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Tara Nietzold, Bradley M West, Michael Stuckelberger, Barry Lai, Stefan Vogt, Mariana I Bertoni
The quantification of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy maps by fitting the raw spectra to a known standard is crucial for evaluating chemical composition and elemental distribution within a material. Synchrotron-based XRF has become an integral characterization technique for a variety of research topics, particularly due to its non-destructive nature and its high sensitivity. Today, synchrotrons can acquire fluorescence data at spatial resolutions well below a micron, allowing for the evaluation of compositional variations at the nanoscale...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Monica Terracciano, Michela Napolitano, Luca De Stefano, Anna Chiara De Luca, Ilaria Rea
Diatomite is a fossil material made of amorphous porous silica. In this work, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified diatomite NPs (PEG-DNPs) are decorated with gold NPs (AuNPs) by one-pot liquid-phase synthesis. Nanocomplexes (PEG-DNPs@AuNPs), with an average size of about 450 nm, are characterized by dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis, UV-VIS and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Preliminary studies on the use of the nanocomplex in nanomedicine are also presented...
March 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Xiuxiu Wang, Ru Cheng, Liang Cheng, Zhiyuan Zhong
PLGA, a copolymer of lactide and glycolide, is one of the most used biodegradable polymers that find a wide range of biomedical applications including drug delivery and tissue engineering. However, in spite of remarkable advancement, nanotherapeutics based on PLGA might have drawbacks of inadequate stability, drug leakage, and slow drug release at the tumor site, which reduces its targeting ability and therapeutic efficacy. Here, we report that direct modification of star PLGA ends with lipoic acid, a natural antioxidant present in our human body, affords a smart material (sPLGA-LA) that forms reversibly crosslinked and bioresponsive multifunctional nanoparticles (sPLGA XNPs)...
March 19, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Huanyu Jin, Chunxian Guo, Xin Liu, Jinlong Liu, Anthony Vasileff, Yan Jiao, Yao Zheng, Shi-Zhang Qiao
Over the past few decades, the design and development of advanced electrocatalysts for efficient energy conversion technologies have been subjects of extensive study. With the discovery of graphene, two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have emerged as some of the most promising candidates for heterogeneous electrocatalysts due to their unique physical, chemical, and electronic properties. Here, we review 2D-nanomaterial-based electrocatalysts for selected electrocatalytic processes. We first discuss the unique advances in 2D electrocatalysts based on different compositions and functions followed by specific design principles...
March 19, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Joselle M McCracken, Sheng Xu, Adina Badea, Kyung-In Jang, Zheng Yan, David J Wetzel, Kewang Nan, Qing Lin, Mengdi Han, Mikayla A Anderson, Jung Woo Lee, Zijun Wei, Matt Pharr, Renhan Wang, Jessica Su, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Jonathan V Sweedler, John A Rogers, Ralph G Nuzzo
Complex 3D organizations of materials represent ubiquitous structural motifs found in the most sophisticated forms of matter, the most notable of which are in life-sustaining hierarchical structures found in biology, but where simpler examples also exist as dense multilayered constructs in high-performance electronics. Each class of system evinces specific enabling forms of assembly to establish their functional organization at length scales not dissimilar to tissue-level constructs. This study describes materials and means of assembly that extend and join these disparate systems-schemes for the functional integration of soft and biological materials with synthetic 3D microscale, open frameworks that can leverage the most advanced forms of multilayer electronic technologies, including device-grade semiconductors such as monocrystalline silicon...
September 2017: Advanced Biosystems
Vibhuti Agrahari, Vivek Agrahari
Block copolymers are widely utilized in the design of nanoformulations owing to their excellent physicochemical properties, flexible structure and functional chemistry. Advances in polymer synthetic approaches have significantly enhanced the ability to rationally design the block copolymers with tailor-made functionality and variable molecular weight. Hence, block copolymers have been extensively applied in the formulation of nanostructure materials. In this review, block copolymer classification, synthesis, characterization, stimuli-responsive behavior and nanostructure applications are summarized...
March 15, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Anouk S Lubbe, Qing Liu, Sanne J Smith, Jan Willem de Vries, Jos C M Kistemaker, Alex H De Vries, Ignacio Faustino, Zhuojun Meng, Wiktor Szymanski, Andreas Herrmann, Ben L Feringa
Reversible control over the functionality of biological systems via external triggers may be used in future medicine to reduce the need for invasive procedures. Additionally, externally regulated biomacromolecules are now considered as particularly attractive tools in nanoscience and the design of smart materials, due to their highly programmable nature and complex functionality. Incorporation of photoswitches into biomolecules, such as peptides, antibiotics and nucleic acids, has generated exciting results in the past few years...
March 18, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Karl A Hujsak, Eric W Roth, William Kellogg, Yue Li, Vinayak P Dravid
Technological advances in electron microscopy, particularly improved detectors and aberration correctors, have led to higher throughput and less invasive imaging of materials and biological structures by enhancing signal-to-noise ratios at lower electron exposures. Analytical methods, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS), have also benefitted and offer a rich set of local elemental and bonding information with nano-or atomic resolution. However, spatially resolved spectrum imaging with EELS and EDS continue to be difficult to scale due to limited detector collection angles or high signal background, requiring hours or even days for full maps...
March 10, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Nelly Flores, Farbod Sharif, Nael Yasri, Enric Brillas, Ignasi Sirés, Edward P L Roberts
This work compares the ability of physical and chemical treatments, namely adsorption and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes, to remove tyrosol from aqueous medium. Adsorption on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) performed much better than that with a graphite intercalation compound. Adsorption isotherms were found to follow the Freundlich model (R2  = 0.96), which is characteristic of a chemisorption process. Successful electrochemical regeneration enables 5 successive adsorption/regeneration cycles before corrosion of GNPs occurs...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Maria J Rodriguez, Thomas A Dixon, Eliad Cohen, Wenwen Huang, Fiorenzo G Omenetto, David L Kaplan
Freeform fabrication has emerged as a key direction in printing biologically-relevant materials and structures. With this emerging technology, complex structures with microscale resolution can be created in arbitrary geometries and without the limitations found in traditional bottom-up or top-down additive manufacturing methods. Recent advances in freeform printing have used the physical properties of microparticle-based granular gels as a medium for the submerged extrusion of bioinks. However, most of these techniques require post-processing or crosslinking for the removal of the printed structures [1,2]...
March 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Alfonso Blázquez-Castro, Lucas L Colombo, Silvia I Vanzulli, Juan C Stockert
The photothermal effect is one of the most promising photonic procedures currently under development to successfully treat several clinical disorders, none the least some kinds of cancer. At present, this field is undergoing a renewed interest due to advances in both photothermal materials and better-suited light sources. However, scientific studies in this area are sometimes hampered by the relative unavailability of state-of-art materials or the complexity of setting up a dedicated optical facility. Here, we present a simple and affordable approach to do research in the photothermal field that relies on a commercial NIR laser pointer and a readily available everyday pigment: China ink...
March 16, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
J-P Suuronen, M Sayab
Zircon is the most widely used mineral in petrochronology and provides key information about magmatic and crustal differentiation history of plutonic rocks, transport paths of clastic material 'from source to sink' and significantly contributes in the reconstruction of enigmatic planetary-scale tectonic episodes since the Archaean. However, detailed textural analysis of this accessory mineral has always been hampered by two-dimensional (2D) analytical limitations. With the advancements in X-ray nanotomography technology, it is now possible to non-destructively, yet digitally, cut, visualize, compare and quantify internal textures within zircons, their growth and zoning patterns and chemical distribution of trace elements in three dimensions (3D)...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Subramanian Natarajan, Hari C Bajaj, Rajesh J Tayade
The problem of textile dye pollution has been addressed by various methods, mainly physical, chemical, biological, and acoustical. These methods mainly separate and/or remove the dye present in water. Recently, advanced oxidation processes (AOP) have been focused for removal of dye from waste water due to their advantages such as ecofriendly, economic and capable to degrade many dyes or organic pollutant present in water. Photocatalysis is one of the advance oxidation processes, mainly carried out under irradiation of light and suitable photocatalytic materials...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Dimitar Popmintchev, Benjamin R Galloway, Ming-Chang Chen, Franklin Dollar, Christopher A Mancuso, Amelia Hankla, Luis Miaja-Avila, Galen O'Neil, Justin M Shaw, Guangyu Fan, Skirmantas Ališauskas, Giedrius Andriukaitis, Tadas Balčiunas, Oliver D Mücke, Audrius Pugzlys, Andrius Baltuška, Henry C Kapteyn, Tenio Popmintchev, Margaret M Murnane
Recent advances in high-order harmonic generation have made it possible to use a tabletop-scale setup to produce spatially and temporally coherent beams of light with bandwidth spanning 12 octaves, from the ultraviolet up to x-ray photon energies >1.6  keV. Here we demonstrate the use of this light for x-ray-absorption spectroscopy at the K- and L-absorption edges of solids at photon energies near 1 keV. We also report x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in the water window spectral region (284-543 eV) using a high flux high-order harmonic generation x-ray supercontinuum with 10^{9}  photons/s in 1% bandwidth, 3 orders of magnitude larger than has previously been possible using tabletop sources...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Xiulin Fan, Jie Yue, Fudong Han, Ji Chen, Tao Deng, Xiuquan Zhou, Singyuk Hou, Chunsheng Wang
Room temperature all solid-state Na-S batteries (ASNSBs) using sulfide solid electrolytes are a promising next-generation battery technology due to the high energy, enhanced safety, and earth abundant resources of both sodium and sulfur. Currently, the sulfide electrolyte ASNSBs are fabricated by simple cold-pressing process leaving with high residential stress. Even worse, the large volume change of S/Na2S during charge/discharge cycles induces additional stress, seriously weakening the less-contacted interfaces among the solid electrolyte, active materials and the electron conductive agent that are formed in the cold-pressing process...
March 16, 2018: ACS Nano
Srabanti Ghosh, Laurence Ramos, Hynd Remita
Materials are the key roadblocks for the commercialization of energy conversion devices in fuel cells and solar cells. Significant research has focused on tuning the intrinsic properties of materials at the nanometer scale. The soft template mediated controlled fabrication of advanced nanostructured materials is attracting considerable interest due to the promising applications of these materials in catalysis and electrocatalysis. Swollen hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystals (SLCs) consist of oil-swollen surfactant-stabilized 1D, 2D or 3D nanometric assemblies regularly arranged in an aqueous solvent...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Wenjiao Ren, Liqiang Xu, Lin Zhu, Xinye Wang, Xiaojian Ma, Debao Wang
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has attracted increasing attention owning to its high energy density and the abundance of sulfur. However, its commercialization is still restricted owing to the low conductivity of sulfur, large volume expansion and severe polysulfide-shuttle effect. To address these problems, here we reported a simple template-free solvothermal method combined with subsequent calcination method to prepare cobalt-doped VN yolk-shell nanospheres encapsulated in thin layer of nitrogen-doped carbon (Co-VN@C) composite as an ideal sulfur hosts for the first time...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Daniel Amgar, Tal Binyamin, Vladimir Uvarov, Lioz Etgar
One of the most attractive features of perovskite materials is their chemical flexibility. Due to innovative chemical compositions of perovskites, their optical and structural properties, and functionalities have become more advanced, enabling better solar performance in photovoltaics, as well as robustness and excellent properties in the nanoscale for optoelectronics. The quest for novel perovskite compositions in the nano-scale is significantly important. This paper reports on a mixed-cation system of RbxCs1-xPbX3 (where X = Cl or Br) nanoparticles...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Ekaterina A Dolgopolova, Allison M Rice, Corey R Martin, Natalia B Shustova
In this review, we highlight how recent advances achieved in the fields of photochemistry and photophysics of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) could be applied towards the engineering of next generation MOF-based sensing devices. In addition to high surface area and structural tunability, which are crucial for efficient sensor development, progress in the field of MOF-based sensors could rely on the combination of MOF light-harvesting ability, understanding energy transfer processes within a framework, and application of MOF-based photocatalysis towards sensing enhancement...
March 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Linda W Samia, Ann O'Sullivan, Kate Cole Fallon, AbouEl-Makarim Aboueissa, Kenneth W Hepburn
Background and Objectives: The Savvy Advanced psychoeducation program was designed for previously trained caregivers of persons living with dementia to refine their problem-solving and planning skills and enhance their sense of self-efficacy as dementia progressed for the care recipient. Implementation, feasibility, participant satisfaction, and perceived program benefits were also evaluated. Research Design and Methods: A total of 100 dementia family caregivers participated in the 12-month evaluation of Savvy Advanced...
March 12, 2018: Gerontologist
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