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C Gerbert, D Frieten, C Koch, G Dusel, K Eder, T Stefaniak, J Bajzert, P Jawor, A Tuchscherer, H M Hammon
Animal welfare in dairy calf husbandry depends on calf rearing and is probably improved by intensive milk feeding programs. In addition, butyrate supplementation in milk replacer (MR) stimulates postnatal growth and may affect the immune system in calves. We have investigated the combined effects of ad libitum MR feeding and butyrate supplementation on feeding behavior, health, and the immune responses in calves. Holstein calves (n = 64) were examined from birth until wk 11 of age. Calves received MR either ad libitum (Adl) or restrictively (Res) with (AdlB+, ResB+) or without (AdlB-, ResB-) 0...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
T H Skrzypek, W Kazimierczak, H Skrzypek, J L Valverde Piedra, M M Godlewski, R Zabielski
The use of complementary visualization and measurement techniques allowed accurate description and quantification of changes in the intestinal mucosal architecture and provided a comprehensive outlook on the dynamics of remodelling and maturation processes of the mucosal layer taking place in the small intestine of piglets from birth to weaning. The aim of the study was to examine the early postnatal development of the small intestine in pigs. Three techniques were used: scanning electron microscopy (measurements of villus density and shape, height of enterocytes and microvilli, cell exfoliation, and location of extrusion zones), optical microscopy (cross section, measurement of structures: villus length and width; crypt depth; mucosal thickness), and confocal microscopy (cell localization, apoptosis, exfoliation and migration)...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Didier Raboisson, Pauline Trillat, Marie Dervillé, Célia Cahuzac, Elise Maigné
There is extensive literature addressing acceptable practices of colostrum distribution to new-born calves; however, no economic analyses are available concerning the profitability of this practice. Moreover, the health standards associated with colostrum management have been defined through the observation of reference farms without explicit reference to economic assessments. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the profitability of farm colostrum management and to define the optimal economic situations for given livestock systems and farm situations...
2018: PloS One
Shoko Matsukawa, Kazutoshi Ueno, Toshihisa Sugino, Yukinori Yoshimura, Naoki Isobe
The objective of the present study is to examine whether colostrum whey can have an effect on immune function in goats digestive tract. Two milliliters of colostrum whey (colostrum group) or water (control group) were administrated orally to goats every day for 3 weeks. Blood was collected twice a week for 3 weeks to measure immunoglobulin A (IgA), interleukin 8 (IL-8), and IL-10. At the end of the experimental period, the parotid glands, oral mucosa, lingua, esophagus, jejunum, and ileum were collected for immunohistochemical detection of IgA, cathelicidin-7, and S100A8...
May 16, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Anton Schulte Zu Sundern, Carolin Holling, Karl Rohn, Josef Schulte-Wülwer, Ansgar Deermann, Christian Visscher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Porcine Health Management
João Antônio Guizzo, Somshukla Chaudhuri, Simone Ramos Prigol, Rong-Hua Yu, Cláudia Cerutti Dazzi, Natalia Balbinott, Gabriela Paraboni Frandoloso, Luiz Carlos Kreutz, Rafael Frandoloso, Anthony Bernard Schryvers
Haemophilus parasuis is the causative agent of the Glässer's disease (GD), one of the most important bacterial diseases that affect young pigs worldwide. GD prevention based on vaccination is a major concern due to the limited cross-protection conferred by the inactivated whole cell vaccines used currently. In this study, vaccines based on two mutant recombinant proteins derived from transferrin binding protein B of H. parasuis (Y167A-TbpB and W176A-TbpB) were formulated and evaluated in terms of protection against lethal challenge using a serovar 7 (SV7) H...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nidia Maradiaga, Brian Aldridge, Mohamed Zeineldin, James Lowe
Cross fostering is employed to equalize the number of piglet between litters ensuring colostrum intake for their survival and growth. However, little is known about the impact of cross fostering on the intestinal microbiota and mucosal immune gene expression of the neonatal pig. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of maternal microbial communities on the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota and mucosal immune gene expression in young pigs reared in a cross-fostering model. Piglets were given high quality colostrum from birth dam or foster dam upon birth...
May 6, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Naomi M Saville, Bhim P Shrestha, Sarah Style, Helen Harris-Fry, B James Beard, Aman Sen, Sonali Jha, Anjana Rai, Vikas Paudel, Raghbendra Sah, Puskar Paudel, Andrew Copas, Bishnu Bhandari, Rishi Neupane, Joanna Morrison, Lu Gram, Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brännström, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Machhindra Basnet, Saskia de Pee, Andrew Hall, Jayne Harthan, Meelan Thondoo, Sonja Klingberg, Janice Messick, Dharma S Manandhar, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition during pregnancy leads to low birthweight, poor growth and inter-generational undernutrition. We did a non-blinded cluster-randomised controlled trial in the plains districts of Dhanusha and Mahottari, Nepal to assess the impact on birthweight and weight-for-age z-scores among children aged 0-16 months of community-based participatory learning and action (PLA) women's groups, with and without food or cash transfers to pregnant women. METHODS: We randomly allocated 20 clusters per arm to four arms (average population/cluster = 6150)...
2018: PloS One
Ting Yang, Liansheng Zhang, Wei Bao, Shuang Rong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: As breast milk is considered nature's best food for infant growth and development, understanding its nutritional composition is crucial for optimising the components of infant formula milk. In this study, we aimed to summarise the available evidence on the nutritional composition of breast milk from Chinese women, in particular, the macronutrients, fatty acids and minerals. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Chinese databases for articles about human breast milk from Chinese women published in English or Chinese between 1999 and 2015...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Alejandro Larios Mora, Laurent Detalle, Jack M Gallup, Albert Van Geelen, Thomas Stohr, Linde Duprez, Mark R Ackermann
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of acute lower respiratory disease in infants and young children worldwide. Currently, treatment is supportive and no vaccines are available. The use of newborn lambs to model hRSV infection in human infants may provide a valuable tool to assess safety and efficacy of new antiviral drugs and vaccines. ALX-0171 is a trivalent Nanobody targeting the hRSV fusion (F) protein and its therapeutic potential was evaluated in newborn lambs infected with a human strain of RSV followed by daily ALX-0171 nebulization for 3 or 5 consecutive days...
May 7, 2018: MAbs
Y S Guo, J Z Tao
The first meal of a neonatal calf after birth is crucial for survival and health. Blood IgG levels remarkably increase in neonatal calves after the first colostrum feeding. However, there is little comprehensive information on blood small-molecule metabolites in neonatal calves at that time. In this study, the changes in plasma metabolites of neonatal calves after the initial colostrum feeding were first examined with comprehensive 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Sixteen plasma samples obtained from 8 calves before and after feeding were analyzed with 1H NMR...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Elena Bartkiene, Vadims Bartkevics, Laura Elīna Ikkere, Iveta Pugajeva, Paulina Zavistanaviciute, Vita Lele, Modestas Ruzauskas, Jurga Bernatoniene, Valdas Jakstas, Dovile Klupsaite, Daiva Zadeike, Pranas Viskelis, Grazina Juodeikiene
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ultrasonication, fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135 and Lactobacillus paracasei LUHS244, and different methods of dehydration on the chemical composition of bovine colostrum (BC), including the fatty acid and free amino acid profile and the content of micro- and macroelements. In addition, we analyzed the changes in lactic acid bacteria count, microbial contamination (aerobic mesophilic spore-forming bacteria, enterobacteria including Escherichia coli, and fungi/yeasts), the abundance of biogenic amines, and the concentration of nucleotide monophosphates...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
X W Zhao, Y X Qi, D W Huang, X C Pan, G L Cheng, H L Zhao, Y X Yang
Uptake of colostrum is of central importance for establishing a passive immunity transfer in neonatal calves. Studies of absorption and transmission of colostral immunoglobulins have been widely reported; however, changes in the serum in response to the absorption of colostral components in neonatal calves have not been completely characterized. Here, a nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the changes in metabolites in ingested colostrum, milk, and serum after neonatal calves were fed colostrum or milk...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Lok R Joshi, Faten A Okda, Aaron Singrey, Mayara F Maggioli, Tatiane C Faccin, Maureen H V Fernandes, Kyle S Hain, Scott Dee, Fernando V Bauermann, Eric A Nelson, Diego G Diel
Passive immunity is critical for protection of neonatal piglets against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Here, we investigated the immunogenicity of an orf virus (ORFV) vector expressing the full-length spike (S) protein of PEDV (ORFV-PEDV-S) in pregnant gilts and its ability to confer passive immunity and protection in piglets. Three doses of ORFV-PEDV-S were given to two groups of PEDV-negative pregnant gilts, with the last dose being administered two weeks prior to farrowing. One of the two groups immunized with the ORFV-PEDV-S recombinant virus was also exposed to live PEDV orally on day 31 post-immunization (pi)...
May 3, 2018: Archives of Virology
V Palombo, J J Loor, M D'Andrea, M Vailati-Riboni, K Shahzad, U Krogh, P K Theil
BACKGROUND: Colostrum and milk are essential sources of antibodies and nutrients for the neonate, playing a key role in their survival and growth. Slight abnormalities in the timing of colostrogenesis/lactogenesis potentially threaten piglet survival. To further delineate the genes and transcription regulators implicated in the control of the transition from colostrogenesis to lactogenesis, we applied RNA-seq analysis of swine mammary gland tissue from late-gestation to farrowing. Three 2nd parity sows were used for mammary tissue biopsies on days 14, 10, 6 and 2 before (-) parturition and on day 1 after (+) parturition...
May 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
J Laws, D T Juniper, I J Lean, E Amusquivar, E Herrera, P F Dodds, L Clarke
The supplementing of sow diets with lipids during pregnancy and lactation has been shown to reduce sow condition loss and improve piglet performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental palm oil (PO) on sow performance, plasma metabolites and hormones, milk profiles and pre-weaning piglet development. A commercial sow ration (C) or an experimental diet supplemented with 10% extra energy in the form of PO, were provided from day 90 of gestation until weaning (24 to 28 days postpartum) in two groups of eight multiparous sows...
May 2, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Dario Amilcar Malacari, Andrea Pécora, Maria Sol Pérez Aguirreburualde, Nancy Patricia Cardoso, Anselmo Carlos Odeón, Alejandra Victoria Capozzo
Non-cytopathic (ncp) type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-2) is widely prevalent in Argentina causing high mortality rates in cattle herds. In this study, we characterized an Argentinean ncp BVDV-2 field isolate (98-124) compared to a high-virulence reference strain (NY-93), using in silico analysis, in vitro assays, and in vivo infections of colostrum-deprived calves (CDC) to compare pathogenic characters and virulence. In vitro infection of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with BVDV 98-124 induced necrosis shortly after infection while NY-93 strain increased the apoptotic rate in infected cells...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
François Claine, Damien Coupeau, Laetitia Wiggers, Benoît Muylkens, Nathalie Kirschvink
Modelling the long-term seroprevalence evolution against Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is of first interest to plan vaccination strategies and to predict viral resurgence. The objectives of this study were first to estimate the duration of colostral immunity and the persistence of active immunity in a sheep flock that encountered two episodes of natural SBV infection and then to model the evolution of SBV seroprevalence by considering immune status as well as zootechnical variables. The entire sheep flock of the University of Namur composed by around 400 ewes producing 600 lambs a year and characterized by an annual 24...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
T Feyera, T F Pedersen, U Krogh, L Foldager, P K Theil
Farrowing duration is rather long in sows most likely due to selection for large litters, and we hypothesized that prolonged farrowings would compromise sow energy status during farrowing and in turn the farrowing process. Two studies were performed 1) to evaluate whether sow energy status during farrowing compromise the farrowing kinetics (FK, i.e. farrowing duration and birth intervals) and 2) to study the underlying mechanisms potentially affecting stillbirth rate and farrowing assistance. In study-1, parameters affecting FK were characterized based on data from a total of 166 farrowings from 7 feeding trials focused on sow colostrum production...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Y Inabu, A Fischer, Y Song, L L Guan, M Oba, M A Steele, T Sugino
Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 is involved in glucose homeostasis via its role in stimulating insulin secretion, whereas GLP-2 increases mucosal growth of the small intestine. To our knowledge, the effect of delayed colostrum feeding on plasma GLP-1 and GLP-2 in neonatal calves has not been evaluated. To investigate the effect of delayed colostrum feeding on plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and GLP-2 in newborn calves, we randomly assigned 27 Holstein bull calves to 1 of 3 treatment groups: those fed colostrum within 1 h after birth (control), 6 h after birth (6H), and 12 h after birth (12H; n = 9 for each treatment)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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