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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076511/passive-acquisition-of-anti-staphylococcus-aureus-antibodies-by-newborns-via-transplacental-transfer-and-breastfeeding-regardless-of-maternal-colonization
#1
Maria Isabel Valdomir Nadaf, Laila Lima, Inês Stranieri, Olga Akiko Takano, Magda Carneiro-Sampaio, Patricia Palmeira
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transmission of anti-Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 via placental transfer and the transfer of IgA via the colostrum according to maternal Sa carrier status at delivery. METHODS: We evaluated anti-Sa IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 in maternal and cord sera and IgA in colostrum from a case (n=49, Sa+) and a control group (n=98, Sa-). RESULTS: Of the 250 parturients analyzed for this study, 49 were nasally colonized with S...
December 1, 2016: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075610/factors-affecting-lactoferrin-concentration-in-human-milk-how-much-do-we-know
#2
Aasith Villavicencio, Maria S Rueda, Christie G Turin, Theresa J Ochoa
Lactoferrin (LF) is a breast milk glycoprotein with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Its beneficial properties in infants, especially in those born preterm, are currently being studied in clinical trials. However, the maternal and nursing infant factors that may affect LF concentration in breast milk are still not clear. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the factors that may affect the concentration of LF in breast milk. We used a 2-step approach to identify the eligible studies according to inclusion/exclusion criteria, and to determine which studies would be considered...
August 4, 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072925/impact-of-low-and-high-doses-of-marbofloxacin-on-the-selection-of-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-commensal-gut-flora-of-young-cattle-discussion-of-data-from-2-study-populations
#3
Guillaume Lhermie, Véronique Dupouy, Farid El Garch, Nadine Ravinet, Pierre-Louis Toutain, Alain Bousquet-Mélou, Henri Seegers, Sébastien Assié
In the context of requested decrease of antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine, our objective was to assess the impact of two doses of marbofloxacin administered on young bulls (YBs) and veal calves (VCs) treated for bovine respiratory disease, on the total population of Enterobacteriaceae in gut flora and on the emergence of resistant Enterobacteriaceae. In two independent experiments, 48 YBs from 6 commercial farms and 33 VCs previously colostrum deprived and exposed to cefquinome were randomly assigned to one of the three groups LOW, HIGH, and Control...
January 10, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069900/impact-of-donor-and-recipient-adiposity-on-feto-placental-growth-in-adolescent-sheep
#4
Jacqueline M Wallace, John S Milne, Clare L Adam, Raymond P Aitken
The influence of maternal obesity during oocyte development and its putative interaction with nutrient reserves at conception on pregnancy outcome were examined in an adolescent sheep model. Donor ewes were nutritionally managed to achieve contrasting adiposity (control [CD]/obese [ObD]) for 6 weeks prior to superovulation, and inseminated by a non-obese sire. Morulae from 6 CD and 7 ObD were transferred in singleton into adolescent recipients of identical age but differing adiposity, classified as relatively fat or thin, respectively...
January 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063473/transfer-of-maternal-immunity-to-piglets-is-involved-in-early-protection-against-mycoplasma-hyosynoviae-infection
#5
K Tølbøll Lauritsen, T Hagedorn-Olsen, G Jungersen, U Riber, H Stryhn, N F Friis, P Lind, B Kristensen
Mycoplasma hyosynoviae causes arthritis in pigs older than 12 weeks. The role of colostrum in protection of piglets against M. hyosynoviae infection is not clear. Our objective was therefore to investigate whether transfer of maternal immunity to piglets was involved in early protection against the infection. Experimental infections were carried out in three groups of weaners receiving different levels of M. hyosynoviae-specific colostrum components; Group NC derived from Mycoplasma free sows and possessed no specific immunity to M...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062945/responses-of-human-neonates-to-highly-diluted-odorants-from-sweat
#6
Helene M Loos, Sébastien Doucet, Fanny Védrines, Constanze Sharapa, Robert Soussignan, Karine Durand, Paul Sagot, Andrea Buettner, Benoist Schaal
Conjugated forms of odorants contributing to sweat odor occur not only in human sweat but also in amniotic fluid, colostrum, and milk. However, it is unclear whether the released odorants are detected and hedonically discriminated by human newborns. To investigate this issue, we administered highly diluted solutions of (R)/(S)-3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (MSH), (R)/(S)-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (SH), (E)/(Z)-3-methylhex-2-enoic acid (3M2H), and (R)/(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylhexanoic acid (HMHA) to 3-d-old infants while their respiratory rate and oro-facial movements were recorded...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059609/rotavirus-specific-maternal-antibodies-and-immune-response-to-rv3-bb-neonatal-rotavirus-vaccine-in-new-zealand
#7
Mee-Yew Chen, Carl D Kirkwood, Julie Bines, Daniel Cowley, Daniel Pavlic, Katherine J Lee, Francesca Orsini, Emma Watts, Graeme Barnes, Margaret Danchin
Background Maternal antibodies, acquired passively via placenta and/or breast milk, may contribute to the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccine observed in children in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus specific maternal antibodies on the serum IgA response or stool excretion of vaccine virus after any dose of an oral rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, in parallel to a Phase IIa clinical trial conducted at Dunedin Hospital, New Zealand. At the time of the study rotavirus vaccines had not been introduced in New Zealand and the burden of rotavirus disease was evident...
January 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057061/congenital-infection-with-atypical-porcine-pestivirus-appv-is-associated-with-disease-and-viral-persistence
#8
Lukas Schwarz, Christiane Riedel, Sandra Högler, Leonie J Sinn, Thomas Voglmayr, Bettina Wöchtl, Nora Dinhopl, Barbara Rebel-Bauder, Herbert Weissenböck, Andrea Ladinig, Till Rümenapf, Benjamin Lamp
In 2013, several Austrian piglet-producing farms recorded outbreaks of action-related repetitive myoclonia in newborn piglets ("shaking piglets"). Malnutrition was seen in numerous piglets as a complication of this tremor syndrome. Overall piglet mortality was increased and the number of weaned piglets per sow decreased by more than 10% due to this outbreak. Histological examination of the CNS of affected piglets revealed moderate hypomyelination of the white substance in cerebellum and spinal cord. We detected a recently discovered pestivirus, termed atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) in all these cases by RT-PCR...
January 6, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050407/female-college-students-knowledge-attitude-and-future-intention-towards-breastfeeding-implications-for-advocacy
#9
Ramya Padmanabhan, Mahalakshmy Thulasingam, Palnivel Chinnakalai
INTRODUCTION: Breastfeeding is important for promoting child's health. Since, breastfeeding decisions are made before pregnancy and are strongly influenced by women's knowledge and attitude, it is important to identify knowledge gaps in youth girls. AIM: To assess the knowledge, attitude and future intention regarding infant feeding among female college students in Puducherry, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive study was done among 307 college going female students...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045436/retinol-and-%C3%AE-tocopherol-in-the-breast-milk-of-women-after-a-high-risk-pregnancy
#10
Reyna Sámano, Hugo Martínez-Rojano, Rosa M Hernández, Cristina Ramírez, María E Flores Quijano, José M Espíndola-Polis, Daniela Veruete
BACKGROUND: There is scant information about whether, after a high-risk pregnancy, breast milk provides enough vitamins for assuring satisfactory bodily reserves in newborns. OBJECTIVE: To comparatively evaluate, in women with high-risk and normal pregnancy, the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in breast milk. METHODS: This cross-sectional, analytical study was evaluated with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
January 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027401/breast-milk-poly-unsaturated-fatty-acids-associations-with-adolescent-allergic-disease-and-lung-function
#11
Nilakshi T Waidyatillake, Rachel Stoney, Francis Thien, Caroline J Lodge, Julie A Simpson, Katrina J Allen, Michael J Abramson, Bircan Erbas, Cecile Svanes, Shyamali C Dharmage, Adrian J Lowe
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesised that n-3 PUFA in breast-milk may assist immune and lung development. There are very limited data on possible long-term effects on allergic disease and lung function. The aim was to investigate associations of n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels in colostrum and breast milk with allergic disease and lung function at ages 12 and 18 years. METHOD: PUFAs were measured in 194 colostrum samples and in 118 three month expressed breast milk samples from mothers of children enrolled in the Melbourne Atopy Cohort (MACS) Study, a high risk birth cohort study...
December 27, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012624/effects-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-fermentation-products-on-dairy-calves-performance-and-health
#12
G M Alugongo, J X Xiao, Y H Chung, S Z Dong, S L Li, I Yoon, Z H Wu, Z J Cao
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) on performance and health of calves during the first 63 d of age. Sixty Holstein calves (30 males and 30 females) at 2 d of age were blocked by sex and date of birth then randomly assigned within blocks to 1 of 3 treatments. A texturized calf starter was fed ad libitum containing 0 (control), 0.5, or 1% SCFP (Original XPC, Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) of DM. In addition, the supplemented calves were fed 1 g/d SCFP (SmartCare, Diamond V) in milk until d 30...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007592/colostrum-proinflammatory-cytokines-as-biomarkers-of-bovine-immune-response-to-bovine-tuberculosis-btb
#13
Eduardo Sánchez-Soto, Rosa Ponce-Ramos, Rodolfo Hernández-Gutiérrez, Abel Gutiérrez-Ortega, Angel H Álvarez, Moisés Martínez-Velázquez, Angel E Absalón, Pablo Ortiz-Lazareno, Alberto Limón-Flores, Ciro Estrada-Chávez, Sara E Herrera-Rodríguez
Bovine colostrum contains compounds, which provide passive immune protection from mother to newborn calves. Little is known about cytokine levels and their role in bovine colostrum. Moreover, the capacity of bovine colostrum cells to mount specific immune responses after natural exposure to bovine tuberculosis (bTB) antigens in dairy herds has not been studied, thus far. The purpose of this study was to identify biomarkers for bTB infection measurable in bovine colostrum. The present study reveals that isolated-immune colostrum cells can mount a specific immune response against bTB antigens, by measuring the novo IFN-γ release in cell culture...
December 19, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990174/determinants-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-practice-to-infants-aged-less-than-six-months-in-offa-district-southern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Ayele Lenja, Tsegaye Demissie, Bereket Yohannes, Mulugeta Yohannis
BACKGROUND: World Health Organization (WHO) recommends timely initiation of breastfeeding after birth and only feeding breast milk to infants during the first 6 months of life. It was estimated that exclusive breastfeeding can reduce infant deaths by 13%. The practice of exclusive breastfeeding is suboptimal in many parts of Ethiopia to a varied extent. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding practice and the proportion of its practice was not well documented in Offa district...
2016: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988130/rapid-assessment-of-bovine-colostrum-quality-how-reliable-are-transmission-infrared-spectroscopy-and-digital-and-optical-refractometers
#15
I Elsohaby, J T McClure, M Cameron, L C Heider, G P Keefe
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of the transmission infrared (IR) spectroscopic method and digital and optical Brix refractometers for measurement of colostral IgG concentration and assessment of colostrum quality of dairy cows. Colostrum samples (n = 258) were collected from Holstein cows on 30 commercial dairy farms in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, Canada. Colostral IgG concentrations of 255 samples were measured by the reference radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay and IR spectroscopy...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988124/increased-serum-serotonin-improves-parturient-calcium-homeostasis-in-dairy-cows
#16
Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Laura L Hernandez, Samantha Weaver, Rupert M Bruckmaier
Hypocalcemia in dairy cows is caused by the sudden increase in calcium demand by the mammary gland for milk production at the onset of lactation. Serotonin (5-HT) is a key factor for calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. Therefore, it is hypothesized that administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, can increase 5-HT concentrations in blood and, in turn, induce an increase in blood calcium concentration. In this study, 20 Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983720/microbiota-network-and-mathematic-microbe-mutualism-in-colostrum-and-mature-milk-collected-in-two-different-geographic-areas-italy-versus-burundi
#17
Lorenzo Drago, Marco Toscano, Roberta De Grandi, Enzo Grossi, Ezio M Padovani, Diego G Peroni
Human milk is essential for the initial development of newborns, as it provides all nutrients and vitamins, such as vitamin D, and represents a great source of commensal bacteria. Here we explore the microbiota network of colostrum and mature milk of Italian and Burundian mothers using the auto contractive map (AutoCM), a new methodology based on artificial neural network (ANN) architecture. We were able to demonstrate the microbiota of human milk to be a dynamic, and complex, ecosystem with different bacterial networks among different populations containing diverse microbial hubs and central nodes, which change during the transition from colostrum to mature milk...
December 16, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939546/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-colostrum-replacer-supplementation-of-the-milk-replacer-ration-on-the-occurrence-of-disease-antibiotic-therapy-and-performance-of-pre-weaned-dairy-calves
#18
Manuel F Chamorro, Natalia Cernicchiaro, Deborah M Haines
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum supplementation of the milk replacer ration on disease occurrence, antibiotic therapy, and performance of pre-weaned dairy calves with adequate transfer of passive immunity. Two hundred and two 1-d-old Holstein dairy calves were assigned to 1 of 2 groups after arrival to a dairy calf rearing facility. Calves assigned to the control group (n = 100) received milk replacer (28% crude protein and 20% crude fat) without colostrum inclusion twice daily...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921350/effects-of-the-standardized-ileal-digestible-valine%C3%A2-%C3%A2-lysine-ratio-on-performance-milk-composition-and-plasma-indices-of-lactating-sows
#19
Yetong Xu, Zhikai Zeng, Xiao Xu, Qiyu Tian, Xiaokang Ma, Shenfei Long, Meijing Piao, Zhibin Cheng, Xiangshu Piao
To determine the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) valine : lysine ratio on the performance, milk composition and plasma indices of lactating sows, 32 Large White × Landrace sows (219.78 ± 7.15 kg body weight; parity 1.82 ± 0.62) were allotted to one of four dietary treatments with eight sows per treatment based on parity, back fat thickness and body weight. The sows were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets containing 63, 83, 103 or 123% SID valine : lysine from day 107 of gestation until day 28 of lactation...
December 5, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910138/canine-and-feline-colostrum
#20
S Chastant-Maillard, C Aggouni, A Albaret, A Fournier, H Mila
Puppy and kitten survival over the first weeks is particularly dependent on colostrum, a specific secretion of the mammary gland produced during the first 2 days post-partum. Colostrum is a source of nutrients and immunoglobulins. It also contributes to the digestive tract maturation. Colostrum differentiates from milk mainly based on its concentration in immunoglobulins G: 20-30 g/L in dog colostrum, 40-50 g/L in cats' vs <1 g/L in milk. IgG concentration rapidly drops after parturition (-50% in 24 hr)...
November 30, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
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