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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742338/advanced-materials-technologies-and-complex-systems-analyses-emerging-opportunities-to-enhance-urban-water-security
#1
Katherine R Zodrow, Qilin Li, Regina M Buono, Wei Chen, Glenn Daigger, Leonardo Duenas-Osorio, Menachem Elimelech, Xia Huang, Guibin Jiang, Jae-Hong Kim, Bruce E Logan, David L Sedlak, Paul Westerhoff, Pedro J J Alvarez
Innovation in urban water systems is required to address the increasing demand for clean water due to population growth and aggravated water stress caused by water pollution, aging infrastructure, and climate change. Advances in materials science, modular water treatment technologies, and complex systems analyses, coupled with the drive to minimize the energy and environmental footprints of cities, provide new opportunities to ensure a resilient and safe water supply. We present a vision for enhancing efficiency and resiliency of urban water systems and discuss approaches and research needs for overcoming associated implementation challenges...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741748/porous-organic-polymers-for-post-combustion-carbon-capture
#2
REVIEW
Lanfang Zou, Yujia Sun, Sai Che, Xinyu Yang, Xuan Wang, Matheiu Bosch, Qi Wang, Hao Li, Mallory Smith, Shuai Yuan, Zachary Perry, Hong-Cai Zhou
One of the most pressing environmental concerns of our age is the escalating level of atmospheric CO2 . Intensive efforts have been made to investigate advanced porous materials, especially porous organic polymers (POPs), as one type of the most promising candidates for carbon capture due to their extremely high porosity, structural diversity, and physicochemical stability. This review provides a critical and in-depth analysis of recent POP research as it pertains to carbon capture. The definitions and terminologies commonly used to evaluate the performance of POPs for carbon capture, including CO2 capacity, enthalpy, selectivity, and regeneration strategies, are summarized...
July 25, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741317/significantly-enhanced-hydrogen-evolution-activity-of-freestanding-pd-ru-distorted-icosahedral-clusters-with-less-than-600-atoms
#3
Zhihui Dai, Suli Liu, Qinghua Zhang, Jianchun Bao, Yafei Li, Lin Gu
Freestanding metal nanoclusters can tune, precisely and effectively, the Gibbs free energy (ΔGH) of atomic hydrogen on the surface of materials. This enables the enhancement of hydrogen evolution activity. In this paper, we report a study of freestanding Pd-Ru distorted icosahedral clusters (ico-clusters) with less than 600 atoms using a simple one-pot synthesis method. This Pd-Ru ico-cluster can be used as an efficient electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in acidic water, which is a promising alternative to Pt...
July 24, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740860/tunable-and-laser-reconfigurable-2d-heterocrystals-obtained-by-epitaxial-stacking-of-crystallographically-incommensurate-bi2se3-and-mos2-atomic-layers
#4
Anthony Vargas, Fangze Liu, Christopher Lane, Daniel Rubin, Ismail Bilgin, Zachariah Hennighausen, Matthew DeCapua, Arun Bansil, Swastik Kar
Vertical stacking is widely viewed as a promising approach for designing advanced functionalities using two-dimensional (2D) materials. Combining crystallographically commensurate materials in these 2D stacks has been shown to result in rich new electronic structure, magnetotransport, and optical properties. In this context, vertical stacks of crystallographically incommensurate 2D materials with well-defined crystallographic order are a counterintuitive concept and, hence, fundamentally intriguing. We show that crystallographically dissimilar and incommensurate atomically thin MoS2 and Bi2Se3 layers can form rotationally aligned stacks with long-range crystallographic order...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740566/salvage-embolization-and-histologic-analysis-of-gastric-cancer-with-hemorrhagic-shock-using-spherical-embolic-material
#5
Norifumi Kennoki, Toru Saguchi, Jun Otaka, Yosuke Makuuchi, Takafumi Watanabe, So Katayanagi, Hiromi Serizawa, Kiyoshi Koizumi, Koichi Tokuuye
BACKGROUND: In a recent study, it was reported that transcatheter arterial embolization with spherical embolic material for life-threatening hemorrhages in various cancer patients was safe and effective. Calibrated microspheres are able to access distal regions of the target arteries, which results in the disappearance of tumor staining. However, there are few reports on the pathological behavior of EmboSpheres in gastric cancer specimens. In this case, we succeeded in salvage embolization for advanced gastric cancer with hemorrhagic shock using spherical embolic material...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738626/elimination-of-interference-from-water-in-kbr-disk-ft-ir-spectra-of-solid-biomaterials-by-chemometrics-solved-with-kinetic-modeling
#6
Sherald H Gordon, Rogers E Harry-O'kuru, Abdellatif A Mohamed
Infrared analysis of proteins and polysaccharides by the well known KBr disk technique is notoriously frustrated and defeated by absorbed water interference in the important amide and hydroxyl regions of spectra. This interference has too often been overlooked or ignored even when the resulting distortion is critical or even fatal, as in quantitative analyses of protein secondary structure, because the water has been impossible to measure or eliminate. Therefore, a new chemometric method was devised that corrects spectra of materials in KBr disks by mathematically eliminating the water interference...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738520/dissolving-microneedles-for-transdermal-drug-delivery-advances-and-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Kevin Ita
Over the last number of years, a significant body of evidence has shown the benefit of using dissolving microneedles (DMNs) for transdermal drug delivery. These devices are prepared from a wide range of materials such as sugars and polymers. DMNs are mainly fabricated by micromolding, photopolymerization, drawing lithography and droplet-airborne blowing. In this review, we have focused on the advances made in the field in recent years using a representative set of studies. Although the list of studies is not exhaustive, they highlight the challenges encountered such as the need to increase mechanical strength as well as medication dose while ensuring fast release of the active ingredient...
July 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738197/tracking-changes-in-composition-and-amount-of-dissolved-organic-matter-throughout-drinking-water-treatment-plants-by-comprehensive-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry
#8
Chunmei Li, Donghong Wang, Xiong Xu, Meijia Xu, Zijian Wang, Ruiyang Xiao
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can affect the performance of water treatment processes and produce undesirable disinfection by-products during disinfection. Several studies have been undertaken on the structural characterization of DOM, but its fate during drinking water treatment processes is still not fully understood. In this work, the nontargeted screening method of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC×GC-qMS) was used to reveal the detailed changes of different chemical classes of compounds in DOM during conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes at three drinking water treatment plants in China...
July 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738154/modifying-surface-chemistry-of-metal-oxides-for-boosting-dissolution-kinetics-in-water-by-liquid-cell-electron-microscopy
#9
Yue Lu, Jiguo Geng, Kuan Wang, Wei Zhang, Wenqiang Ding, Zhenhua Zhang, Shaohua Xie, Hongxing Dai, Fu-Rong Chen, Manling Sui
Dissolution of metal oxides is fundamentally important for understanding mineral evolution and micromachining oxide functional materials. In general, dissolution of metal oxides is a slow and inefficient chemical reaction. Here, by introducing oxygen deficiencies to modify the surface chemistry of oxides, we can boost the dissolution kinetics of metal oxides in water, as in situ demonstrated in a liquid environmental transmission electron microscope (LETEM). The dissolution rate constant significantly increases by 16-19 orders of magnitude, equivalently a reduction of 0...
July 24, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737161/linbo-sub-3-sub-surfaces-from-a-microscopic-perspective
#10
Simone Sanna, Wolf Gero Schmidt
A large number of oxides has been investigated in the last twenty years as possible new materials for various applications ranging from opto-electronics to heterogeneous catalysis. In this context, ferroelectric oxides are particularly promising. The electric polarization plays a crucial role at many oxide surfaces, and it largely determines their physical and chemical properties. Ferroelectrics offer in addition the possibility to control/switch the electric polarization and hence the surface chemistry, allowing for the realization of domain-engineered nanoscale devices such as molecular detectors or highly efficient catalysts...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736833/isoindigo-based-polymers-with-small-effective-masses-for-high-mobility-ambipolar-field-effect-transistors
#11
Jie Yang, Zhiyuan Zhao, Hua Geng, Changli Cheng, Jinyang Chen, Yunlong Sun, Longxian Shi, Yuanping Yi, Zhigang Shuai, Yunlong Guo, Shuai Wang, Yunqi Liu
So far, most of the reported high-mobility conjugated polymers are p-type semiconductors. By contrast, the advances in high-mobility ambipolar polymers fall greatly behind those of p-type counterparts. Instead of unipolar p-type and n-type materials, ambipolar polymers, especially balanced ambipolar polymers, are potentially serviceable for easy-fabrication and low-cost complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. Therefore, it is a critical issue to develop high-mobility ambipolar polymers. Here, three isoindigo-based polymers, PIID-2FBT, P1FIID-2FBT, and P2FIID-2FBT are developed for high-performance ambipolar organic field-effect transistors...
July 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736220/manufacturing-of-hydrogel-biomaterials-with-controlled-mechanical-properties-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#12
REVIEW
Armin Vedadghavami, Farnaz Minooei, Mohammad Hossein Mohammadi, Sultan Khetani, Ahmad Rezaei, Shohreh Mashayekhan, Amir Sanati-Nezhad
Hydrogels have been recognized as crucial biomaterials in the field of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery applications due to their specific characteristics. These biomaterials benefit from retaining a large amount of water, effective mass transfer, similarity to natural tissues and the ability to form different shapes. However, having relatively poor mechanical properties is a limiting factor associated with hydrogel biomaterials. Controlling the biomechanical properties of hydrogels is of paramount importance...
July 20, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735028/protein-only-antimicrobial-peptide-containing-recombinant-nanoparticles-with-inherent-built-in-antibacterial-activity
#13
Naroa Serna, Laura Sánchez-García, Alejandro Sánchez-Chardi, Ugutz Unzueta, Mónica Roldán, Ramón Mangues, Esther Vázquez, Antonio Villaverde
The emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistances is a serious concern in human and animal health. In this context, naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) might play a main role in a next generation of drugs against bacterial infections. Taking an innovative approach to design self-organizing functional proteins, we have generated here protein-only nanoparticles with intrinsic AMP microbicide activity. Using a recombinant version of the GWH1 antimicrobial peptide as building block, these materials show a wide antibacterial activity spectrum in absence of detectable toxicity on mammalian cells...
July 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734810/retinal-pigment-epithelium-humps-in-high-myopia
#14
Alessandro Marchese, Adriano Carnevali, Riccardo Sacconi, Teresa Centoducati, Lea Querques, Francesco Bandello, Giuseppe Querques
PURPOSE: To report on the presence of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) humps in high myopia, and to describe the distinctive features from pathological PEDs and choroidal neovascularizations (CNVs). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: Charts and imaging studies of highly myopic patients presenting between September 2015 and February 2017 at a university teaching hospital were consecutively reviewed. All patients underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733664/charge-injection-carriers-recombination-and-homo-energy-level-relationship-in-perovskite-solar-cells
#15
Jesús Jiménez-López, Werther Cambarau, Lydia Cabau, Emilio Palomares
We present a comparative study between a series of well-known semiconductor polymers, used in efficient organic solar cells as hole transport materials (HTM), and the state-of-the art material used as hole transport material in perovskite solar cells: the spiro-OMeTAD. The observed differences in solar cell efficiencies are studied in depth using advanced photoinduced spectroscopic techniques under working illumination conditions. We have observed that there is no correlation between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels of the organic semiconductors and the measured open-circuit voltage (VOC)...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733639/particle-adsorption-on-hydrogel-surfaces-in-aqueous-media-due-to-van-der-waals-attraction
#16
Naoko Sato, Yurina Aoyama, Junpei Yamanaka, Akiko Toyotama, Tohru Okuzono
Particle adhesion onto hydrogels has recently attracted considerable attention because of the potential biomedical applications of the resultant materials. A variety of interactions have been taken advantage of for adsorption, including electrostatic forces, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. In this study, we report significant adsorption of submicron-sized silica particles onto hydrogel surfaces in water, purely by van der Waals (vdW) attraction. The vdW forces enabled strong adhesions between dielectric materials in air...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733614/raman-evidence-for-pressure-induced-formation-of-diamondene
#17
Luiz Gustavo Pimenta Martins, Matheus J S Matos, Alexandre R Paschoal, Paulo T C Freire, Nadia F Andrade, Acrísio L Aguiar, Jing Kong, Bernardo R A Neves, Alan B de Oliveira, Mário S C Mazzoni, Antonio G Souza Filho, Luiz Gustavo Cançado
Despite the advanced stage of diamond thin-film technology, with applications ranging from superconductivity to biosensing, the realization of a stable and atomically thick two-dimensional diamond material, named here as diamondene, is still forthcoming. Adding to the outstanding properties of its bulk and thin-film counterparts, diamondene is predicted to be a ferromagnetic semiconductor with spin polarized bands. Here, we provide spectroscopic evidence for the formation of diamondene by performing Raman spectroscopy of double-layer graphene under high pressure...
July 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733573/inadvertent-introduction-of-tissue-coring-into-joints-during-arthrocentesis-an-experimental-study
#18
Chi Xu, Haiwen Peng, Wei Chai, Xiang Li, Rui Li, Jiying Chen
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate whether needles introduce skin plugs into joints during arthrocentesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the first part of this study, the arthrocentesis site was scrubbed with a fluorescein sodium swab, and 90 needles were inserted through the joint tissue and collected for examination under a fluorescence microscope. In the second part of this study, the joints were injected using 720 needles of different gauges. Two different randomly assigned needle insertion techniques were used: needle insertion straight through the joint capsule (subgroup 1) or insertion of the needle into the subcutaneous tissue followed by flushing of the needle with 0...
July 22, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733271/telerehabilitation-review-of-the-state-of-the-art-and-areas-of-application
#19
REVIEW
Alessandro Peretti, Francesco Amenta, Seyed Khosrow Tayebati, Giulio Nittari, Syed Sarosh Mahdi
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine applications have been increasing due to the development of new computer science technologies and of more advanced telemedical devices. Various types of telerehabilitation treatments and their relative intensities and duration have been reported. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to provide a detailed overview of the rehabilitation techniques for remote sites (telerehabilitation) and their fields of application, with analysis of the benefits and the drawbacks related to use...
July 21, 2017: JMIR Rehabil Assist Technol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732850/promising-bio-composites-of-polypyrrole-and-chitosan-surface-protective-and-in-vitro-biocompatibility-performance-on-316l-ss-implants
#20
A Madhan Kumar, Bharathi Suresh, Soumyadip Das, I B Obot, Akeem Yusuf Adesina, Suresh Ramakrishna
Advanced biomedical materials can potentially be developed from combinations of natural biodegradable polymers and synthetic polymers. We synthesized bioactive composites based on polypyrrole/chitosan through in-situ electrochemical polymerization in oxalic acid medium. Surface characterization results revealed the influence of chitosan inclusion on polypyrrole (PPy) surface morphology. Contact angle results confirmed the enhancement in surface hydrophilicity due to the addition of chitosan into the PPy matrix...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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