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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343140/sequence-encoded-material-properties-dictate-the-structure-and-function-of-nuclear-bodies
#1
REVIEW
Stephanie C Weber
Concomitant with packaging the genome, the cell nucleus must also spatially organize the nucleoplasm. This complex mixture of proteins and nucleic acids partitions into a variety of phase-separated, membraneless organelles called nuclear bodies. Significant progress has been made in understanding the relationship between the material properties of nuclear bodies and their structural and functional consequences. Furthermore, the molecular basis of these condensed phases is beginning to emerge. Here, I review the latest work in this exciting field, highlighting recent advances and new challenges...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343050/photocatalytic-efficiency-of-fe2o3-tio2-for-the-degradation-of-typical-dyes-in-textile-industries-effects-of-calcination-temperature-and-uv-assisted-thermal-synthesis
#2
Mohsen Nasirian, Ciro Fernando Bustillo-Lecompte, Mehrab Mehrvar
The inadequate management practices in industrial textile effluents have a considerable negative impact on the environment and human health due to the indiscriminate release of dyes. Photocatalysis is one of the diverse advance oxidation processes (AOPs) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) is recognized for its high oxidation and reduction power. A composite photocatalyst of Fe2O3/TiO2 is synthesized using different mass ratios of Fe:TiO2 to improve its photoactivity. The composite photocatalyst is calcined at 300-900 °C...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343004/actively-controlled-release-of-dexamethasone-from-neural-microelectrodes-in-a-chronic-in%C3%A2-vivo-study
#3
C Boehler, C Kleber, N Martini, Y Xie, I Dryg, T Stieglitz, U G Hofmann, M Asplund
Stable interconnection to neurons in vivo over long time-periods is critical for the success of future advanced neuroelectronic applications. The inevitable foreign body reaction towards implanted materials challenges the stability and an active intervention strategy would be desirable to treat inflammation locally. Here, we investigate whether controlled release of the anti-inflammatory drug Dexamethasone from flexible neural microelectrodes in the rat hippocampus has an impact on probe-tissue integration over 12 weeks of implantation...
March 13, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342995/mechanisms-of-metal-sorption-by-biochars-biochar-characteristics-and-modifications
#4
REVIEW
Hongbo Li, Xiaoling Dong, Evandro B da Silva, Letuzia M de Oliveira, Yanshan Chen, Lena Q Ma
Biochar produced by thermal decomposition of biomass under oxygen-limited conditions has received increasing attention as a cost-effective sorbent to treat metal-contaminated waters. However, there is a lack of information on the roles of different sorption mechanisms for different metals and recent development of biochar modification to enhance metal sorption capacity, which is critical for biochar field application. This review summarizes the characteristics of biochar (e.g., surface area, porosity, pH, surface charge, functional groups, and mineral components) and main mechanisms governing sorption of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Hg by biochar...
March 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340417/interfacial-interactions-between-skeletonema-costatum-extracellular-organic-matter-and-metal-oxides-implications-for-ceramic-membrane-filtration
#5
Noor Zaouri, Leonardo Gutierrez, Laure Dramas, Daniel Garces, Jean-Philippe Croue
In the current study, the interfacial interactions between the high molecular weight (HMW) compounds of Skeletonema costatum (SKC) extracellular organic matter (EOM) and ZrO2 or Al2O3, were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). HMW SKC-EOM was rigorously characterized and described as a hydrophilic organic compound mainly comprised of polysaccharide-like structures. Lipids and proteins were also observed, although in lower abundance. HMW SKC-EOM displayed attractive forces during approaching (i.e., leading to jump-to-contact events) and adhesion forces during retracting regime to both metal oxides at all solution conditions tested, where electrostatics and hydrogen bonding were suggested as dominant interacting mechanisms...
March 21, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339226/percolation-via-combined-electrostatic-and-chemical-doping-in-complex-oxide-films
#6
Peter P Orth, Rafael M Fernandes, Jeff Walter, C Leighton, B I Shklovskii
Stimulated by experimental advances in electrolyte gating methods, we investigate theoretically percolation in thin films of inhomogeneous complex oxides, such as La_{1-x}Sr_{x}CoO_{3} (LSCO), induced by a combination of bulk chemical and surface electrostatic doping. Using numerical and analytical methods, we identify two mechanisms that describe how bulk dopants reduce the amount of electrostatic surface charge required to reach percolation: (i) bulk-assisted surface percolation and (ii) surface-assisted bulk percolation...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339184/mxene-ti3c2-an-effective-2d-light-to-heat-conversion-material
#7
Renyuan Li, Lianbin Zhang, Le Shi, Peng Wang
MXene, a new series of 2D material, has been steadily advancing its applications to a variety of fields, such as catalysis, supercapacitor, molecular separation, electromagnetic wave interference shielding. This work reports a carefully designed aqueous droplet light heating system along with a thorough mathematical procedure, which combined leads to a precise determination of internal light-to-heat conversion efficiency of a variety of nanomaterials. The internal light-to-heat conversion efficiency of MXene, more specifically Ti3C2, was measured to be 100%, indicating a perfect energy conversion...
March 24, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338328/polysulfide-breathing-dual-conductive-heterolayered-battery-separator-membranes-based-on-0d-1d-mingled-nanomaterial-composite-mats
#8
Jeong-Hoon Kim, Gwan Yeong Jung, Yong-Hyeok Lee, Jung-Hwan Kim, Sun-Young Lee, Sang Kyu Kwak, Sang-Young Lee
Facile/sustainable utilization of sulfur active materials is an ultimate challenge in high-performance lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Here, as a membrane-driven approach to address this issue, we demonstrate a new class of polysulfide-breathing (capable of reversibly adsorbing and desorbing polysulfides)/dual (electron and ion)-conductive, heterolayered battery separator membranes (denoted as "MEC-AA separators") based on 0D (nanoparticles)/1D (nanofibers) composite mats. The MEC-AA separator is fabricated through an in-series, concurrent electrospraying/electrospinning process...
March 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338319/postmetalated-zirconium-metal-organic-frameworks-as-a-highly-potent-bactericide
#9
Boushra Mortada, Tamara Abou Matar, Aya Sakaya, Hala Atallah, Zeinab Kara Ali, Pierre Karam, Mohamad Hmadeh
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as an important class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials. One of the reasons they have gained remarkable attention is attributed to the possibility of altering them by postsynthetic modification, thereby providing access to new and novel advanced materials. MOFs have been applied in catalysis, gas storage, gas separation, chemical sensing, and drug delivery. However, their bactericidal use has rarely been explored. Herein, we developed a two-step process for the synthesis of zirconium-based MOFs metalated with silver cations as a potent antibacterial agent...
March 24, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338128/metal-organic-and-covalent-organic-frameworks-as-single-site-catalysts
#10
REVIEW
S M J Rogge, A Bavykina, J Hajek, H Garcia, A I Olivos-Suarez, A Sepúlveda-Escribano, A Vimont, G Clet, P Bazin, F Kapteijn, M Daturi, E V Ramos-Fernandez, F X Llabrés I Xamena, V Van Speybroeck, J Gascon
Heterogeneous single-site catalysts consist of isolated, well-defined, active sites that are spatially separated in a given solid and, ideally, structurally identical. In this review, the potential of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs) as platforms for the development of heterogeneous single-site catalysts is reviewed thoroughly. In the first part of this article, synthetic strategies and progress in the implementation of such sites in these two classes of materials are discussed...
March 24, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338127/phonon-bottleneck-and-long-lived-excited-states-in-%C3%AF-conjugated-pyrene-hoop
#11
Ricardo Franklin-Mergarejo, Tammie Nelson, Sergei Tretiak, Sebastian Fernandez-Alberti
In the last decade, recent synthetic advances have launched carbon-based π-conjugated hoops to the forefront of theoretical and experimental investigation not only for their potential use as bottom-up templates for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth, but also for the interesting excitonic effects arising from the cyclic geometry, unique π-system orientation, and unusual electronic interactions and couplings. In particular, cyclic materials based on pyrene, a common component in organic electronics, are popular candidates for the future design of π-conjugated nanorings for optoelectronic applications...
March 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338092/high-rate-squeezing-process-of-bulk-metallic-glasses
#12
Jitang Fan
High-rate squeezing process of bulk metallic glasses from a cylinder into an intact sheet achieved by impact loading is investigated. Such a large deformation is caused by plastic flow, accompanied with geometrical confinement, shear banding/slipping, thermo softening, melting and joining. Temperature rise during the high-rate squeezing process makes a main effect. The inherent mechanisms are illustrated. Like high-pressure torsion (HPT), equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and surface mechanical attrition treatments (SMAT) for refining grain of metals, High-Rate Squeezing (HRS), as a multiple-functions technique, not only creates a new road of processing metallic glasses and other metallic alloys for developing advanced materials, but also directs a novel technology of processing, grain refining, coating, welding and so on for treating materials...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337951/true-atomic-scale-imaging-in-three-dimensions-a-review-of-the-rebirth-of-field-ion-microscopy
#13
Francois Vurpillot, Frédéric Danoix, Matthieu Gilbert, Sebastian Koelling, Michal Dagan, David N Seidman
This article reviews recent advances utilizing field-ion microscopy (FIM) to extract atomic-scale three-dimensional images of materials. This capability is not new, as the first atomic-scale reconstructions of features utilizing FIM were demonstrated decades ago. The rise of atom probe tomography, and the application of this latter technique in place of FIM has unfortunately severely limited further FIM development. Currently, the ubiquitous availability of extensive computing power makes it possible to treat and reconstruct FIM data digitally and this development allows the image sequences obtained utilizing FIM to be extremely valuable for many material science and engineering applications...
March 24, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337915/nano-raman-scattering-microscopy-resolution-and-enhancement
#14
Satoshi Kawata, Taro Ichimura, Atsushi Taguchi, Yasuaki Kumamoto
Raman scattering microscopy is becoming one of the hot topics in analytical microscopy as a tool for analyzing advanced nanomaterials, such as biomolecules in a live cell for the study of cellular dynamics, semiconductor devices for characterizing strain distribution and contamination, and nanocarbons and nano-2D materials. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the development of Raman scattering microscopy from the viewpoint of spatial resolution and scattering efficiency. To overcome the extremely small cross section of Raman scattering, we discuss three approaches for the enhancement of scattering efficiency and show that the scattering enhancement synergistically increases the spatial resolution...
March 24, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337710/high-efficient-n-butanol-production-by-co-culturing-clostridium-acetobutylicum-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-integrated-with-butyrate-fermentative-supernatant-addition
#15
Hongzhen Luo, Qingwei Zeng, Shuo Han, Zhaoyu Wang, Qing Dong, Yanhong Bi, Yuping Zhao
Butanol is not only an important chemical intermediate and solvent in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, but also considered as an advanced biofuel. Although species of the natural host Clostridium have been engineered, butanol titers in the anaerobe seem to be limited by its intolerance to butanol less than 13 g/L. Here we aimed to develop a technology for enhancing butanol production by a co-culture system with butyrate fermentative supernatant addition. First, when adding 4.0 g/L butyrate into the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth with single-shot at 24 h, the "acid crash" phenomenon occurred and the ABE fermentation performance deteriorated...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337223/emerging-perspectives-in-scaffold-for-tissue-engineering-in-oral-surgery
#16
REVIEW
Gabriele Ceccarelli, Rossella Presta, Laura Benedetti, Maria Gabriella Cusella De Angelis, Saturnino Marco Lupi, Ruggero Rodriguez Y Baena
Bone regeneration is currently one of the most important and challenging tissue engineering approaches in regenerative medicine. Bone regeneration is a promising approach in dentistry and is considered an ideal clinical strategy in treating diseases, injuries, and defects of the maxillofacial region. Advances in tissue engineering have resulted in the development of innovative scaffold designs, complemented by the progress made in cell-based therapies. In vitro bone regeneration can be achieved by the combination of stem cells, scaffolds, and bioactive factors...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336876/recent-advances-in-research-on-the-synthetic-fiber-based-silica-aerogel-nanocomposites
#17
REVIEW
Agnieszka Ślosarczyk
The presented paper contains a brief review on the synthesis and characterization of silica aerogels and its nanocomposites with nanofibers and fibers based on a literature study over the past twenty years and my own research. Particular attention is focused on carbon fiber-based silica aerogel nanocomposites. Silica aerogel is brittle in nature, therefore, it is necessary to improve this drawback, e.g., by polymer modification or fiber additives. Nevertheless, there are very few articles in the literature devoted to the synthesis of silica aerogel/fiber nanocomposites, especially those focusing on carbon fibers and nanofibers...
February 16, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336061/enzymes-as-sensors
#18
Maria Staiano, Angela Pennacchio, Antonio Varriale, Alessandro Capo, Adelia Majoli, Clotilde Capacchione, Sabato D'Auria
Over the last few decades the development of new technologies, the fabrication of new materials, and the introduction of nanotechnologies created new trends in a series of advances that produced innovations in biological sensing devices with a wide range of application from health, security, defense, food, and medicine, to the environment. Specificity, low cost, rapidity, sensitivity, and multiplicity are some of the reasons for their growth, and their commercial success is expected to increase in the next future...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335689/trends-of-occupational-hygiene-in-finland
#19
Rauno Pääkkönen, Milja Koponen
The aim of this work is to evaluate and describe the current status of, and prospects for, the future of occupational hygiene in Finland. The main sources of information include a seminar held in the annual meeting of Finnish Occupational Hygiene Society, and interviews with different stakeholders. Nanotechnology and other new materials, changing work environments, circular economy including green jobs, new medical methods, and advances of construction methods were recognised as future challenges. Future work opportunities for occupational hygiene experts included exposure assessments in indoor air surveys, private consulting and entrepreneurship in general, international activities, and product safety issues...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335509/novel-diagnostic-and-predictive-biomarkers-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#20
REVIEW
John C Chang, Madappa Kundranda
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal disease for a multitude of reasons including very late diagnosis. This in part is due to the lack of understanding of the biological behavior of PDAC and the ineffective screening for this disease. Significant efforts have been dedicated to finding the appropriate serum and imaging biomarkers to help early detection and predict response to treatment of PDAC. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) has been the most validated serum marker and has the highest positive predictive value as a stand-alone marker...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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