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Michaela L Sundqvist, Jon O Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg
The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a significant source of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate has a number of cardiovascular effects as well as a decrease in oxygen cost during exercise and a reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR). Oral bacteria have a key role in bioactivation of inorganic nitrate since they catalyse the conversion of salivary nitrate to the more reactive nitrite anion. Recent studies demonstrate that blood pressure increases with the use of an antiseptic mouthwash, indicating that endogenous, NO-synthase derived nitrate is recycled into nitrite and NO, sufficiently to modulate cardiovascular function...
October 18, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Kristy Bultema, Sara Fowler, Melissa Drum, Al Reader, John Nusstein, Mike Beck
INTRODUCTION: In the treatment of patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, endodontic debridement is a predictable method to relieve pain. However, there are clinical situations in which emergency care cannot be provided immediately. An unexplored treatment option in these cases may be the use of a long-acting anesthetic to reduce pain in untreated irreversible pulpitis. Some medical studies have shown potential for infiltrations of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel; Pacira Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA) to prolong pain relief and reduce opioid use postoperatively...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Endodontics
Sonja Rutten, Chris Vriend, Jan H Smit, Henk W Berendse, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Odile A van den Heuvel, Ysbrand D van der Werf
BACKGROUND: A disturbed circadian rhythm seems to be a causal factor in the occurrence of depressive disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The circadian rhythm can be restored with light. Therefore, Bright Light Therapy (BLT) might be a new treatment option for depression in PD patients. METHODS/DESIGN: In this double-blind controlled trial, 84 subjects with idiopathic PD are randomized to either BLT or a control light condition. The BLT condition emits white light with an intensity of 10,000 Lux, while the control device emits dim white light of 200 Lux, which is presumed to be too low to influence the circadian rhythm...
October 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Pang Yao, Liang Sun, Ling Lu, Hong Ding, Xiafei Chen, Lixin Tang, Xinming Xu, Gang Liu, Yao Hu, Yiwei Ma, Feijie Wang, Qianlu Jin, He Zheng, Huiyong Yin, Rong Zeng, Yan Chen, Frank B Hu, Huaixing Li, Xu Lin
CONTEXT: Little is known how genetic and non-genetic factors modify responses of vitamin D supplementation in nonwhite populations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors modifying 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and bioavailable 25(OH)D (25[OH]DBio) responses after vitamin D3 supplementation. Design, Setting, Participants, and Intervention: In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 448 Chinese with vitamin D deficiency (25[OH]D<50 nmol/L) received 2000 IU/d vitamin D3 or placebo for 20 weeks...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
K Reich, M Gooderham, L Green, A Bewley, Z Zhang, I Khanskaya, R M Day, J Goncalves, K Shah, V Piguet, J Soung
BACKGROUND: Apremilast, an oral, small-molecule phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, has demonstrated efficacy in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate efficacy and safety of apremilast vs. placebo in biologic-naive patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis and safety of switching from etanercept to apremilast in a phase IIIb, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (NCT01690299). METHODS: 250 patients were randomized to placebo (n=84), apremilast 30 mg BID (n=83) or etanercept 50 mg QW (n=83) through Week 16; thereafter, all patients continued or switched to apremilast through Week 104...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
David E Rosow, Jamal Ahmed
Importance: Adult laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is typically managed surgically, but some patients fail treatment because of rapid restenosis or granulation tissue formation. The need for frequent surgery or tracheostomy reduces the quality of life in these patients and poses a significant challenge for the treating physician. New adjuvant treatments are required to reduce the surgical burden of this condition. Objective: To examine whether patients with rapidly recurrent nonvasculitic LTS who fail surgical management of their stenosis (ie, requiring dilation more frequently than every 6 months) experience longer intervals between surgical procedures when receiving adjuvant treatment with low-dose methotrexate...
October 20, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Fernando J Martinez, Jørgen Vestbo, Julie A Anderson, Robert D Brook, Bartolome R Celli, Nicholas J Cowans, Courtney Crim, Mark Dransfield, Sally Kilbride, Julie Yates, David E Newby, Dennis Niewoehner, Peter Ma Calverley
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids have been shown to decrease exacerbations in COPD patients with moderate to severe COPD. Their effect in patients with milder airflow obstruction remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This was an analysis of exacerbations in the Study to Understand Mortality and MorbidITy (SUMMIT) study. DESIGN: In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, once daily inhaled placebo, fluticasone furoate (FF, 100 μg), vilanterol (VI, 25 μg) or the combination (FF/VI) was administered...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Ling Wang, Xi Chen, Jingfang Hao, Lu Yang
Essential fatty acids had been applied in the treatment of dry eye syndrome (DES), but the effects of different combinations of fatty acids have not been investigated. 360 long-term contact lens wearers were included in this double-blinded study. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were combined in different ratios and supplied to the participants that were randomly divided into six groups, and the effects of different essential fatty acids mixture on DES with or without topical cyclosporine were investigated. More than half of long-term contact lens wearers suffered from DES, which were found to be attenuated by oral supplement of properly balanced O3FA and O6FA fatty acid...
October 20, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Nathan D Nuzum, Ashlee M Hendy, Aaron P Russell, Wei-Peng Teo
Individual responses to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are varied and therefore potentially limit its application. There is evidence that this variability is related to the contributions of Indirect waves (I-waves) recruited in the cortex. The latency of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) can be measured through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), allowing an individual's responsiveness to tDCS to be determined. However, this single-pulse method requires several different orientations of the TMS coil, potentially affecting its reliability...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
H H Yoon, J C Bendell, F S Braiteh, I Firdaus, P A Philip, A L Cohn, N Lewis, D M Anderson, E Arrowsmith, J D Schwartz, L Gao, Y Hsu, Y Xu, D Ferry, S R Alberts, Z A Wainberg
BACKGROUND: We report the first randomized, Phase II trial of ramucirumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 monoclonal antibody, as front-line therapy in patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastric/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients from the USA with advanced esophageal, gastric, or GEJ adenocarcinoma randomly received (1:1) mFOLFOX6 plus ramucirumab (8 mg/kg) or mFOLFOX6 plus placebo every 2 weeks...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Mina Alvandipour, Shahram Ala, Hasan Tavakoli, Jamshid Yazdani Cherati, Afshin Shiva
INTRODUCTION: The most frequent problems after anal fistulotomy are pain, bleeding, and delayed or impaired wound healing. Topical Sucralfate preparation has been used to treat a wide variety of wounds. In this study, we investigate effects of 10% sucralfate ointment on wound healing and postoperative pain after fistulotomy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 41 patients undergoing anorectal fistulotomy were included in this randomized, blinded, controlled trial and were randomly allocated to either sucralfate ointment (every 12 h) or placebo...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Thibaut Aurore, Russo Cristina, Morales-Quezada Leon, Hurtado-Puerto Aura, Deitos Alícia, Steven Freedman, Carvalho Sandra, Fregni Felipe
Transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive neuromodulatory brain stimulation techniques whose effects on human brain and behavior have been studied individually. In the present study we aimed to quantify the effects of tDCS and tPCS, individually and in combination, on cortical activity, sensitivity and pain-related assessments in healthy individuals in order to understand their neurophysiological mechanisms and potential applications in clinical populations...
October 17, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Rosa-M Valls, Elisabet Llauradó, Sara Fernández-Castillejo, Francesc Puiggrós, Rosa Solà, Lluis Arola, Anna Pedret
BACKGROUND: Oligopin(ۚ) (OP) is a quantified extract from French Maritime Pine bark (FMPB) with low molecular weight procyanidins. The cardioprotective effects of OP need to be tested in human clinical intervention trials with an appropriate design. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of subchronic consumption of OP on cardiovascular disease risk factors such as lipid profile, systolic blood pressure (BP) and oxidized-Low Density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in stage-1-hypertensive subjects...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Marlene D Kristensen, Nathalie T Bendsen, Sheena M Christensen, Arne Astrup, Anne Raben
BACKGROUND: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Monica L Castro-Acosta, Leanne Smith, Rosalind J Miller, Danielle I McCarthy, Jonathan A Farrimond, Wendy L Hall
Blackcurrants are rich in polyphenolic glycosides called anthocyanins, which may inhibit postprandial glycemia. The aim was to determine the dose-dependent effects of blackcurrant extract on postprandial glycemia. Men and postmenopausal women (14M, 9W, mean age 46 years, S.D.=14) were enrolled into a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Low sugar fruit drinks containing blackcurrant extract providing 150-mg (L-BE), 300-mg (M-BE) and 600-mg (H-BE) total anthocyanins or no blackcurrant extract (CON) were administered immediately before a high-carbohydrate meal...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
D Bogdanou, M Penna-Martinez, N Filmann, T L Chung, Y Moran-Auth, J Wehrle, C Cappel, S Huenecke, E Herrmann, U Koehl, K Badenhoop
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is mediated by autoaggressive T effector cells with an underlying regulatory T cell (Treg) defect. Vitamin D (VD) deficiency is highly prevalent in T1D which can aggravate immune dysfunction. High dose VD treatment may enhance Tregs and improve metabolism in T1D patients. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with cross-over design, patients received either for three months cholecalciferol 4000 IU/d, followed by three months placebo or the sequential alternative...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Tulay Sagkal Midilli, Nazmiye Ciray Gunduzoglu
This study was conducted to determine the effects of Reiki on pain and vital signs when applied for 15 minutes to the incision area of the body after cesarean section surgery. The study was single-blinded, randomized, and double-controlled (Reiki, sham Reiki, and control groups). Forty-five patients, equalized by age and number of births, were randomly assigned to the Reiki, sham Reiki, and control groups. The treatment, which was applied to the patients in these 3 groups, was applied for 15 minutes to the incision area of body in the first 24 and 48 hours after the operation within 4 to 8 hours of the application of standard analgesics...
November 2016: Holistic Nursing Practice
J Y Park, K H Kim
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this clinical trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a natural extract from Schisandra chinensis for relief of various menopausal symptoms. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted from January 1, 2014 until January 13, 2015. We recruited women between the ages of 40 and 70 years who complained of menopausal symptoms measured by the Kupperman Index (KI). Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with either an extract from Schisandra chinensis (BMO-30) or placebo...
October 20, 2016: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
José-Francisco Rocha, Éric Sicard, Nicolas Fauchoux, Amílcar Falcão, Ana Santos, Ana I Loureiro, Roberto Pinto, Maria João Bonifácio, Teresa Nunes, Luís Almeida, Patrício Soares-da-Silva
AIMS: To compare the levodopa/carbidopa (LC) and levodopa/benserazide (LB) pharmacokinetic profiles following repeated doses of opicapone (OPC) administered apart from levodopa. METHODS: Two randomized, double blind, sex-balanced, placebo-controlled studies in 4 groups of 12 or 18 healthy subjects each. In each group, enrolled subjects received a once-daily morning (5, 15 and 30 mg) or evening (5, 15 and 50 mg) administration of OPC or placebo for up to 28 days...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
M García-Gargallo, M Zurlohe, E Montero, B Alonso, J Serrano, M Sanz, D Herrera
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of two newly formulated chlorhexidine (CHX) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthrinses after scaling and root planing (SRP) in terms of clinical, microbiological, patient-based variables and adverse events, with a positive control with the same active components, already marketed and tested. METHODS: A pilot, randomized clinical trial, double-blind, parallel design with 1-month follow-up was conducted. Chronic periodontitis patients requiring non-surgical periodontal therapy were enrolled and randomly assigned to: (i) SRP and test-1 (new reformulation: 0...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
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