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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806296/the-risk-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-differs-among-preterm-pigs-fed-formulas-with-either-lactose-or-maltodextrin
#1
Randal K Buddington, Samantha L Davis, Karyl K Buddington
OBJECTIVES: When breast milk is unavailable for preterm infants, formulas are needed that won't increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Adding novel ingredients to formula to reduce NEC has not been effective clinically. Instead, we tested the prediction that NEC can be reduced by removing the maltodextrin now included in preterm formulas. METHODS: The preterm pig model of spontaneous NEC was used to evaluate growth, health, and intestinal responses to 6-7 days of feeding formulas that were identical except for the source of carbohydrate; either 100% lactose or maltodextrin; colostrum was used as the control...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803015/calf-and-replacement-heifer-mortality-from-birth-until-weaning-in-pasture-based-dairy-herds-in-new-zealand
#2
E L Cuttance, W A Mason, J McDermott, R A Laven, S McDougall, C V C Phyn
The aims of this study were to (1) estimate the perinatal (birth to 24 h) and postnatal (∼24 h to the mean weaning age of 13 wk) mortality risk in pasture-based dairy calves until weaning, and (2) identify associated risk factors in the 2015 calving season. A prospective survey of 32 seasonal calving dairy farms was undertaken. Farmers recorded (daily) the number and sex of the calves alive or dead in the paddocks where cows calved. All daily animal movements in and out of the calf rearing facilities, including death and euthanasia, and the identification of the animals (if applicable) were recorded, and a survey of the farm management practices was undertaken...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799182/questionnaire-investigation-to-clarify-the-occurrence-rate-and-characteristics-of-maternal-rejection-behavior-in-japanese-black-cattle-bos-taurus
#3
Daisuke Kohari, Azusa Takakura
We conducted a questionnaire investigation among breeding farmers to clarify the actual conditions of maternal rejection in Japanese Black cattle. We asked keeping experience of maternal rejective cows and compared occurrence patterns, rejective behavior manners, birth assistance methods, colostrum feeding method for calves, parity and rearing conditions of the cows. We found that 24% of the farms had kept rejective cows and 6% of the cows in these farms indicated maternal rejections. The most common occurrence pattern was 'Occurred from the first birth (65...
August 10, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783609/martina-franca-donkey-meat-quality-influence-of-slaughter-age-and-suckling-technique
#4
P De Palo, A Tateo, A Maggiolino, R Marino, E Ceci, A Nisi, J M Lorenzo
This work aimed to evaluate the effect of suckling technique and slaughter age on Martina Franca donkey meat quality. Twenty Martina Franca male foals were involved in the trial. Foals naturally assumed colostrum within 4h from birth. Afterwards, 10 foals were partially artificially suckled (AS), and 10 foals were naturally suckled (NS). All the foals were weaned at 180d, then housed indoors and fed the same diet. Ten donkeys were slaughtered at 12months and the other 10 at the age of 18months. Samples of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) were taken from each foal for chemical analysis, then rheological parameters, oxidative profile, colorimetric parameters and fatty acid profile were assessed...
August 2, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783456/effect-of-booster-vaccination-with-inactivated-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-on-neutralizing-antibody-response-in-mammary-secretions
#5
Thomas Gillespie, Qinye Song, Megan Inskeep, Suzanne Stone, Michael P Murtaugh
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea, dehydration in pigs, and high mortality rates in piglets <3 weeks of age. Maternal immunity protects piglets, but information on vaccination before or after natural infection in endemically exposed sow herds is limited. Currently, the recovery goal in sow units infected with PEDV is to become fully naive again or use natural virus infection to develop immune gilts through a feedback program before introduction into the sow herd. Since neutralizing antibodies in the gut are critical for protection against enteric viral infections such as PEDV, we evaluated the effect of a conditionally licensed, adjuvanted inactivated PEDV vaccine on neutralizing antibody levels in milk and colostrum in both naive and previously naturally exposed sow herds...
August 7, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783113/-omics-in-human-colostrum-and-mature-milk-looking-to-old-data-with-new-eyes
#6
REVIEW
Flaminia Bardanzellu, Vassilios Fanos, Alessandra Reali
Human Milk (HM) is the best source for newborn nutrition until at least six months; it exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-infective functions, promotes immune system formation and supports organ development. Breastfeeding could also protect from obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, human colostrum (HC) presents a peculiar role in newborn support as a protective effect against allergic and chronic diseases, in addition to long-term metabolic benefits. In this review, we discuss the recent literature regarding "omics" technologies and growth factors (GF) in HC and the effects of pasteurization on its composition...
August 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780105/short-communication-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-colostrum-from-new-brunswick-canada-dairy-cows-harbor-blacmy-2-and-blatem-resistance-genes
#7
B B Awosile, J T McClure, J Sanchez, J VanLeeuwen, J C Rodriguez-Lecompte, G Keefe, L C Heider
Dairy calves are colonized shortly after birth by multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria, including Escherichia coli. The role of dairy colostrum fed to calves as a potential source of MDR bacteria resistance genes has not been investigated. This study determined the recovery rate of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) E. coli in colostrum from cows. The ESC-R E. coli isolates were further investigated to determine their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance pattern and the genes conferring ESC-R. Fresh colostrum was collected from 452 cows from 8 dairy herds in New Brunswick, Canada...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760070/prevalence-and-calf-level-risk-factors-for-failure-of-passive-transfer-in-dairy-calves-in-new-zealand
#8
E L Cuttance, W A Mason, R A Laven, J McDermott, C V C Phyn
AIM: To determine the prevalence of failure of passive transfer (FPT) in dairy calves in New Zealand and to assess a range of potential calf-level risk factors for their association with FPT. METHOD: Between July and September 2015, 107 dairy farms in nine regions across New Zealand were visited on three occasions: before 20% of cows had calved, when ∼ 50% of cows had calved, and when the last 10-20% of cows were calving. Farms were randomly selected from the client list of participating veterinary practices...
July 31, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750868/effect-of-colostrum-quantity-and-quality-on-neonatal-calf-diarrhoea-due-to-cryptosporidium-spp-infection
#9
K Arsenopoulos, A Theodoridis, E Papadopoulos
This study was conducted to assess the effect of colostrum quality and quantity on Cryptosporidium spp. calf diarrhoea in an intensive dairy cattle farm in Greece. Faecal samples were collected from 100 dairy calves randomly selected and born during all 4 seasons (March 2015 to May 2016) of the year. In total, 71% of the selected calves were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. The statistical analysis revealed influence of colostrum quality on faecal score. Linear regression showed that the colostrum quantity during the first day of life was negatively associated with the number of Cryptosporidium spp...
August 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746325/effect-of-maternal-socio-demographic-factors-and-child-feeding-practice-on-wasting-among-under-five-years-children-in-slum-area-of-rupandehi-district-in-nepal
#10
S Gautam, S Ruchal, B Timalsina, D Acharya, B Khadka, V Gautam, J K Singh
INTRODUCTION: Childhood wasting although well studied elsewhere, it has not been well understood about in slum area of Nepal. This study aimed to assess effect of socio-demographic factors and child feeding practice in the determination of wasting among the children under five years of age in slum area of Nepal. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was performed among 150 children under five years of age from the slum area of Nepal between 1st January and 28th February 2013 using simple random sampling techniques...
April 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745259/serum-and-tissue-25-oh-vitamin-d3-concentrations-do-not-predict-bone-abnormalities-and-molecular-markers-of-vitamin-d-metabolism-in-the-hypovitaminosis-d-kyphotic-pig-model
#11
Laura A Amundson, Laura L Hernandez, Thomas D Crenshaw
The hypovitaminosis D kyphotic pig provides a model to study maternal vitamin D (D) carryover on gross and molecular characteristics of bone abnormalities in offspring. Excess maternal D is proposed to protect offspring under nutritional challenges from developing bone abnormalities. Relationships between D sufficiency parameters and bone abnormalities were characterised. Sows (n 37) were fed diets with 0 (-D), 8·125 (+D) or 43·750 (++D) µg D3/kg throughout gestation and lactation. At weaning (3 weeks) pigs were fed diets with 0 (-D) or 7·0 (+D) µg D3/kg, each with 75 and 95 % (LCaP) or 150 and 120 % (HCaP) of the Ca and P requirements...
July 26, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727121/supplementing-newborn-intrauterine-growth-restricted-piglets-with-a-bolus-of-porcine-colostrum-raises-rectal-temperatures-one-degree-celsius
#12
C Amdi, L L Jensen, N Oksbjerg, C F Hansen
Hyperprolific sows have increased litter sizes but also result in more piglets that have been exposed to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). These IUGR piglets are likely to have a low rectal temperature and lower blood glucose levels compared with normal piglets at birth. Therefore, we hypothesized that a colostrum bolus at birth and/or heat from an external source would have a positive effect on blood glucose levels, rectal temperatures, and growth up to 8 h postpartum. In addition, liver glycogen and blood values at 8 h were investigated...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727057/effects-of-feeding-pregnant-beef-cows-selenium-enriched-alfalfa-hay-on-selenium-status-and-antibody-titers-in-their-newborn-calves
#13
L G Wallace, G Bobe, W R Vorachek, B P Dolan, C T Estill, G J Pirelli, J A Hall
In newborn dairy calves, it has been demonstrated that supranutritional maternal and colostral Se supplementation using Se yeast or sodium selenite, respectively, improves passive transfer of IgG. In beef cattle, agronomic biofortification with Se is a more practical alternative for Se supplementation, whereby the Se concentration of hay is increased through the use of Se-containing fertilizer amendments. It has been previously demonstrated that agronomic Se biofortification is an effective strategy to improve immunity and performance in Se-replete weaned beef calves...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727031/mammary-nutrient-uptake-in-multiparous-sows-fed-supplementary-arginine-during-gestation-and-lactation
#14
U Krogh, N Oksbjerg, A C Storm, T Feyera, P K Theil
Arginine is the precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide and may increase mammary plasma flow (MPF), which may in turn increase mammary nutrient uptake. Quantifying mammary nutrient uptake improves our understanding of mammary nutrient metabolism and may potentially allow identification of limiting nutrients for colostrum and milk production. Thus, the objectives of the present study were 1) to study the impact of 25 g/d of crystalline Arg (ARG) on MPF and uptake of nutrients by the mammary glands compared with an isonitrogenous supply of Ala (51 g/d; control [CON]) fed to a total of 8 sows from d 30 of gestation until weaning on d 28 of lactation and 2) to quantify mammary nutrient uptake in late gestation and in early and at peak lactation...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727004/physiology-and-endocrinology-symposium-postnatal-reproductive-development-and-the-lactocrine-hypothesis
#15
F F Bartol, A A Wiley, A F George, D J Miller, C A Bagnell
Maternal effects on development can program cell fate and dictate offspring phenotype. Such effects do not end at birth, but extend into postnatal life through signals communicated from mother to offspring in first milk (colostrum). Transmission of bioactive factors from mother to offspring as a specific consequence of nursing defines a lactocrine mechanism. The female reproductive tract is not fully formed at birth (postnatal day = PND 0). Data for ungulates and mice indicate that disruption of development during neonatal life can have lasting effects on the form and function of uterine tissues...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726512/human-milk-oligosaccharide-categories-define-the-microbiota-composition-in-human-colostrum
#16
J Aakko, H Kumar, S Rautava, A Wise, C Autran, L Bode, E Isolauri, S Salminen
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are structurally diverse unconjugated glycans with a composition unique to each lactating mother. While HMOs have been shown to have an impact on the development of infant gut microbiota, it is not well known if HMOs also already affect milk microbial composition. To address this question, we analysed eleven colostrum samples for HMO content by high-pressure liquid chromatography and microbiota composition by quantitative PCR. Higher total HMO concentration was associated with higher counts of Bifidobacterium spp...
July 20, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725106/development-of-porcine-circovirus-2-pcv2-open-reading-frame-2-dna-vaccine-with-different-adjuvants-and-comparison-with-commercial-pcv2-subunit-vaccine-in-an-experimental-challenge
#17
Changhoon Park, Jiwoon Jeong, Kyuhyung Choi, Su-Jin Park, Ikjae Kang, Chanhee Chae
The objective of this study was to compare the protection against challenge with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) induced by an experimental vaccine based on open reading frame (ORF) 2 of PCV2 DNA plus an adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide, cobalt oxide, or liposome) and a commercial PCV2 subunit vaccine. A total of 35 colostrum-fed, cross-bred, conventional piglets were randomly divided into 7 groups. The commercial vaccine was more efficacious against PCV2 challenge than the 4 experimental vaccines according to immunologic, virologic, and pathological outcomes...
July 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725021/bovine-milk-derived-exosomes-from-colostrum-are-enriched-with-proteins-implicated-in-immune-response-and-growth
#18
Monisha Samuel, David Chisanga, Michael Liem, Shivakumar Keerthikumar, Sushma Anand, Ching-Seng Ang, Christopher G Adda, Ellen Versteegen, Markandeya Jois, Suresh Mathivanan
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles secreted by multiple cell types into the extracellular space. They contain cell-state specific cargos which often reflects the (patho)physiological condition of the cells/organism. Milk contains high amounts of exosomes and it is unclear whether their cargo is altered based on the lactation stage of the organism. Here, we isolated exosomes from bovine milk that were obtained at various stages of lactation and examined the content by quantitative proteomics. Exosomes were isolated by OptiPrep density gradient centrifugation from milk obtained from cow after 24, 48 and 72 h post calving...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720151/supplementation-with-lactobacillus-paracasei-or-pediococcus-pentosaceus-does-not-prevent-diarrhoea-in-neonatal-pigs-infected-with-escherichia-coli-f18
#19
Anders D Andersen, Malene S Cilieborg, Charlotte Lauridsen, Anne Louise Mørkbak, Per Torp Sangild
Infectious diarrhoea is a worldwide problem in newborns. Optimal bacterial colonisation may enhance gut maturation and protect against pathogenic bacteria after birth. We hypothesised that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) administration prevents pathogen-induced diarrhoea in formula-fed newborns. Newborn caesarean-delivered, colostrum-deprived term piglets on parenteral nutrition for the first 15 h, were used as models for sensitive newborn infants. A commercially available probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LAP, 2·6×108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg per d) and a novel LAB isolate, Pediococcus pentosaceus (PEP, 1·3×1010 CFU/kg per d), were administered for 5 d with or without inoculation of the porcine pathogen, Escherichia coli F18 (F18, 1010 CFU/d)...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712263/effects-of-colostrum-serum-on-the-serotonergic-system-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nuclei-of-exercised-rats
#20
Tae-Woon Kim, Chang-Ju Kim, Jinhee Seo
PURPOSE: The central fatigue hypothesis suggests that exhaustion, or the maximum level of exercise, induces excessive stress and increases serotonin concentrations in the brain, which in turn decreases central nervous system (CNS) function and induces fatigue. Our aim was to determine the effects of colostrum serum on the serotonergic system in the dorsal raphe nuclei during exhaustive exercise. METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into five groups: control, exercise, exercise and treatment with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of colostrum serum...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
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