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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808401/in-vitro-%C3%AE-amylase-and-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitory-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-extracts-from-cissus-cornifolia-planch-parts
#1
Talent Chipiti, Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Moganavelli Singh, Md Shahidul Islam
CONTEXT: Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and its prevention will go a long way in managing the disease and its associated complications. Reduction of postprandial hyperglycemia through retarding carbohydrates digesting enzymes is one of the major therapeutic approaches used in the management of diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidiabetic and cytotoxic effects of Cissus cornifolia extracts in vitro...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805847/probing-nanoscale-functionalities-of-metal-organic-framework-nanocrystals
#2
Yao Sun, Zhigang Hu, Dan Zhao, Kaiyang Zeng
Experimental investigation of functional properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) at nanoscale precision is challenging and rarely reported. In this study, we report the piezo- and ferroelectric properties of NUS-6 MOF nanocrystals using dual AC resonance tracking piezoresponse force microscopy and piezoresponse force spectroscopy for the first time. Both NUS-6-(Hf) and NUS-6-(Zr) nanocrystals displayed anomalous piezoelectricity with the calculated piezoelectric coefficient dzz constants of 2.0-3.5 pm V(-1) and 1...
August 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801138/cadmium-exposure-in-newborn-rats-ovary-induces-developmental-disorders-of-primordial-follicles-and-the-differential-expression-of-scf-c-kit-gene
#3
Wenchang Zhang, Tingting Wu, Chenyun Zhang, Lingfeng Luo, Meimei Xie, Huiling Huang
Since the 1990s, the rising problem that gonad reproductive toxicity on adult female after exposing to cadmium (Cd), an environmental endocrine disruptor, has attracted high attention at home and abroad,and was systematically studied. Our research focuses on a further problem is that early cadmium exposure (during birth to before puberty) impact on development and function of ovarian cells and its possible mechanism. Our research focuses on the changes of ovarian cells growth and development after the newborn rat ovaries with cadmium exposure in vitro, and different expression of ovarian cells development-related factors, SCF/c-kit and changes of their DNA methylation status...
August 8, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800389/silicon-micropore-based-parallel-plate-membrane-oxygenator
#4
Ajay Dharia, Emily Abada, Benjamin Feinberg, Torin Yeager, Willieford Moses, Jaehyun Park, Charles Blaha, Nathan Wright, Benjamin Padilla, Shuvo Roy
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system to temporarily (days to months) support heart or lung function during cardiopulmonary failure until organ recovery or replacement. Currently, the need for high levels of systemic anticoagulation and the risk for bleeding are main drawbacks of ECMO that can be addressed with a redesigned ECMO system. Our lab has developed an approach using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques to create novel gas exchange membranes consisting of a rigid silicon micropore membrane (SμM) support structure bonded to a thin film of gas-permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)...
August 11, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796170/slippage-detection-with-piezoresistive-tactile-sensors
#5
Rocco A Romeo, Calogero M Oddo, Maria Chiara Carrozza, Eugenio Guglielmelli, Loredana Zollo
One of the crucial actions to be performed during a grasping task is to avoid slippage. The human hand can rapidly correct applied forces and prevent a grasped object from falling, thanks to its advanced tactile sensing. The same capability is hard to reproduce in artificial systems, such as robotic or prosthetic hands, where sensory motor coordination for force and slippage control is very limited. In this paper, a novel algorithm for slippage detection is presented. Based on fast, easy-to-perform processing, the proposed algorithm generates an ON/OFF signal relating to the presence/absence of slippage...
August 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792726/single-crystalline-3c-sic-anodically-bonded-onto-glass-an-excellent-platform-for-high-temperature-electronics-and-bio-applications
#6
Hoang-Phuong Phan, Han-Hao Cheng, Toan Khac Dinh, Barry Wood, Tuan-Khoa Nguyen, Fengwen Mu, Harshad Kamble, Raja Vadivelu, Glenn Walker, Leonie Hold, Alan Iacopi, Ben Haylock, Dzung Viet Dao, Mirko Lobino, Tadatomo Suga, Nam-Trung Nguyen
Single crystal cubic silicon carbide has attracted great attention for MEMS and electronic devices. However, current leakage at the SiC/Si junction at high temperatures and visible light absorption of the Si substrate are main obstacles hindering the use of the platform in a broad range of applications. To solve these bottlenecks, we present a new platform of single crystal SiC on an electrically-insulating and transparent substrate using an anodic bonding process. The SiC thin film was prepared on a 150 mm Si with a surface roughness of 7 nm using LPCVD...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783241/in-situ-transmission-electron-microscopy-characterization-and-manipulation-of-two-dimensional-layered-materials-beyond-graphene
#7
REVIEW
Chen Luo, Chaolun Wang, Xing Wu, Jian Zhang, Junhao Chu
Two-dimensional (2D) ultra-thin materials beyond graphene with rich physical properties and unique layered structures are promising for applications in electronics, chemistry, energy, and bioscience, etc. The interaction mechanisms among the structures, chemical compositions and physical properties of 2D layered materials are critical for fundamental nanosciences and the practical fabrication of next-generation nanodevices. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with its high spatial resolution and versatile external fields, is undoubtedly a powerful tool for the static characterization and dynamic manipulation of nanomaterials and nanodevices at the atomic scale...
August 7, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782015/nanotwinned-metal-mems-films-with-unprecedented-strength-and-stability
#8
Gi-Dong Sim, Jessica A Krogstad, K Madhav Reddy, Kelvin Y Xie, Gianna M Valentino, Timothy P Weihs, Kevin J Hemker
Silicon-based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors have become ubiquitous in consumer-based products, but realization of an interconnected network of MEMS devices that allows components to be remotely monitored and controlled, a concept often described as the "Internet of Things," will require a suite of MEMS materials and properties that are not currently available. We report on the synthesis of metallic nickel-molybdenum-tungsten films with direct current sputter deposition, which results in fully dense crystallographically textured films that are filled with nanotwins...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772909/scaling-effects-on-materials-tribology-from-macro-to-micro-scale
#9
REVIEW
Pantcho Stoyanov, Richard R Chromik
The tribological study of materials inherently involves the interaction of surface asperities at the micro to nanoscopic length scales. This is the case for large scale engineering applications with sliding contacts, where the real area of contact is made up of small contacting asperities that make up only a fraction of the apparent area of contact. This is why researchers have sought to create idealized experiments of single asperity contacts in the field of nanotribology. At the same time, small scale engineering structures known as micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) have been developed, where the apparent area of contact approaches the length scale of the asperities, meaning the real area of contact for these devices may be only a few asperities...
May 18, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772683/integration-of-electrodeposited-ni-fe-in-mems-with-low-temperature-deposition-and-etch-processes
#10
Giuseppe Schiavone, Jeremy Murray, Richard Perry, Andrew R Mount, Marc P Y Desmulliez, Anthony J Walton
This article presents a set of low-temperature deposition and etching processes for the integration of electrochemically deposited Ni-Fe alloys in complex magnetic microelectromechanical systems, as Ni-Fe is known to suffer from detrimental stress development when subjected to excessive thermal loads. A selective etch process is reported which enables the copper seed layer used for electrodeposition to be removed while preserving the integrity of Ni-Fe. In addition, a low temperature deposition and surface micromachining process is presented in which silicon dioxide and silicon nitride are used, respectively, as sacrificial material and structural dielectric...
March 22, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768567/in-vitro-growth-and-development-of-isolated-secondary-follicles-from-vitrified-caprine-ovarian-cortex
#11
Érica S S Leal, Luis A Vieira, Naíza A R Sá, Gerlane M Silva, Franciele O Lunardi, Anna C A Ferreira, Cláudio C Campello, Benner G Alves, Francielli W S Cibin, Johan Smitz, José R Figueiredo, Ana P R Rodrigues
The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability, antrum formation and in vitro development of isolated secondary follicles from vitrified caprine ovarian cortex in a medium previously established for fresh isolated secondary follicles, in the absence (α-minimum essential medium (α-MEM+) alone) or presence of FSH and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; α-MEM++FSH+VEGF). Ovarian fragments were distributed among five treatments (T1 to T5): fresh follicles were fixed immediately (T1), follicles from fresh tissue were cultured in vitro in α-MEM+ (T2) or α-MEM++FSH+VEGF (T3) and follicles from vitrified tissue were cultured in vitro in α-MEM+ (T4) or α-MEM++FSH+VEGF (T5)...
August 3, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767051/sensitivity-and-frequency-response-improvement-of-a-thermal-convection-based-accelerometer
#12
Maeum Han, Jae Keon Kim, Jin-Hyoung Park, Woojin Kim, Shin-Won Kang, Seong Ho Kong, Daewoong Jung
This paper presents a thermal convection-based sensor fabricated using simple microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based processes. This sensor can be applied to both acceleration and inclination measurements without modifying the structure. Because the operating mechanism of the accelerometer is the thermal convection of a gas medium, a simple model is proposed and developed in which the performance of the thermal convection-based accelerometer is closely associated with the Grashof number, Gr and the Prandtl number, Pr...
August 2, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760891/influence-of-beta-lactam-infusion-strategy-on-acute-kidney-injury
#13
Sarah E Cotner, W Cliff Rutter, Donna R Burgess, Katie L Wallace, Craig A Martin, David S Burgess
Background Limited literature is available assessing nephrotoxicity with prolonged beta-lactam infusions. This study compared the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with a prolonged beta-lactam infusion (PI) or an intermittent infusion.Methods. This was a retrospective, matched cohort study at an academic medical center from July 2006 to September 2015. Adult patients who received piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP), cefepime (FEP), or meropenem (MEM) for at least 48 hours were evaluated. Patients were excluded for pre-existing renal dysfunction or pregnancy...
July 31, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759197/cryogenic-fab-on-a-chip-sticks-the-landing
#14
Matthias Imboden, Han Han, Thomas Stark, David Bishop
Using a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based Fab-on-a-Chip, we quench-condense lead thin-films. Suppressing the formation of lead islands makes it possible to grow a homogeneous and continuous film as thin as 2 nm, without the use of an adhesion layer. Thermal cycling from 3 K to as low as 10 K reveals irreversible annealing of the thin-film characteristic of a metastable state. The transition to the stable state is smooth and is completed by cycling the temperature above ∼42 K, where a distinctive resistance minimum is observed...
July 31, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758998/functional-dissection-of-signal-and-noise-in-mt-and-lip-during-decision-making
#15
Jacob L Yates, Il Memming Park, Leor N Katz, Jonathan W Pillow, Alexander C Huk
During perceptual decision-making, responses in the middle temporal (MT) and lateral intraparietal (LIP) areas appear to map onto theoretically defined quantities, with MT representing instantaneous motion evidence and LIP reflecting the accumulated evidence. However, several aspects of the transformation between the two areas have not been empirically tested. We therefore performed multistage systems identification analyses of the simultaneous activity of MT and LIP during individual decisions. We found that monkeys based their choices on evidence presented in early epochs of the motion stimulus and that substantial early weighting of motion was present in MT responses...
July 24, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758967/on-chip-high-finesse-fabry-perot-microcavities-for-optical-sensing-and-quantum-information
#16
REVIEW
Mohammad H Bitarafan, Ray G DeCorby
For applications in sensing and cavity-based quantum computing and metrology, open-access Fabry-Perot cavities-with an air or vacuum gap between a pair of high reflectance mirrors-offer important advantages compared to other types of microcavities. For example, they are inherently tunable using MEMS-based actuation strategies, and they enable atomic emitters or target analytes to be located at high field regions of the optical mode. Integration of curved-mirror Fabry-Perot cavities on chips containing electronic, optoelectronic, and optomechanical elements is a topic of emerging importance...
July 31, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757358/strontium-release-from-sr-2-loaded-bone-cements-and-dispersion-in-healthy-and-osteoporotic-rat-bone
#17
Marcus Rohnke, Stefanie Pfitzenreuter, Boris Mogwitz, Anja Henß, Jürgen Thomas, Dina Bieberstein, Thomas Gemming, Svenja K Otto, Seemun Ray, Matthias Schumacher, Michael Gelinsky, Volker Alt
Drug functionalization of biomaterials is a modern and popular approach in biomaterials research. Amongst others this concept is used for the functionalization of bone implants to locally stimulate the bone healing process. For example strontium ions (Sr(2+)) are administered in osteoporosis therapy to stimulate bone growth and have recently been integrated into bone cements. Based on results of different analytical experiments we developed a two-phase model for the transport of therapeutically active Sr(2+)-ions in bone in combination with Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetics for the Sr(2+) release from bone cement...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755170/identification-and-validation-of-uterine-stimulant-methylergometrine-as-a-potential-inhibitor-of-caspase-1-activation
#18
Guillermo García-Laínez, Mónica Sancho, Vanessa García-Bayarri, Mar Orzáez
Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes of the innate immune system. Upon an inflammatory insult, such as infection or intracellular damage, a nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) sensor protein and the adaptor protein ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain) are assembled to activate protease procaspase-1. This protease processes pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 cytokines, which are released to induce the inflammatory response...
July 28, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753000/an-easy-to-manufacture-micro-gas-preconcentrator-for-chemical-sensing-applications
#19
Mitchell M McCartney, Yuriy Zrodnikov, Alexander G Fung, Michael K LeVasseur, Josephine M Pedersen, Konstantin Olegovich Zamuruyev, Alexander A Aksenov, Nicholas J Kenyon, Cristina E Davis
We have developed a simple-to-manufacture microfabricated gas preconcentrator for MEMS-based chemical sensing applications. Cavities and microfluidic channels were created using a wet etch process with hydrofluoric acid, portions of which can be performed outside of a cleanroom, instead of the more common deep reactive ion etch process. The integrated heater and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were created with a photolithography-free technique enabled by laser etching. With only 28 V DC (0.1 A), a maximum heating rate of 17...
July 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750967/joint-amplitude-mems-based-measurement-platform-for-low-cost-and-high-accessibility-telerehabilitation-elbow-case-study
#20
Mauro Callejas-Cuervo, Rafael M Gutierrez, Andres I Hernandez
This paper, presents an inertial and magnetic sensor based technological platform, intended for articular amplitude monitoring and telerehabilitation processes considering an efficient cost/technical considerations compromise. The particularities of our platform offer possibilities of a high social impact by making telerehabilitation accessible to large population sectors in marginal socio-economic sectors, especially in underdeveloped countries where, in contrast to developed countries, specialists are scarce and high technology is not available or inexistent...
July 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
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