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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230705/determinant-variables-enteric-pathogen-burden-gut-function-and-immune-related-inflammatory-biomarkers-associated-with-childhood-malnutrition-a-prospective-case-control-study-in-northeastern-brazil
#1
Aldo Am Lima, Álvaro M Leite, Alessandra Di Moura, Noélia L Lima, Alberto M Soares, Cláudia B Abreu, José Quirino Filho, Rosa Ms Mota, Ila Fn Lima, Alexandre Havt, Pedro Hqs Medeiros, Mara Mg Prata, Marjorie M Guedes, Paloma A Cavalcante, Herlice N Veras, Ana Ks Santos, Sean R Moore, Relana C Pinkerton, Eric R Houpt, Richard L Guerrant
Malnutrition results in serious consequences for growth and cognitive development in children. We studied select child and maternal biological factors, socio-economic factors, enteric pathogenic burden, and gut function biomarkers in 402 children 6-24 months of age in North-eastern Brazil. In this prospective case-control study, not being fed colostrum (odds ratio [OR] = 3.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73-6.26), maternal age ≥18 years (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.10-3.22), and no electrical fan (OR = 2.46, 95% CI 1...
February 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228969/prevention-and-treatment-of-neonatal-nosocomial-infections
#2
REVIEW
Jayashree Ramasethu
Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections threaten the survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, and increase cost of care. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable since they often undergo invasive procedures and are dependent on central catheters to deliver nutrition and on ventilators for respiratory support. Prevention of nosocomial infection is a critical patient safety imperative, and invariably requires a multidisciplinary approach. There are no short cuts...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193309/sow-and-piglet-factors-determining-variation-of-colostrum-intake-between-and-within-litters
#3
I Declerck, S Sarrazin, J Dewulf, D Maes
Colostrum intake has a short- and long-term beneficial impact on piglet performance and mortality. Sows' colostrum production and piglets' colostrum intake are limited and highly variable. The present study investigated sow and piglet factors explaining the variation of colostrum intake between and within litters. The CV for colostrum intake and birth weight (BWb) of all piglets within a litter was calculated to evaluate the variation of colostrum intake and BWb within a litter (colostrum and litter BWb heterogeneity, respectively)...
February 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189000/breast-milk-retinol-concentration-in-mothers-of-preterm-newborns
#4
Mayara Santa Rosa Lima, Karla Danielly da Silva Ribeiro, Jeane Franco Pires, Dalila Fernandes Bezerra, Paula Emília Nunes Ribeiro Bellot, Luana Patrícia de Oliveira Weigert, Roberto Dimenstein
BACKGROUND: Preterm newborns have low vitamin A reserves at birth, which increases their risk of morbidity and mortality. In the absence of supplementation, breast milk is the only source of this nutrient for exclusively breastfed infants. AIMS: To assess retinol concentration in preterm milk and the relationship between this retinol concentration and lactation phase, degree of prematurity, and maternal serum retinol level. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal study...
February 7, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187318/effect-of-maternal-cells-transferred-with-colostrum-on-the-health-of-neonate-calves
#5
Sylvia Marquart Fontes Novo, Juliana Fraça Dos Reis Costa, Camila Costa Baccili, Natália Meirelles Sobreira, Bruno Toledo Silva, Pamella Lorenci de Oliveira, David John Hurley, Viviani Gomes
The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of cells from colostrum on the health of neonate calves. Animals were distributed in 2 groups: COL+ (n=9) which received fresh colostrum from their own damns; and COL- (n=10) which received frozen colostrums from donors. Heifers were assessed before colostrum intake - D0; D2; D7; D14; D21 and D28. Heifers were monitored by clinical examination, hematological profile and serum iron. COL- had a higher diarrhea intensity score (typically 3) on D7. Moreover, a single case each of bronchopneumonia and navel inflammation were observed in COL- calves...
January 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177352/effects-of-selenium-biofortification-of-hayfields-on-measures-of-selenium-status-in-cows-and-calves-consuming-these-forages
#6
J Ranches, J M B Vendramini, J D Arthington
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the Se status of weaned calves (Exp. 1) and pregnant cows and newborn calves (Exp. 2) consuming bermudagrass [ (L.) Pers.] fertilized with Se. Sodium selenate was dissolved into water (8.8 g/L) and sprayed onto hayfields. Selenium-fertilized forage had greater ( ≤ 0.001) Se concentration compared with the control forage without Se fertilization (7.7 ± 1.81 vs. 0.1 ± 0.04 mg Se/kg DM and 10.8 vs. 0.1 mg Se/kg DM for Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively). In Exp. 1, beef calves ( = 32; 176 ± 8...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167667/the-protective-role-of-passively-transferred-maternal-cytokines-against-bordetella-pertussis-infection-in-newborn-piglets
#7
Shokrollah Elahi, David R Thompson, Jill Van Kessel, Lorne A Babiuk, Volker Gerdts
Maternal vaccination represents a potential strategy to protect both the mother and the offspring against life threatening infections. This protective role has mainly been associated with antibodies but the role of cell mediated immunity in particular passively transferred cytokines is not well understood. Herein, using a pertussis model we have demonstrated that immunization of pregnant sows with heat-inactivated bacteria leads to induction of a wide range of cytokines (e.g. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12/IL-23p40) in addition to pertussis-specific antibodies...
February 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166927/effect-of-artificial-rearing-of-piglets-on-the-volume-densities-of-m-cells-in-the-tonsils-of-the-soft-palate-and-ileal-peyer-s-patches
#8
S Prims, N Pintens, H Vergauwen, S Van Cruchten, C Van Ginneken, C Casteleyn
The high prolificacy of modern hybrid sows has increased the mean litter size during the last decades. However, rearing large litters is challenging and has increased the use of alternative management strategies such as euthanasia of weak piglets, cross-fostering, supplementing piglets with milk, split-nursing and split-weaning. The latter includes artificial rearing on brooders where piglets have ad libitum access to milk replacer. The effect of this artificial rearing on the immune system of the piglet is the subject of various studies...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164139/dietary-supplementation-of-astragalus-polysaccharides-enhanced-immune-components-and-growth-factors-egf-and-igf-1-in-sow-colostrum
#9
Lunbo Tan, Ting Wei, Anwen Yuan, Jun He, Jinhui Liu, Daojun Xu, Qing Yang
Colostrum is the main external resource providing piglets with nutrients and maternal immune molecules. Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) have been used as immunopotentiators in vitro and several animal models. This study aimed to determine the effects of APS on immune factors in sow colostrum and milk. The sow diet was supplemented with APS one week before the expected delivery date. Colostrum and milk were collected and designated as 0 h- (onset of parturition), 12 h-, and 24 h-colostrum and 36 h-milk postpartum...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161185/the-bovine-colostrum-microbiome-and-its-association-with-clinical-mastitis
#10
Svetlana F Lima, Andre G V Teixeira, Fabio S Lima, Erika K Ganda, Catherine H Higgins, Georgios Oikonomou, Rodrigo C Bicalho
In an effort to characterize colostrum microbial diversity and its potential associations with early-lactation clinical mastitis, we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate the bovine colostrum microbiome. A prospective observational study was conducted that included 70 Holstein cows; colostrum samples were collected from all 4 mammary gland quarters. Colostrum samples were categorized according to whether the quarter was diagnosed (CMC) or not diagnosed (NCMC) with clinical mastitis during the first 30 d postpartum...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161170/maternal-supplementation-with-rumen-protected-methionine-increases-prepartal-plasma-methionine-concentration-and-alters-hepatic-mrna-abundance-of-1-carbon-methionine-and-transsulfuration-pathways-in-neonatal-holstein-calves
#11
C B Jacometo, Z Zhou, D Luchini, M N Corrêa, J J Loor
An important mechanism of nutritional "programming" induced by supplementation with methyl donors during pregnancy is the alteration of mRNA abundance in the offspring. We investigated the effects of rumen-protected Met (RPM) on abundance of 17 genes in the 1-carbon, Met, and transsulfuration pathways in calf liver from cows fed the same basal diet without (control, CON) or with RPM at 0.08% of diet dry matter/d (MET) from -21 through +30 d around calving. Biopsies (n = 8 calves per diet) were harvested on d 4, 14, 28, and 50 of age...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155167/inhibition-of-snake-venom-metalloproteinase-by-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-peptide-from-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-colostrum
#12
Ashok Arpitha, M Sebastin Santhosh, A C Rohit, K S Girish, D Vinod, H S Aparna
Bioactive peptide research has experienced considerable therapeutic interest owing to varied physiological functions, efficacy in excretion, and tolerability of peptides. Colostrum is a rich natural source of bioactive peptides with many properties elucidated such as anti-thrombotic, anti-hypertensive, opioid, immunomodulatory, etc. In this study, a variant peptide derived from β-lactoglobulin from buffalo colostrum was evaluated for the anti-ophidian property by targeting snake venom metalloproteinases. These are responsible for rapid local tissue damages that develop after snakebite such as edema, hemorrhage, myonecrosis, and extracellular matrix degradation...
February 2, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145111/a-comparative-glycomics-of-fat-globule-membrane-glycoconjugates-from-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-milk-colostrum
#13
Brijesha Nagaraja, Shin-Ichiro Nishimura, Aparna H Sosalegowda
The health-promoting effects of Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM) glycoconjugates has attracted curiosity especially with regard to the challenges encountered to unravel the glycan complexities of MFGM glycoproteins and glycosphingolipids. In this context, we characterized glycans present in buffalo milk and colostrum fat globule membranes by MALDI-TOF MS analysis by adopting chemoselective glycoblotting technique. Unlike human and bovine MFGM glycoproteins, the variations were obvious with respect to their number, size, heterogeneity and abundance among the samples analyzed...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145072/effect-of-quality-of-colostrum-on-health-growth-and-immunoglobulin-g-concentration-in-holstein-calves-in-a-hot-environment
#14
Miguel Mellado, Edir Torres, Francisco G Veliz, Angeles de Santiago, Ulises Macias-Cruz, Jose E Garcia
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ingestion of pasteurized and subsequently frozen-thawed pooled colostrum (≥50 mg Ig/mL) with different bacterial counts and immunoglobulin concentration (IgC) on the occurrence of diarrhea and pneumonia in 306 neonatal Holstein calves in a hot environment. Calves were assigned to be fed colostrum with total bacterial counts (TBC) lower or greater than 100 000 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL, total coliform counts (TCC) greater or lower than 10 000 cfu/mL, and IgC lower or higher than 85 mg Ig/mL...
February 1, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145027/improved-porcine-model-for-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-infection-by-deprivation-of-colostrum-feeding-in-newborn-piglets
#15
Toshio Sato, Takashi Hamabata, Eiji Takita, Takeshi Matsui, Kazutoshi Sawada, Taishi Imaoka, Nobuo Nakanishi, Keizo Nakayama, Takamitsu Tsukahara
Porcine edema disease (ED) is a toxemia caused by enteric infection with Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). ED occurs most frequently during the weaning period and is manifested as emaciation associated with high mortality. In our experimental infection with a specific STEC strain, we failed to cause the suppression of weight gain in piglets, which is a typical symptom of ED, in two consecutive experiments. Therefore, we examined the effects of deprivation of colostrum on the sensitivity of newborn piglets to STEC infection...
February 1, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135671/innate-immune-response-in-neonate-holstein-heifer-calves-fed-fresh-or-frozen-colostrum
#16
Juliana França Dos Reis Costa, Sylvia Marquart Fontes Novo, Camila Costa Baccili, Natália Meirelles Sobreira, David John Hurley, Viviani Gomes
The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of maternal cells from colostrum on the development and function of the innate immune response in Holstein calves. Calves were divided into 2 groups: COL+ (n=10) received fresh colostrum; and COL- (n=10) which received frozen colostrum containing no viable cells. The calves were assessed before colostrum intake (D0), 48h of age (D2), and weekly from D7 up to D28. Blood samples were collected for analysis of the distribution of leukocytes, cellular phenotype and in vitro granulocyte function...
January 17, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131968/effect-of-intravenous-plasma-transfusion-on-granulocyte-and-monocyte-oxidative-and-phagocytic-activity-in-dairy-calves-with-failure-of-passive-immunity
#17
Victoria C Yang, Maire C Rayburn, Munashe Chigerwe
Plasma administration has been recommended in calves older than 48h with failure of passive immunity (FPI) to provide immunity consistent with adequate colostral ingestion. However, the protective serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations (≥1000mg/dL) of plasma derived IgG only lasts up to 12h. In addition to IgG, maternally derived colostral cells also confer immunity. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of intravenous plasma transfusion on granulocyte and monocyte oxidative and phagocytic activity in calves with FPI...
January 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131582/in-utero-exposure-to-heat-stress-during-late-gestation-has-prolonged-effects-on-the-activity-patterns-and-growth-of-dairy-calves
#18
J Laporta, T F Fabris, A L Skibiel, J L Powell, M J Hayen, K Horvath, E K Miller-Cushon, G E Dahl
Exposure to heat stress during late gestation exerts negative carryover effects on the postnatal performance of the calf. In this study, we evaluated the health, growth, and activity patterns of calves born to cows exposed to heat stress (HT, provided only shade, n = 31) or cooling (CL, fans, soakers, and shade, n = 29) during late gestation (∼46 d, maternal dry period). Calves' body weight, rectal temperature, suckling reflex, and movement scores were recorded at birth, and calves were fed 6.6 L of maternal colostrum in 2 meals...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131581/different-milk-feeding-intensities-during-the-first-4-weeks-of-rearing-dairy-calves-part-2-effects-on-the-metabolic-and-endocrine-status-during-calfhood-and-around-the-first-lactation
#19
J Kesser, M Korst, C Koch, F-J Romberg, J Rehage, U Müller, M Schmicke, K Eder, H M Hammon, H Sadri, H Sauerwein
Feeding dairy calves at high intensity has been demonstrated to increase milk yield in later life. We investigated the effect of 3 different feeding regimens in the preweaning period on the metabolic and endocrine status during calfhood and in heifers at the onset of the first lactation. In trial 1, 57 German Holstein calves were allocated to 3 different feeding groups: milk replacer restricted to 6.78 kg/calf per day, 11.5% solids (MR-res, n = 20), milk replacer 13.8% solids, ad libitum (MR-ad lib, n = 17), and whole milk ad libitum (WM-ad lib, n = 20)...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131579/different-milk-feeding-intensities-during-the-first-4-weeks-of-rearing-in-dairy-calves-part-1-effects-on-performance-and-production-from-birth-over-the-first-lactation
#20
M Korst, C Koch, J Kesser, U Müller, F-J Romberg, J Rehage, K Eder, H Sauerwein
We aimed to test the effects of ad libitum feeding of whole milk (WM) or milk replacer (MR) versus restrictive feeding of MR during the first 4 wk of life on growth performance and on milk yield in the first lactation. We studied 57 German Holstein calves (29 females, 28 males) from birth until d 110 of life (trial 1). The 28 females from trial 1 were further studied during their first lactation (trial 2). In trial 1, all calves were randomly allocated at birth to 1 of 3 groups: MR-res [n = 20, 6.78 kg MR (11...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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