, we established three theoretical models (Model 1, Model 2 and Model 3) and corresponding numerical methods, which were obtained by the free energy minimization and the nonlinear optimization algorithm, to predict the profile, ACA, CAH and WSTEB of a large volume droplet on the horizontal regular dual-rough surface...
June 14, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Masaru Watanabe, Hirotsugu Kenmotsu, Ryo Ko, Kazushige Wakuda, Akira Ono, Hisao Imai, Tetsuhiko Taira, Tateaki Naito, Haruyasu Murakami, Masato Abe, Masahiro Endo, Takashi Nakajima, Yasuhiro Koh, Toshiaki Takahashi
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a tumor-derived material utilized for liquid-based biopsy; however, capturing rare CTCs for further molecular analysis remains technically challenging, especially in non-small cell lung cancer. Here, we report the results of a clinical evaluation of On-chip Sort, a disposable microfluidic chip-based cell sorter, for capture and molecular analysis of CTCs from patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Peripheral blood was collected from 30 metastatic lung adenocarcinoma patients to enumerate CTCs using both On-chip Sort and CellSearch in a blind manner...
June 14, 2018: Cancer Science
Yu Gao, Richard Lakerveld
Precise alignment of small-scale building blocks into specific structural features is important for the manufacture of novel materials. Directed self-assembly is a promising route to align such small-scale building blocks with single-particle resolution. However, reliable alignment via directed self-assembly is challenging due to design uncertainty, randomness and potential disturbances acting on the system. This paper presents an integrated feedback control strategy to align colloidal particles reliably using directed self-assembly with electric field properties as manipulated variables in a microfluidic device...
June 14, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Mengmeng Wang, Lee-Ling Sharon Ong, Justin Dauwels, H Harry Asada
Cell migration is a key feature for living organisms. Image analysis tools are useful in studying cell migration in three-dimensional (3-D) in vitro environments. We consider angiogenic vessels formed in 3-D microfluidic devices (MFDs) and develop an image analysis system to extract cell behaviors from experimental phase-contrast microscopy image sequences. The proposed system initializes tracks with the end-point confocal nuclei coordinates. We apply convolutional neural networks to detect cell candidates and combine backward Kalman filtering with multiple hypothesis tracking to link the cell candidates at each time step...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Eliška Bartheldyová, Roman Effenberg, Josef Mašek, Lubomir Prochazka, Pavlína Knötigová, Pavel Kulich, Frantisek Hubatka, Kamila Velinska, Jaroslava Zelnickova, Darina Zouharova, Martina Fojtíková, Dominik Hrebik, Pavel Plevka, Robert Mikulík, Andrew David Miller, Stuart Macaulay, Daniel Zyka, Ladislav Drož, Milan Raška, Miroslav Ledvina, Jaroslav Turanek
New synthetic aminoxy lipids are designed and synthesized as building blocks for the formulation of functionalised nanoliposomes by microfluidisation using a NanoAssemblr®. Orthogonal binding of hyaluronic acid onto the outer surface of functionalised nanoliposomes via aminoxy coupling (N-oxy ligation) is achieved at hemiacetal function of hyaluronic acid and the structure of hyaluronic acid-liposomes is visualised by transmission electron microscopy and cryo- transmission electron microscopy. Observed structures are in a good correlation with data obtained by dynamic light scattering (size and ζ-potential)...
June 13, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Fariborz Soroush, Yuan Tang, Hasan M Zaidi, Joel B Sheffield, Laurie E Kilpatrick, Mohammad F Kiani
In the event of a radiologic catastrophe, endothelial cell and neutrophil dysfunction play important roles in tissue injury. Clinically available therapeutics for radiation-induced vascular injury are largely supportive. PKCδ was identified as a critical regulator of the inflammatory response, and its inhibition was shown to protect critical organs during sepsis. We used a novel biomimetic microfluidic assay (bMFA) to interrogate the role of PKCδ in radiation-induced neutrophil-endothelial cell interaction and endothelial cell function...
June 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Nan Zhou, Yu-Tong Sun, Dong-Wei Chen, Wenbin Du, Hong Yang, Shuang-Jiang Liu
The termite gut microbiome is a model system to investigate microbial interactions and their associations with host. For decades, extensive research with molecular tools and conventional cultivation method has been carried out to define the microbial diversity in termite gut. Yet, many bacterial groups of the termite gut microbiome have not been successfully cultivated in laboratory. In this study, we adapted the recently developed microfluidic streak plate (MSP) technique for cultivation of termite gut microbial communities at both aerobic and anaerobic conditions...
June 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
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