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Lorena Claumarchirant, Luis Manuel Sanchez-Siles, Esther Matencio, Amparo Alegria, María Jesús Lagarda
Sialic acid (Sia) contents and bioaccessibility (BA) in human milk (HM) and infant formulas (IFs) were determined, and Sia intakes by infants between 0-6 months of age were evaluated. Total Sia contents in HM decreased during lactation from 136.14 to 24.47 mg/100 mL. The total Sia contents in IFs (13.15-25.78 mg/100 mL) were lower than in HM, and were not related to the addition of ingredients acting as sources of Sia in their formulation. The Sia intakes derived from IFs consumption were lower than in HM, and only one IF reached the intakes provided by HM from the age of two months...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Lindert Benedictus, Charlotte R Bell
Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) is a hemorrhagic disease that emerged in calves across Europe in 2007. Its occurrence is attributed to immunization of the calf's mother with a vaccine produced using an allogeneic cell line. Vaccine-induced alloantibodies specific for major-histocompatibility class I antigens are transferred from the mother to the calf via colostrum, leading to profound depletion of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells that is often fatal. Areas covered: Pubmed and Web of Science were used to search for literature relevant to BNP and the use of allogeneic vaccine cell lines...
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
Tufa Kolola, Meseret Ekubay, Endalamaw Tesfa, Wogene Morka
In Ethiopia, neonatal mortality has been declined since the declaration of Millennium Developmental Goals, but the rate was slower since 2006. Thus, this study was designed to assess the determinants of neonatal mortality (NM) in North Shoa Zone. A community based case-control study was conducted on 84 cases and 252 controls. Cases were deceased new-borns within 28 days of birth while controls were infants survived beyond the first 28 days. Data were collected from mothers of the cases and controls using interviewer administered questionnaires...
2016: PloS One
Austin T Mudd, Lindsey S Alexander, Stacey K Johnson, Caitlyn M Getty, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Ryan N Dilger
BACKGROUND: Choline is essential for synthesis of phospholipids, neurodevelopment, and DNA methylation. It is unknown whether dietary perinatal choline deficiency affects maternal milk composition. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether perinatal maternal dietary choline deficiency influences porcine-milk composition. METHODS: Yorkshire sows were fed choline-deficient (CD) or choline-sufficient (CS) gestation diets [544 or 1887 mg choline/kg dry matter (DM), respectively] from 65 d before to 48 h after parturition and then fed lactation diets (517 or 1591 mg choline/kg DM, respectively) through day 19 of lactation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Getachew Tilahun, Getu Degu, Telake Azale, Askal Tigabu
BACKGROUND: Timely initiation of breastfeeding is defined as putting the newborn to breast within one hour of birth. It serves as the starting point for continuum of care for the newborn health and development. In Ethiopia, there is a considerable variation on timely initiation of breastfeeding among regions. The main aim of this study was to determine prevalence rate and investigate factors associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding practice among mothers in Debre Berhan town, Ethiopia...
2016: International Breastfeeding Journal
Sandeep S Sidhu, Omesh Goyal, Harsh Kishore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jelena R Radonić, Sunčica D Kocić Tanackov, Ivana J Mihajlović, Zorica S Grujić, Mirjana B Vojinović Miloradov, Marija M Škrinjar, Maja M Turk Sekulić
The objectives of the study were to determine the aflatoxin M1 content in human milk samples in Vojvodina, Serbia, and to assess the risk of infants' exposure to aflatoxins food contamination. The growth of Aspergillus flavus and production of aflatoxin B1 in corn samples resulted in higher concentrations of AFM1 in milk and dairy products in 2013, indicating higher concentrations of AFM1 in human milk samples in 2013 and 2014 in Serbia. A total number of 60 samples of human milk (colostrum and breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery) were analyzed for the presence of AFM1 using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Li Ma, Hongmei Shi, Kaoqi Lian, Yingfei Diao, Yang Chen, Chunling Ma, Weijun Kang
Ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA) and glutathione (GSH) are the most important water-soluble antioxidants. The concentrations of GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and their molar ratio are the indicators of oxidative stress. Little is known about the contents of UA, GSH and GSSG in human milk; a reliable and sensitive method to monitor the concentrations of the four compounds simultaneously in human milk is of critical importance. A new method for separation and quantification of these water-soluble antioxidants by HPLC coupled with Ag(III) chemiluminescence detector has been developed in this work with better recoveries...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Shi-An Yin, Zhen-Yu Yang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Understanding human milk composition is critical for setting nutrient recommended intakes (RNIs) for both infants and lactating women. However, nationwide human milk composition remains unavailable in China. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Through cross-sectional study, human milk samples from 11 provinces in China were collected and their compositions were analyzed. Nutritional and health status of the lactating women and their infants were evaluated through questionnaire, physical examination and biochemical indicators...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
F P Campion, F M McGovern, S Lott, A G Fahey, P Creighton, T M Boland
The objectives of this study were 1) to compare the effects of a ME () or a NE () system for rationing ewes during late gestation on ewe and progeny performance and 2) to investigate incremental increases in NE allocation above 100% of recommendation during late gestation on ewe and progeny performance. Fifty-two twin-bearing ewes ( = 13 per treatment) were rationed to either 100% of recommended ME requirements (100% ME) or 100, 110, or 120% of recommended NE requirements (100% NE, 110% NE, and 120% NE) from d 112 of gestation to parturition...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Ivana Nikolic, Ivana Stojanovic, Milica Vujicic, Paolo Fagone, Katia Mangano, Stanislava Stosic-Grujicic, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Tamara Saksida
Bovine colostrum is a rich source of nutrients and immunologically active components that play a role in conveying passive immunity to the offspring, protection and maturation of new-born's gastrointestinal tract. Colostrum has exerted positive effects in diseases affecting gastrointestinal tract, as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, health-promoting effects in type 1 diabetes have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate therapeutic value of oral administration of standardized bovine colostrum derivative (SBCD) in three models of type 1 diabetes (T1D): spontaneously developed T1D in NOD mice and BB-DP rats, and in chemically induced T1D in C57BL/6 mice with multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS)...
September 24, 2016: Immunobiology
Alasdair J Nisbet, Tom N McNeilly, Andrew W Greer, Yvonne Bartley, E Margaret Oliver, Stephen Smith, Javier Palarea-Albaladejo, Jacqueline B Matthews
Teladorsagiosis is a major production-limiting disease in ruminants in temperate regions throughout the world and one of the key interventions in the management of the disease is the prevention of pasture contamination with Teladorsagia circumcincta eggs by ewes during the periparturient relaxation in immunity which occurs in the period around lambing. Here, we describe the immunisation of twin-bearing ewes with a T. circumcincta recombinant subunit vaccine and the impact that vaccination has on their immune responses and shedding of parasite eggs during a continuous T...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Francesco Giansanti, Gloria Panella, Loris Leboffe, Giovanni Antonini
Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein present in large quantities in colostrum and in breast milk, in external secretions and in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Lactoferrin's main function is non-immune protection. Among several protective activities shown by lactoferrin, those displayed by orally administered lactoferrin are: (i) antimicrobial activity, which has been presumed due to iron deprivation, but more recently attributed also to a specific interaction with the bacterial cell wall and extended to viruses and parasites; (ii) immunomodulatory activity, with a direct effect on the development of the immune system in the newborn, together with a specific antinflammatory effects; (iii) a more recently discovered anticancer activity...
2016: Pharmaceuticals
J Romano-Keeler, M A Azcarate-Peril, J-H Weitkamp, J C Slaughter, W H McDonald, S Meng, M S Latuga, J L Wynn
OBJECTIVE: Oral colostrum priming (OCP) after birth in preterm infants is associated with improved weight gain and modification of the oral immunomicrobial environment. We hypothesized that OCP would modify salivary immune peptides and the oral microbiota in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective, randomized clinical trial to determine the effects of OCP on salivary immune peptide representation in preterm infants (<32 weeks completed gestation at birth)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Natalia Marczuk, Elżbieta Cecerska-Heryć, Anna Jesionowska, Barbara Dołęgowska
Adropin is a peptide hormone that was discovered in 2008 by Kumar et al. This protein consists of 76 amino acids, and it was originally described as a secreted peptide, with residues 1-33 encoding a secretory signal peptide sequence. The amino acid sequence of this protein in humans, mice and rats is identical. While our knowledge of the exact physiological roles of this poorly understood peptide continues to evolve, recent data suggest a role in energy homeostasis and the control of glucose and fatty acid metabolism...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Cristiane Santos Sânzio Gurgel, Larisa Alves de Araújo Pereira, Aldiane de Assis Costa, Mayara Adja da Silva Souza, Poliana Araújo de Brito, Larisse Rayanne Miranda de Melo, Roberto Dimenstein
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of multivitamin supplements and their different vitamin A sources on retinol concentrations in serum and colostrum milk of postpartum women. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study composed of healthy postpartum women attending two Brazilian private maternity wards (N = 100). According to the type of multivitamin taken during pregnancy, the women were assigned to one of four groups: control group (CG; n = 25), formulation 1 (F1; n = 25), formulation 2 (F2; n = 25), and formulation 3 (F3; n = 25)...
July 26, 2016: Nutrition
Austin T Mudd, Jaime Salcedo, Lindsey S Alexander, Stacey K Johnson, Caitlyn M Getty, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Daniela Barile, Ryan N Dilger
BACKGROUND: Milk oligosaccharides (OSs) are bioactive components known to influence neonatal development. These compounds have specific physiological functions acting as prebiotics, immune system modulators, and enhancing intestine and brain development. OBJECTIVES: The pig is a commonly used model for studying human nutrition, and there is interest in quantifying OS composition of porcine milk across lactation compared with human milk. In this study, we hypothesized that OS and sialic acid (SA) composition of porcine milk would be influenced by stage of lactation...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
S G Peter, George K Gitau, S Richards, J A Vanleeuwen, F Uehlinger, C M Mulei, R R Kibet
AIM: This study was undertaken to determine the household, calf management, and calf factors associated with the occurrence of Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and diarrhea in pre-weaned calves reared in smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini Sub-County of Nyeri County, Kenya. In addition, the study also evaluated factors associated with average daily weight gain in the same pre-weaned calves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 112 newborn calves (63 males and 49 females) on 111 farms (1 set of twins) were followed for 2 months between June 2013 and August 2013...
August 2016: Veterinary World
Derek M Foster, Keith P Poulsen, Hannah J Sylvester, Megan E Jacob, Kaitlyn E Casulli, Brian E Farkas
This study aimed to determine the effects of high-pressure processing on the immunoglobulin concentration, microbial load, viscosity, and transfer of passive immunity to calves when applied to bovine colostrum as an alternative to thermal pasteurization. A pilot study using Staphylococcus aureus was conducted to determine which pressure-time treatments are most appropriate for use with bovine colostrum, with the goals of maximizing bacterial inactivation while minimizing IgG content and viscosity changes. Following the pilot study, an inoculation study was conducted in which first-milking colostrum samples from Holstein-Friesian cows were inoculated with known concentrations of various bacteria or viruses and pressure processed at either 300 MPa for up to 60 min or at 400 MPa for up to 30 min...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
S Fares, M M Sethom, M Feki, M Cheour, H Sanhaji, S Kacem, N Kaabachi
Fatty acids (FA), especially arachidonic (AA, 20:4ω6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3) acids are critical for the health and development of infants. Colostrum FA composition has been examined in 101 lactating Tunisian women delivering prematurely using gas chromatography. Among polyunsaturated FA, linoleic acid predominated whereas each of the other polyunsaturated FA accounted for 1% or less of total FA. Colostrum AA and DHA contents were lower in women aged above 34 years compared to those less than 34 years...
September 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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