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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156650/nondestructive-evaluation-of-carbon-fiber-bicycle-frames-using-infrared-thermography
#1
Rubén Usamentiaga, Clemente Ibarra-Castanedo, Matthieu Klein, Xavier Maldague, Jeroen Peeters, Alvaro Sanchez-Beato
Bicycle frames made of carbon fibre are extremely popular for high-performance cycling due to the stiffness-to-weight ratio, which enables greater power transfer. However, products manufactured using carbon fibre are sensitive to impact damage. Therefore, intelligent nondestructive evaluation is a required step to prevent failures and ensure a secure usage of the bicycle. This work proposes an inspection method based on active thermography, a proven technique successfully applied to other materials. Different configurations for the inspection are tested, including power and heating time...
November 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156167/advancements-in-bone-fixation-utilizing-novel-biointegrative-fixation-technology
#2
REVIEW
Bob Baravarian, Tal Pnina Lindner, Ronit Merchav-Feuermann
Advancement in orthopedics have been increasing rapidly. The most important advances have been in fixation. With time, metallic hardware will begin to be replaced by materials that become one with the body. This progress will not only aid in the repair process it will allow permanent and improved reinforcement of the fixated region. Biointegrative technology is a promising new generation of materials capable of achieving this goal. Over time, it is expected that plates, screws, pins, interference screws, and even possibly joint replacements will incorporate into patients' bodies, negating the need for hardware removal and adding structure and stability to an iatrogenically weakened area...
January 2018: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155579/catalytic-conversion-of-carbohydrates-to-initial-platform-chemicals-chemistry-and-sustainability
#3
László T Mika, Edit Cséfalvay, Áron Németh
The replacement of fossil resources that currently provide more than 90% of our energy needs and feedstocks of the chemical industry in combination with reduced emission of carbon dioxide is one of the most pressing challenges of mankind. Biomass as a globally available resource has been proposed as an alternative feedstock for production of basic building blocks, which could partially or even fully replace the currently utilized fossil-based ones in well-established chemical processes. The destruction of lignocellulosic feed followed by oxygen removal from its cellulose and hemicellulose content by catalytic processes results in the formation of initial platform chemicals (IPCs)...
November 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155200/recent-advances-on-polysaccharides-lipids-and-protein-based-edible-films-and-coatings-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Bilal Hassan, Shahzad Ali Shahid Chatha, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain, Khalid Mahmood Zia, Naseem Akhtar
Food is a vital product for the survival of human beings and with passage of time quality concerns of consumers are rising. Edible films and coatings are thin layers applied on food products to protect them and improve their quality. Films/coatings are prepared from naturally occurring renewable sources (polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and composites) which we can eat without disposing them. These films are environment friendly and contain antioxidants, anti-browning agents and colorants. Various methods (spraying, brushing, electro-spraying) are used to apply a coating on food material to protect them from microbial growth, prolonging their shelf life and improving other quality aspects like sensory attributes, appearance, originality and freshness of ingredients...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154452/recent-advances-in-nonfullerene-acceptors-for-organic-solar-cells
#5
REVIEW
Fuchuan Liu, Tianyu Hou, Xiangfei Xu, Liya Sun, Jiawang Zhou, Xingang Zhao, Shiming Zhang
Recently, research on nonfullerene acceptors in organic solar cells has gradually become a hot topic due to such superior characteristics of light absorption and energy-level-convenient manipulation, multiformity of the photoactive material structures, as well as the extensive area in production compared to the fullerene derivatives. However, the nonfullerene acceptors evolved slowly before 2012 and, as a matter of fact, the power conversion efficiency values could only bear 2.0%. Strikingly, nonfullerene acceptors have developed at a fast pace since 2013, with the best device performance of 13...
November 20, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153951/high-performance-hybrid-electrode-decorated-by-well-aligned-nanograss-arrays-for-glucose-sensing
#6
Rui Li, Xiongjun Liu, Hui Wang, Yuan Wu, Zhaoping Lu
The worldwide boost in glucose related diseases such as diabetics over the last decade leads to an overwhelming demand for development of advanced electrochemical glucose sensors with high sensitivity, fast response and excellent selectivity. Herein we report a novel freestanding microelectrode comprising well-aligned Cu(OH)2 nanograss arrays and uniform nanoporous copper (NPC) substrate. Such a cost-effective hierarchical hybrid structure entails a unique combination of good conductivity of NPC and high electrocatalytic activity of Cu(OH)2...
November 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153875/the-role-of-operating-parameters-and-oxidative-damage-mechanisms-of-advanced-chemical-oxidation-processes-in-the-combat-against-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-resistance-genes-present-in-urban-wastewater
#7
REVIEW
I Michael-Kordatou, P Karaolia, D Fatta-Kassinos
An upsurge in the study of antibiotic resistance in the environment has been observed in the last decade. Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly clear that urban wastewater is a key source of antibiotic resistance determinants, i.e. antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARB&ARGs). Urban wastewater reuse has arisen as an important component of water resources management in the European Union and worldwide to address prolonged water scarcity issues. Especially, biological wastewater treatment processes (i...
October 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153190/auricular-reconstruction-using-porous-polyethylene-implant-technique
#8
REVIEW
Scott Stephan, John Reinisch
Alloplast-based ear reconstruction has become more popular over the years because it offers many advantages compared with the traditional staged autologous costal cartilage approach. Advantages include earlier reconstruction in the setting of microtia, fewer procedures, less donor site morbidity, shorter surgeon learning curve, and improved consistency in the final aesthetic result. Although other implantable materials have been used in auricular reconstruction with variable success, porous high-density polyethylene frameworks combined with recent advances in the creation of the soft tissue coverage have significantly improved outcomes with minimal complications and long-term viability...
February 2018: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153180/a-100-year-review-progress-on-the-chemistry-of-milk-and-its-components
#9
John A Lucey, Don Otter, David S Horne
Understanding the chemistry of milk and its components is critical to the production of consistent, high-quality dairy products as well as the development of new dairy ingredients. Over the past 100 yr we have gone from believing that milk has only 3 protein fractions to identifying all the major and minor types of milk proteins as well as discovering that they have genetic variants. The structure and physical properties of most of the milk proteins have been extensively studied. The structure of the casein micelle has been the subject of many studies, and the initial views on submicelles have given way to the current model of the micelle as being assembled as a result of the concerted action of several types of interactions (including hydrophobic and the formation of calcium phosphate nanoclusters)...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153082/advances-in-sensing-and-biosensing-of-bisphenols-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Dhanjai, Ankita Sinha, Lingxia Wu, Xianbo Lu, Jiping Chen, Rajeev Jain
Bisphenols (BPs) are well known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that cause adverse effects on the environment, biotic life and human health. BPs have been studied extensively because of an increasing concern for the safety of the environment and for human health. They are major raw materials for manufacturing polycarbonates, thermal papers and epoxy resins and are considered hazardous environmental contaminants. A vast array of sensors and biosensors have been developed for the sensitive screening of BPs based on carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphene and graphene oxide), quantum dots, metal and metal oxide nanocomposites, polymer nanocomposites, metal organic frameworks, ionic liquids and molecularly imprinted polymers...
January 15, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152907/hierarchical-multicomponent-inorganic-metamaterials-intrinsically-driven-self-assembly-at-the-nanoscale
#11
REVIEW
Igor Levchenko, Kateryna Bazaka, Michael Keidar, Shuyan Xu, Jinghua Fang
Increasingly intricate in their composition and structural organization, hierarchical multicomponent metamaterials with nonlinear spatially reconfigurable functionalities challenge the intrinsic constraints of natural materials, revealing tremendous potential for the advancement of biochemistry, nanophotonics, and medicine. Recent breakthroughs in high-resolution nanofabrication utilizing ultranarrow, precisely controlled ion or laser beams have enabled assembly of architectures of unprecedented structural and functional complexity, yet costly, time- and energy-consuming high-resolution sequential techniques do not operate effectively at industry-required scale...
November 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152794/highly-sustainable-zinc-anodes-for-the-rechargeable-hybrid-aqueous-battery
#12
Kyung Eun Kate Sun, Tuan Hoang, The Nam Long Doan, Yan Yu, Pu Chen
The synthesis of novel zinc electrodes has been successfully implemented by the electroplating method with the aid of inorganic additives in the electroplating solution. The selected inorganic additives are indium sulfate, tin oxide, and boric acid. From X-ray diffraction results, the synthesized zinc electrodes prefer (002) and/or (103) crystallographic orientations, representing basal morphology and high resistance to dendrite growth. The corrosion rates of these electroplated zinc samples decrease as much as 11 times smaller than the rate of a zinc foil when the zinc materials are in contact with the aqueous electrolyte of a rechargeable hybrid aqueous battery (ReHAB)...
November 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152162/evaluation-and-optimization-of-microbial-dna-extraction-from-fecal-samples-of-wild-antarctic-bird-species
#13
Per Eriksson, Evangelos Mourkas, Daniel González-Acuna, Björn Olsen, Patrik Ellström
Introduction: Advances in the development of nucleic acid-based methods have dramatically facilitated studies of host-microbial interactions. Fecal DNA analysis can provide information about the host's microbiota and gastrointestinal pathogen burden. Numerous studies have been conducted in mammals, yet birds are less well studied. Avian fecal DNA extraction has proved challenging, partly due to the mixture of fecal and urinary excretions and the deficiency of optimized protocols. This study presents an evaluation of the performance in avian fecal DNA extraction of six commercial kits from different bird species, focusing on penguins...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152025/advances-in-microfluidic-devices-made-from-thermoplastics-used-in-cell-biology-and-analyses
#14
REVIEW
Elif Gencturk, Senol Mutlu, Kutlu O Ulgen
Silicon and glass were the main fabrication materials of microfluidic devices, however, plastics are on the rise in the past few years. Thermoplastic materials have recently been used to fabricate microfluidic platforms to perform experiments on cellular studies or environmental monitoring, with low cost disposable devices. This review describes the present state of the development and applications of microfluidic systems used in cell biology and analyses since the year 2000. Cultivation, separation/isolation, detection and analysis, and reaction studies are extensively discussed, considering only microorganisms (bacteria, yeast, fungi, zebra fish, etc...
September 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151616/polymeric-biomaterials-diverse-functions-enabled-by-advances-in-macromolecular-chemistry
#15
Yingkai Liang, Linqing Li, Rebecca A Scott, Kristi L Kiick
Biomaterials have been extensively used to leverage beneficial outcomes in various therapeutic applications, such as providing spatial and temporal control over the release of therapeutic agents in drug delivery as well as engineering functional tissues and promoting the healing process in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This perspective presents important milestones in the development of polymeric biomaterials with defined structures and properties. Contemporary studies of biomaterial design have been reviewed with focus on constructing materials with controlled structure, dynamic functionality, and biological complexity...
January 24, 2017: Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151312/role-of-baseline-adenoma-characteristics-for-adenoma-recurrencein-patients-with-high-risk-adenoma
#16
Tevfik Solakoğlu, Hüseyin Köseoğlu, Sevil Özer Sarı, Fatma Ebru Akın, Aylin Demirezer Bolat, Öykü Tayfur Yürekli, Naciye Şemnur Büyükaşık, Osman Ersoy
Background/aim: The present observational study aimed to determine the predictive value of 3-year recurrence adenoma characteristics at baseline conventional colonoscopy in patients with high-risk adenoma.Materials and methods: A total of 47 patients with high-risk adenoma at baseline colonoscopy were followed up and underwent a surveillance colonoscopy at 3 years. Correlations between adenoma recurrence and baseline adenoma characteristics (size, number, histological features, and location) were analyzed.Results: Among 135 patients with high-risk adenoma, 47 patients (35%) who underwent surveillance colonoscopy at 3 years following baseline colonoscopy were included in the study...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151306/evaluation-of-risk-factors-for-the-recurrence-of-colorectal-polyps-and-colorectal-cancer
#17
Öztürk Ateş, Bülent Sivri, Saadettin Kılıçkap
Background/aim: Colorectal adenomatous polyps are precursors of colorectal cancer (CRC), which can be prevented with surveillance colonoscopy. This study aimed to assess risk factors for the recurrence of colorectal polyps and CRC following polypectomy. Materials and methods: In this single-center trial, a total of 510 patients who applied to the endoscopy unit of Hacettepe University Hospital for various reasons and who were diagnosed with at least one colorectal adenomatous polyp between 2000 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151202/nmr-of-macromolecular-assemblies-and-machines-at-1-ghz-and-beyond-new-transformative-opportunities-for-molecular-structural-biology
#18
Caitlin M Quinn, Mingzhang Wang, Tatyana Polenova
As a result of profound gains in sensitivity and resolution afforded by ultrahigh magnetic fields, transformative applications in the fields of structural biology and materials science are being realized. The development of dual low temperature superconducting (LTS)/high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets has enabled the achievement of magnetic fields above 1 GHz (23.5 T), which will open doors to an unprecedented new range of applications. In this contribution, we discuss the promise of ultrahigh field magnetic resonance...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150617/carbon-contamination-during-ion-irradiation-accurate-detection-and-characterization-of-its-effect-on-microstructure-of-ferritic-martensitic-steels
#19
Jing Wang, Mychailo B Toloczko, Karen Kruska, Daniel K Schreiber, Danny J Edwards, Zihua Zhu, Jiandong Zhang
Accelerator-based ion beam irradiation techniques have been used to study radiation effects in materials for decades. Although carbon contamination induced by ion beams in target materials is a well-known issue in some material systems, it has not been fully characterized nor quantified for studies in ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels that are candidate materials for applications such as core structural components in advanced nuclear reactors. It is an especially important issue for this class of material because of the strong effect of carbon level on precipitate formation...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149836/are-there-different-kinds-of-aging
#20
Amalia Gabriela Diaconeasa
A critical analysis of the accelerated aging syndromes may explain what aging is, but also why some tissues and organs age at accelerated rates in comparison with aging rates of other tissues. Syndromes of accelerated aging are caused by mutations affecting the integrity of the genetic material. Among them, the most studied is Werner's syndrome, "adult progeria", caused by a recessive autosomal mutation with a frequency of 1 in 10 millions, which affects a helicase involved in DNA repair. In Werner syndrome, there is a loss of heterochromatin, though the stability of heterochromatin is also affected in "normal" aging...
November 16, 2017: Current Aging Science
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