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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349441/association-between-sn-2-fatty-acid-profiles-of-breast-milk-and-development-of-the-infant-intestinal-microbiome
#1
Tiemin Jiang, Bin Liu, Jufang Li, Xueyan Dong, Man Lin, Minghui Zhang, Junying Zhao, Yaohua Dai, Lijun Chen
Increasing evidence shows that host diet and gut microbes are related. Previous studies have shown the effects of specific dietary fatty acids (FAs) on intestinal microbiota, but little is known about the effect of the stereospecifically numbered sn-2 position in triglycerides (TG) of human milk on the gut microbiome of infants. This study aimed at examining possible effects of sn-2 FAs of human milk on the gut microbial development of breastfeeding babies. Sn-2 FAs and intestinal microbiota were assessed by GC-MS and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing, respectively...
January 19, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339452/effects-of-colostrum-feeding-method-and-oral-igf1-on-porcine-uterine-development
#2
Ashley F George, Kathleen M Rahman, Dori J Miller, Anne A Wiley, Meredith E Camp, Frank Bartol, Carol A Bagnell
Nursing ensures lactocrine delivery of maternally-derived, milk-borne bioactive factors to offspring, which affects postnatal development of female reproductive tract tissues. Disruption of lactocrine communication for two days from birth (postnatal day = PND 0) by feeding milk replacer in lieu of nursing or consumption of colostrum alters porcine uterine gene expression globally by PND 2 and inhibits uterine gland genesis by PND 14. Here, objectives were to determine effects of: 1) nursing or milk replacer feeding from birth; 2) a single dose of colostrum or milk replacer and method of feeding; and 3) a single feeding of colostrum or milk replacer, with or without oral supplementation of IGF1, administered at birth on aspects of porcine uterine development at 12 h postnatally...
January 16, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334343/breast-milk-iodine-concentrations-and-iodine-levels-of-infants-according-to-the-iodine-status-of-the-country-of-residence-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Pantea Nazeri, Ali Kabir, Hosein Dalili, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi
BACKGROUND: Iodine, an essential micronutrient, plays a critical role in normal growth and development, especially during the first two years of life. This systematic review and meta-analysis is among the first to evaluate breast-milk iodine concentrations and infant iodine status in countries characterized by iodine sufficiency or deficiency. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and other relevant databases, as well as reference lists of previous reviews, were searched for relevant studies published between 1986 and 2016...
January 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333612/fosfomycin-residues-in-colostrum-impact-on-morpho-physiology-and-microbiology-of-suckling-piglets
#4
M B Fernández Paggi, G Martínez, S N Diéguez, D S Pérez Gaudio, J M Decundo, M B Riccio, F A Amanto, M O Tapia, A L Soraci
Fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum bactericidal antibiotic widely used in pig farms for the treatment of a wide variety of bacterial infections. In this study, the elimination of disodium fosfomycin in colostrum/milk of the sow and the impact of this antibiotic on the microbiota and intestinal morpho-physiology of suckling piglets were analyzed. The average amount of fosfomycin eliminated in colostrum (after administration of 15 mg/kg IM) during the first 10 hr postpartum was 0.85 μg/ml, and the mean residual amount ingested by the piglets was 0...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319494/risk-of-tumor-progression-in-colon-carcinoma-resection-and-perioperative-prophylaxis-with-polyvalent-immunoglobulins-per-aspera-ad-astra
#5
Reinhard Lissner, Martin Gasser, Anna M Waaga-Gasser, Barry G Woodcock
There is strong evidence that tumor progression in the postoperative period is attributable to the influx of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) into the blood from the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen. Although several research groups have emphasized the need to neutralize LPS antigens from the GI tract to prevent tumor progression and reduce the inflammatory response, a therapeutic option to achieve this has not been put forward hitherto. Enterally applied immunoglobulins (IgG) in the form of colostrum concentrates are able to neutralize LPS antigens from the GI tract and to reduce the inflammatory response during abdominal surgery...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305686/effect-of-multi-microbial-probiotic-formulation-bokashi-on-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-profile-in-the-serum-colostrum-and-milk-of-sows-and-in-a-culture-of-polymorphonuclear-cells-isolated-from-colostrum
#6
Ewa Laskowska, Łukasz Jarosz, Zbigniew Grądzki
The use of probiotics in sows during pregnancy and lactation and their impact on the quality of colostrum and milk, as well as the health conditions of their offspring during the rearing period, are currently gaining the attention of researchers. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Bokashi formulation on the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum of sows during pregnancy, in their colostrum and milk, and in a culture of Con-A-stimulated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) isolated from the colostrum...
January 5, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298832/truncation-of-the-murine-neonatal-fc-receptor-cytoplasmic-tail-does-not-alter-igg-metabolism-or-transport-in-vivo
#7
Yonghe Ma, Cuncun Ke, Zihui Wan, Zili Li, Xueqian Cheng, Xifeng Wang, Jinshan Zhao, Youji Ma, Liming Ren, Haitang Han, Yaofeng Zhao
The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is involved in IgG metabolism and transport in placental mammals. However, whether FcRn is responsible for IgG transfer from maternal serum to colostrum/milk is controversial. Interestingly, large domestic animals, such as cows, pigs, sheep, and horses, in which passive IgG transfer is exclusively completed via colostrum/milk, all express an FcRn α-chain that is shorter in the cytoplasmic tail (CYT) than its counterparts in humans and rodents. To address whether the length variation has any functional significance, we performed in vitro experiments using the Transwell system with the MDCK cell line stably transfected with various FcRn constructs; these clearly suggested that truncation of the CYT tail caused a polar change in IgG transfer...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287679/protective-immunity-of-a-multivalent-vaccine-candidate-against-piglet-diarrhea-caused-by-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-etec-in-a-pig-model
#8
Henghui Zhang, Yongping Xu, Zhijun Zhang, Jiansong You, Yanyong Yang, Xiaoyu Li
As one of the most challenging problems in swine industry, piglet diarrhea has caused huge economic loss globally. Currently, vaccination is the most effective way of controlling enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) diarrhea. However, existing commercial vaccines could not provide broad protection against different types of ETEC. In this study, we mixed a enterotoxin fusion protein SLS (STa-LTB-STb) with the main fimbrial F4ac and F5 antigens as a novel multivalent vaccine candidate. Then an overall evaluation of this vaccine candidate against ETEC was carried out in a pig model...
December 26, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287263/simultaneous-quantification-of-fluoxetine-and-norfluoxetine-in-colostrum-and-mature-human-milk-using-a-2-dimensional-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-system
#9
Bianca Rebelo Lopes, Neila Maria Cassiano, Daniela Miarelli Carvalho, Elaine Christine Dantas Moisés, Quezia Bezerra Cass
A two-dimensional liquid chromatography system coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (2D LC-MS/MS) was employed for the determination of fluoxetine (FLU) and norfluoxetine (N-FLU) in colostrum and mature milk by direct sample injection. With a run time of 12 min representing a gain in throughput analysis, the validated methods furnished selectivity, extraction efficiency, accuracy, and precision in accordance with the criteria preconized by the European Medicines Agency guidelines. With a linear range of 3...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280196/effect-of-heat-treatment-on-accuracy-of-infrared-spectroscopy-and-digital-and-optical-brix-refractometers-for-measuring-immunoglobulin-g-concentration-in-bovine-colostrum
#10
I Elsohaby, J T McClure, N Dow, G P Keefe
BACKGROUND: Heat-treatment of colostrum is a method developed to reduce calf exposure to pathogens. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy and Brix refractometers can be used for measuring colostral IgG concentration and assessing colostrum quality. OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of heat-treatment on accuracy of IR spectroscopy and Brix refractometers for measuring colostral IgG concentration and assessing colostrum quality before and after heat-treatment. ANIMALS: A total of 60 Holstein dairy cows on 8 commercial dairy farms...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274979/effects-of-prepartum-dietary-cation-anion-difference-and-source-of-vitamin-d-in-dairy-cows-vitamin-d-mineral-and-bone-metabolism
#11
R M Rodney, N Martinez, E Block, L L Hernandez, P Celi, C D Nelson, J E P Santos, I J Lean
Pregnant Holstein cows, 28 nulliparous and 51 parous, were blocked by parity and milk yield and randomly allocated to receive diets that differed in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), +130 or -130 mEq/kg, and supplemented with either calcidiol or cholecalciferol at 3 mg/11 kg of dry matter from 255 d of gestation until parturition. Blood was sampled thrice weekly prepartum, and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, and 30 postpartum to evaluate effects of the diets on vitamin D, mineral and bone metabolism, and acid-base status...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274965/effects-of-prepartum-dietary-cation-anion-difference-and-source-of-vitamin-d-in-dairy-cows-lactation-performance-and-energy-metabolism
#12
N Martinez, R M Rodney, E Block, L L Hernandez, C D Nelson, I J Lean, J E P Santos
The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effects of feeding diets with 2 dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) levels and supplemented with either cholecalciferol (CH) or calcidiol (CA) during late gestation on lactation performance and energetic metabolism in dairy cows. The hypothesis was that combining a prepartum acidogenic diet with calcidiol supplementation would benefit peripartum Ca metabolism and, thus, improve energy metabolism and lactation performance compared with cows fed an alkalogenic diet or cholecalciferol...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274034/the-effects-of-bovine-colostrum-supplementation-on-in-vivo-immunity-following-prolonged-exercise-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
A W Jones, D S March, R Thatcher, B Diment, N P Walsh, Glen Davison
BACKGROUND: Bovine colostrum (COL) has been advocated as a nutritional countermeasure to exercise-induced immune dysfunction, but there is a lack of research with clinically relevant in vivo measures. AIM: To investigate the effects of COL supplementation on in vivo immunity following prolonged exercise using experimental contact hypersensitivity (CHS) with the novel antigen diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). METHODS: In a double-blind design, 31 men were randomly assigned to COL (20 g/day) or placebo (PLA) for 58 days...
December 22, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261680/determinants-of-stunting-among-children-aged-6-59-months-at-kindo-didaye-woreda-wolaita-zone-southern-ethiopia-unmatched-case-control-study
#14
Bancha Batiro, Tsegaye Demissie, Yoseph Halala, Antehun Alemayehu Anjulo
BACKGROUND: Stunting is a well-established risk marker of poor child development. Globally in 2017, 155 million children under 5 were estimated to be stunted. While different activities are being done to reduce the burden of stunted growth, the problem is overwhelming in Africa; it was increased by 24%. Therefore, identifying determinants of stunting among children aged 6-59 would help to set priorities for action and to the design of stunting reduction plan at a grassroots level. METHODS: The unmatched case-control study was conducted in randomly selected 8 rural kebeles of Kindo Didaye woreda, Ethiopia from February to April, 2016 to identify the determinants of stunting among children aged 6-59 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259822/efficacy-of-a-bovine-colostrum-and-egg-based-intervention-in-acute-childhood-diarrhoea-in-guatemala-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
James T Gaensbauer, Mario A Melgar, Diva M Calvimontes, Molly M Lamb, Edwin J Asturias, Ingrid L Contreras-Roldan, Samuel R Dominguez, Christine C Robinson, Stephen Berman
Background: Treatments for paediatric diarrhoeal disease are limited. We assessed the impact of a bovine colostrum and egg-based treatment designed to reduce diarrhoea duration through non-specific and pathogen-directed mechanisms in children. Methods: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of PTM202, derived from bovine colostrum and hyperimmune hen's egg on the duration of acute diarrhoeal disease in Guatemalan children. PTM202 contains specific immunoglobulins that target rotavirus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shiga toxin-producing E...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259784/prospective-cohort-study-to-assess-rates-of-contagious-disease-in-pre-weaned-uk-dairy-heifers-management-practices-passive-transfer-of-immunity-and-associated-calf-health
#16
Kate F Johnson, Natalie Chancellor, Charlotte C Burn, D Claire Wathes
Dairy calves are vulnerable to infectious diseases, particularly diarrhoea and bovine respiratory disease (BRD), causing mortality and reducing welfare and growth. A prospective cohort study was performed on 11 UK dairy farms to determine the underlying causes for calf disease. This first paper describes the incidence, timing and duration of infectious disease, mortality rates, passive transfer of immunity and key management practices that may contribute to disease incidence. Heifer calves were recruited in the first week of life (n=492) and a blood sample taken to measure IgG and total protein (TP)...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248230/calf-management-risk-factors-on-dairy-farms-associated-with-male-calf-mortality-on-veal-farms
#17
D L Renaud, D F Kelton, S J LeBlanc, D B Haley, T F Duffield
The objective of this cross-sectional herd-level study was to assess the association of calf management practices on source dairy farms with mortality risk on veal farms. From April to October 2016, 52 source dairy farms supplying male calves to 2 veal operations were visited once. A questionnaire was administered that covered all areas of calf management, calves between 1 and 10 d of age were examined using a standardized health scoring system, and blood was taken to evaluate passive transfer of immunoglobulins...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247653/taurine-and-%C3%AE-alanine-intraperitoneal-injection-in-lactating-mice-modifies-the-growth-and-behavior-of-offspring
#18
Takuma Nishigawa, Satsuki Nagamachi, Vishwajit S Chowdhury, Shinobu Yasuo, Mitsuhiro Furuse
Taurine, one of the sulfur-containing amino acids, has several functions in vivo. It has been reported that taurine acts on γ-aminobutyric acid receptors as an agonist and to promote inhibitory neurotransmission. Milk, especially colostrum, contains taurine and it is known that milk taurine is essential for the normal development of offspring. β-Alanine is transported via a taurine transporter and a protein-assisted amino acid transporter, the same ones that transport taurine. The present study aimed to investigate whether the growth and behavior of offspring could be altered by modification of the taurine concentration in milk...
December 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246780/comparison-of-two-indirect-elisa-coating-antigens-for-the-detection-of-dairy-cow-antibodies-against-pasteurella-multocida
#19
Pallop Tankaew, Wanwisa Srisawat, Tawatchai Singhla, Khajornsak Tragoolpua, Yasushi Kataoka, Takuo Sawada, Nattawooti Sthitmatee
The ELISA is recognized as an efficient diagnostic tool for antibody detection, but there is no standard ELISA assay for detection of antibodies against hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) in cattle. The present study reports on an indirect ELISA assay for antibody detection of HS in dairy cows, and evaluates the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the method using a Bayesian approach. An indirect ELISA was developed with two types of heat extract antigens, Pasteurella multocida strains P-1256 and M-1404, as coating antigens...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246381/the-nuts-and-bolts-of-breastfeeding-anatomy-and-physiology-of-lactation
#20
Natasha K Sriraman
Breastmilk is the physiologic norm for infant nutrition. Despite recommendations from major health organizations, many women in the U.S. are not achieving this metric. Understanding breast anatomy and lactation physiology will allow physicians to gain knowledge of the processes, which control lactation enabling physicians to appropriately manage the breastfeeding dyad. The interplay of hormones involved in lactation and milk management affect milk initiation, as well as ongoing milk production (galactopoesis)...
December 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
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