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Casein kinase 2

Joseph F O'Grady, Laura S Hoelters, Martin T Swain, David C Wilcockson
BACKGROUND: Talitrus saltator is an amphipod crustacean that inhabits the supralittoral zone on sandy beaches in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. T. saltator exhibits endogenous locomotor activity rhythms and time-compensated sun and moon orientation, both of which necessitate at least one chronometric mechanism. Whilst their behaviour is well studied, currently there are no descriptions of the underlying molecular components of a biological clock in this animal, and very few in other crustacean species...
2016: PeerJ
Jun Sang Bae, See-Hyoung Park, Urangoo Jamiyandorj, Kyoung Min Kim, Sang Jae Noh, Jung Ryul Kim, Hye Jeong Park, Keun Sang Kwon, Sung Hoo Jung, Ho Sung Park, Byung-Hyun Park, Ho Lee, Woo Sung Moon, Karl G Sylvester, Kyu Yun Jang
Recently, the roles of sirtuins (SIRTs) in tumorigenesis have been of interest to oncologists, and casein kinase 2 α1 (CSNK2A1) has been shown to be involved in tumorigenesis by phosphorylating various proteins, including SIRT1. Therefore, we evaluated the roles of CSNK2A1, SIRT6, and phosphorylated SIRT6 and their relationships in breast carcinoma. Nuclear expression of CSNK2A1 and SIRT6 predicted shorter overall survival and relapse-free survival by multivariate analysis. Inhibition of CSNK2A1 decreased the proliferative and invasive activity of cancer cells...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Edyta Łukowska-Chojnacka, Patrycja Wińska, Monika Wielechowska, Maria Bretner
ABSTRACT: A series of new benzimidazole and benzotriazole derivatives containing a tetrazole moiety was synthesized by N-alkylation of 5-aryltetrazole with 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1-(3-chloropropyl)-1H-benzimidazole and 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-(3-chloropropyl)-2H-benzotriazole. The reaction was regioselective and mostly 2,5-disubstituted tetrazole derivatives were obtained. The effect of all synthesized compounds on human recombinant casein kinase 2alpha subunit (rhCK2α) and cytotoxicity against human T-cell lymphoblast (CCRF-CEM) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines were evaluated...
2016: Monatshefte Für Chemie
Zi-Chao Zhou, Lei Che, Liang Kong, De-Lin Lei, Rui Liu, Xin-Jie Yang
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects and possible molecular mechanism of casein kinase-2 interacting protein-1 (CKIP-1) silencing on bone regeneration during rat mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO). STUDY DESIGN: CKIP-1 silencing by chitosan/si-CKIP-1 was employed and analyzed both in rat mandibular DO models in vivo and in cultured rat mandible bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro. RESULTS: Gross observation, micro-computed tomography analysis, and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining revealed that new bone formation in the distraction gap of the chitosan/si-CKIP-treated group was better compared with the chitosan/si-NC and phosphate buffered saline-treated groups in both quantity and quality...
July 30, 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Mrigendra Bir Karmacharya, Binika Hada, So Ra Park, Byung Hyune Choi
Many studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunction and the subsequent oxidative stress caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation play a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). We have previously shown that low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS) could reduce ROS generation by L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) in retinal pigment epithelial cells. In this study, we studied the effects of LIUS stimulation on the ROS-dependent α-synuclein aggregation in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-treated PC12 cells...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Vincent Portegijs, Lars-Eric Fielmich, Matilde Galli, Ruben Schmidt, Javier Muñoz, Tim van Mourik, Anna Akhmanova, Albert J R Heck, Mike Boxem, Sander van den Heuvel
During cell division, the mitotic spindle segregates replicated chromosomes to opposite poles of the cell, while the position of the spindle determines the plane of cleavage. Spindle positioning and chromosome segregation depend on pulling forces on microtubules extending from the centrosomes to the cell cortex. Critical in pulling force generation is the cortical anchoring of cytoplasmic dynein by a conserved ternary complex of Gα, GPR-1/2, and LIN-5 proteins in C. elegans (Gα-LGN-NuMA in mammals). Previously, we showed that the polarity kinase PKC-3 phosphorylates LIN-5 to control spindle positioning in early C...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Evanthia Pangou, Christina Befani, Ilias Mylonis, Martina Samiotaki, George Panayotou, George Simos, Panagiotis Liakos
Hypoxia Inducible Factor 2 (HIF-2) is a transcriptional activator implicated in the cellular response to hypoxia. Regulation of its inducible subunit, HIF-2α, involves post-translational modifications. Here, we demonstrate that casein kinase 1δ (CK1δ) phosphorylates HIF-2α at Ser383 and Thr528 in vitro Disruption of these phosphorylation sites and silencing or chemical inhibition of CK1δ reduced the expression of HIF-2 target genes and the secretion of erythropoietin (EPO) in two hepatic cancer cell lines, Huh7 and HepG2, without affecting levels of HIF-2α protein expression...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Xinchang Zhang, Qiangsong Wang, Zongming Wan, Jianyu Li, Lu Liu, Xizheng Zhang
Casein kinase 2-interacting protein 1 (CKIP-1) is a negative regulator for bone formation. CKIP-1 knockout (KO) mice are very important for research on countermeasures to bone loss induced by space microgravity. Under simulated microgravity, the bone metabolism of CKIP-1 KO mice was different than that of wild-type (WT) mice. Many experiments all showed that the KO mice had significantly enhanced ossification in the tail suspension conditions, and the differences were closely related to the time the mice were exposed to the microgravity environment...
September 22, 2016: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Kenji Sakamoto, Yuta Murakami, Shohei Sawada, Hiroko Ushikubo, Asami Mori, Tsutomu Nakahara, Kunio Ishii
Retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma is caused at least in part by a large Ca(2+) influx through N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. Apelin is a peptide originally found in the tissue extracts of bovine stomach. Recent studies have been shown that apelin protects against the ischemic-reperfused injury in the brain. We examined whether apelin had protective effects on the NMDA-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death using B6.Cg-TgN(Thy1-CFP)23Jrs/J transgenic mice, which express the enhanced cyan fluorescent protein in RGCs in the retina, in vivo...
August 31, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Michihiro Mieda, Hitoshi Okamoto, Takeshi Sakurai
As the central pacemaker in mammals, the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is a heterogeneous structure consisting of multiple types of GABAergic neurons with distinct chemical identities [1, 2]. Although individual cells have a cellular clock driven by autoregulatory transcriptional/translational feedback loops of clock genes, interneuronal communication among SCN clock neurons is likely essential for the SCN to generate a highly robust, coherent circadian rhythm [1]...
September 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Yasunori Sugiyama, Sho Yamashita, Yuuki Uezato, Yukako Senga, Syouichi Katayama, Naoki Goshima, Yasushi Shigeri, Noriyuki Sueyoshi, Isamu Kameshita
To analyze a variety of protein phosphatases, we developed phosphorylated TandeMBP (P-TandeMBP), in which two different mouse myelin basic protein isoforms were fused in tandem, as a protein phosphatase substrate. P-TandeMBP was prepared efficiently in four steps: (1) phosphorylation of TandeMBP by a protein kinase mixture (Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Iδ, casein kinase 1δ, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2); (2) precipitation of both P-TandeMBP and protein kinases to remove ATP, Pi, and ADP; (3) acid extraction of P-TandeMBP with HCl to remove protein kinases; and (4) neutralization of the solution that contains P-TandeMBP with Tris...
November 15, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
Thomas Peter, Rosi Bissinger, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The echinocandin antifungal agent caspofungin has been shown to trigger apoptosis of fungal cells. Beyond that, caspofungin is toxic for host mitochondria. Even though lacking mitochondria, erythrocytes may enter apoptosis-like suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Signaling involved in triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress, ceramide, caspase activation and/or activation of p38 kinase, protein kinase C, and casein kinase...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Chunhui Li, James I S MacDonald, Asghar Talebian, Jennifer Leuenberger, Claudia Seah, Stephen H Pasternak, Stephen W Michnick, Susan O Meakin
Macropinocytosis is a normal cellular process by which cells internalize extracellular fluids and nutrients from their environment and is one strategy that Ras-transformed pancreatic cancer cells use to increase uptake of amino acids to meet the needs of rapid growth. Paradoxically, in non-Ras transformed medulloblastoma brain tumors, we have shown that expression and activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase TrkA overactivates macropinocytosis, resulting in the catastrophic disintegration of the cell membrane and in tumor cell death...
October 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Nicola J Rutherford, Mieu Brooks, Benoit I Giasson
Pathological inclusions containing aggregated, highly phosphorylated (at serine129) α-synuclein (αS pSer129) are characteristic of a group of neurodegenerative diseases termed synucleinopathies. Antibodies to the pSer129 epitope can be highly sensitive in detecting αS inclusions in human tissue and experimental models of synucleinopathies. However, the generation of extensively specific pSer129 antibodies has been problematic, in some cases leading to the misinterpretation of αS inclusion pathology. One common issue is cross-reactivity to the low molecular mass neurofilament subunit (NFL) phosphorylated at Ser473...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Stefanie Lindner, Jan Krönke
Thalidomide was sold in the 1950s as a sedative and was also used by pregnant women to treat morning sickness. It became notorious for causing severe birth defects and was removed from the market. More than four decades later, thalidomide had a renaissance in the treatment of cancer. Thalidomide and its more potent analogs, lenalidomide and pomalidomide, are nowadays approved treatments for multiple myeloma and myelodysplastic syndrome with deletion of chromosome 5q. In addition, thalidomide and its analogs inhibit release of tumor necrosis factor-α and increase interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ release from T cells...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Bart Buitenhuis, Nina A Poulsen, Grum Gebreyesus, Lotte B Larsen
BACKGROUND: In the Western world bovine milk products are an important protein source in human diet. The major proteins in bovine milk are the four caseins (CN), αS1-, αS2-, β-, and k-CN and the two whey proteins, β-LG and α-LA. It has been shown that both the amount of specific CN and their isoforms including post-translational modifications (PTM) influence technological properties of milk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to 1) estimate genetic parameters for individual proteins in Danish Holstein (DH) (n = 371) and Danish Jersey (DJ) (n = 321) milk, and 2) detect genomic regions associated with specific milk protein and their different PTM forms using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach...
2016: BMC Genetics
Fen Qiao, Lilian Luo, Huan Peng, Shujie Luo, Wenkun Huang, Jiangkuan Cui, Xin Li, Lingan Kong, Daohong Jiang, David J Chitwood, Deliang Peng
Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinol-binding (FAR) proteins are nematode-specific lipid carrier proteins used for nutrient acquisition as well as suppression of plant defenses. In this study, we obtained three novel FAR genes Ha-far-1 (KU877266), Ha-far-2 (KU877267), Hf-far-1 (KU877268). Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 were cloned from H...
2016: PloS One
H Z Li, Y H Chen, Y L Fang, L Y Zhong, Q Q Yuan, X Y Xu, J G Cao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether inhibitory effect of chrysin on sphere formation of ovarian cancer stem-like cells(spheroids derived from human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cell line ) is involved in the down-regulating of the protein expression of casein kinase CK2α. METHODS: SKOV3-derived ovarian cancer stem-like cells obtained by suspension culture in stem cell-condition medium using ultra-low adhesion plate were treated with various concentrations (5.0, 10.0 and 20...
July 5, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Elena Signoretto, Rosi Bissinger, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The viral integrase enzyme inhibitor dolutegravir is utilized for the treatment of immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Knowledge on cytotoxicity of dolutegravir is limited. The present study thus explored, whether dolutegravir is able to trigger suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Cellular mechanisms involved in the triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress, ceramide, and activation of protein kinase C, p38 kinase, casein kinase, and caspases...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Peter S Cunningham, Siobhán A Ahern, Laura C Smith, Carla S da Silva Santos, Travis T Wager, David A Bechtold
Growing evidence indicates that disruption of our internal timing system contributes to the incidence and severity of metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. This is perhaps not surprising since components of the circadian clockwork are tightly coupled to metabolic processes across the body. In the current study, we assessed the impact of obesity on the circadian system in mice at a behavioural and molecular level, and determined whether pharmacological targeting of casein kinase 1δ and ε (CK1δ/ε), key regulators of the circadian clock, can confer metabolic benefit...
2016: Scientific Reports
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