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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072950/-epidemiology-and-etiology-of-bacillary-dysentery-in-xinjiang-uigur-autonomous-region-2004-2014
#1
J Zhang, Mahemuti Mahemuti, Y D Xia, Mutalifu Mutalifu, Muheyati Muheyati, F Li, B S Gu, X L Li
Objective: To understand the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of bacillary dysentery in Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) during 2004-2014, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of bacillary dysentery. Methods: Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted by using the incidence data of bacillary dysentery in Xinjiang during 2004-2014 and the serotyping and the antibiotic susceptibility test of the pathogens isolated were performed. Results: A total of 123 238 cases of bacillary dysentery were reported in Xinjiang from 2004 to 2014...
November 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059130/rapidly-discriminate-commercial-medicinal-pulsatilla-chinensis-bge-regel-from-its-adulterants-using-its2-barcoding-and-specific-pcr-rflp-assay
#2
Yuhua Shi, Mingming Zhao, Hui Yao, Pei Yang, Tianyi Xin, Bin Li, Wei Sun, Shilin Chen
Pulsatillae radix is a conventional traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with common name Baitouweng, and has notable effects on inflammation and dysentery. Pulsatilla chinensis (Bge.) Regel is the only source plant of Baitouweng recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, but its adulteration often occurs in the market that possibly affects medicinal efficacy and safety. We have established an internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) barcode library based on 105 plant samples from 12 Pulsatilla species and 10 common adulterants...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030342/molecular-diagnosis-of-entamoeba-spp-versus-microscopy-in-the-great-cairo
#3
Mohamed H Roshdy, Nour M Abd El-Kader, Marwa Ali-Tammam, Isabel Fuentes, Magdy M Mohamed, Nabila A El-Sheikh, Jose Miguel Rubio
Amoebiasis is a human disease produced by Entamoeba histolytica which causes widespread mortality and morbidity worldwide through diarrheal disease and abscess establishment in parenchymal tissues such as liver, lung, and brain. The true prevalence of infection is unknown for most areas of the world due to the difficulty to characterise Entamoeba histolytica versus other non-pathogenic amoebas with identical morphology, as Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii. To overcome microscopy misidentification issues, we tested a nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a real-time PCR on 194 stool samples collected from incoming dysentery patients in Cairo hospitals diagnosed with E...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026174/comprehensive-analysis-of-tiamulin-metabolites-in-various-species-of-farm-animals-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-quadrupole-time-of-flight
#4
Feifei Sun, Shupeng Yang, Huiyan Zhang, Jinhui Zhou, Yi Li, Jinzhen Zhang, Yue Jin, Zhanhui Wang, Yanshen Li, Jianzhong Shen, Suxia Zhang, Xingyuan Cao
Tiamulin is an antimicrobial widely used in veterinary practice to treat dysentery and pneumonia in pigs and poultry. However, knowledge about the metabolism of tiamulin is very limited in farm animals. To better understand the biotransformation of tiamulin, in the present study, in vitro and in vivo metabolites of tiamulin in rats, chickens, swine, goats, and cows were identified and elucidated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole/time-of-flight. As a result, a total of 26 metabolites of tiamulin, identified in vitro and in vivo, and majority of metabolites were revealed for the first time...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996088/oral-zinc-for-treating-diarrhoea-in-children
#5
REVIEW
Marzia Lazzerini, Humphrey Wanzira
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, diarrhoea causes around 500,000 child deaths annually. Zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea is currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate oral zinc supplementation for treating children with acute or persistent diarrhoea. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 5), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, mRCT, and reference lists up to 30 September 2016...
December 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988402/traditional-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-wild-banana-musa-acuminata-colla-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Nimisha Sarah Mathew, Pradeep Singh Negi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Musa acuminata, the wild species of banana is a plant of the tropical and subtropical regions. Over the past few decades, the health benefits of M. acuminata have received much attention. All parts of the plant including fruits, peel, pseudostem, corm, flowers, leaves, sap and roots have found their use in the treatment of many diseases in traditional medicine. Literature review have indicated use of M. acuminata in the treatment of various diseases such as fever, cough, bronchitis, dysentery, allergic infections, sexually transmitted infections, and some of the non-communicable diseases...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956357/a-survey-of-herbal-weeds-that-are-used-to-treat-gastrointestinal-disorders-from-southern-thailand-krabi-and-songkhla-provinces
#7
Oratai Neamsuvan, Thamakorn Ruangrit
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Weeds are plants grow naturally and are commonly seen. They are mostly used for feedstuff. However, their use as herbs for treating diseases, including gastrointestinal disorders, is rare. Therefore, the present study aimed to: (1) quantify the number of herbal weeds used for treating gastrointestinal disorders; (2) study local knowledge of weed utilization for treating gastrointestinal disorders in Songkhla and Krabi provinces; and (3) analyse quantitative data with the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Use Value (UV) and Fidelity Level (FL)...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940632/association-between-meteorological-factors-and-bacillary-dysentery-incidence-in-chaoyang-city-china-an-ecological-study
#8
Yang Zhao, Yaxin Zhu, Zhiwei Zhu, Bo Qu
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the relationship between meteorological factors and bacillary dysentery incidence. DESIGN: Ecological study. SETTING: We collected bacillary dysentery incidences and meteorological data of Chaoyang city from the year 1981 to 2010. The climate in this city was a typical northern temperate continental monsoon. All meteorological factors in this study were divided into 4 latent factors: temperature, humidity, sunshine and airflow...
December 9, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930733/phosphorylation-of-eukaryotic-initiation-factor-2%C3%AE-during-stress-and-encystation-in-entamoeba-species
#9
Holland M Hendrick, Brenda H Welter, Matthew A Hapstack, Steven E Sykes, William J Sullivan, Lesly A Temesvari
Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric pathogen responsible for amoebic dysentery and liver abscess. It alternates between the host-restricted trophozoite form and the infective environmentally-stable cyst stage. Throughout its lifecycle E. histolytica experiences stress, in part, from host immune pressure. Conversion to cysts is presumed to be a stress-response. In other systems, stress induces phosphorylation of a serine residue on eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α (eIF2α). This inhibits eIF2α activity resulting in a general decline in protein synthesis...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929352/the-in-vitro-effect-of-garden-thyme-thymus-vulgaris-l-extract-on-brachyspira-hyodysenteriae
#10
József Kutasi, László Jakab, Viktor Jurkovich, Pál Rafai
Filtrates of a water extract of commercially available garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) were used for studying its possible bactericidal effect on Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, by agar-diffusion technique. Five of the six studied Brachyspira strains have proven to be sensitive and one moderately sensitive in the in vitro tests. It was concluded that water extract of garden thyme possesses inhibitory effects against B. hyodysenteriae. In vivo experiments are needed to check the validity of this conclusion...
December 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917160/development-of-multiple-cross-displacement-amplification-label-based-gold-nanoparticles-lateral-flow-biosensor-for-detection-of-shigella-spp
#11
Yi Wang, Yan Wang, Jianguo Xu, Changyun Ye
Shigella spp., the etiological agent of shigellosis or "bacillary dysentery," are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in excess of a million deaths globally per year. Although PCR-based techniques (such as PCR-based dipstick biosensors) have been used for the molecular diagnosis of infectious disease, these assays were restricted due to the need for a sophisticated thermal cycling apparatus to denature target templates. To facilitate simple and rapid detection of target pathogens, we successfully devised an inexpensive, reliable and nearly instrument-free molecular technique, which incorporates multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA) combined with a newly designed lateral flow biosensor (LFB) for visual, sensitive and specific detection of Shigella...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909896/detection-of-shigella-sonnei-in-a-respiratory-specimen-in-a-patient-with-subacute-atypical-pneumonia
#12
Hiwa Nahid, Désirée Staub, Herbert Hächler, Werner C Albrich
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia caused by shigellosis with or without typical dysentery in immunocompetent patients is an uncommon entity. CASE REPORT: We describe a case of pneumonia in an immunocompetent, previously healthy middle-aged man from Switzerland without relevant travel history which was presumably caused by Shigella sonnei. He was originally admitted for suspected lung cancer. The clinical picture was remarkable as the patient presented with cough and purulent sputum production, but otherwise no classical signs of pneumonia...
December 1, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907102/an-investigation-into-the-etiological-agents-of-swine-dysentery-in-australian-pig-herds
#13
Tom La, Nyree D Phillips, David J Hampson
Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohemorrhagic colitis, classically seen in grower/finisher pigs and caused by infection with the anaerobic intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. More recently, however, the newly described species Brachyspira hampsonii and Brachyspira suanatina have been identified as causing SD in North America and/or Europe. Furthermore, there have been occasions where strains of B. hyodysenteriae have been recovered from healthy pigs, including in multiplier herds with high health status...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881679/the-shigella-virulence-factor-icsa-relieves-n-wasp-autoinhibition-by-displacing-the-verprolin-homology-cofilin-acidic-vca-domain
#14
Rui P M Mauricio, Cy M Jeffries, Dmitri I Svergun, Janet E Deane
Shigella flexneri is a bacterial pathogen that invades cells of the gastrointestinal tract, causing severe dysentery. Shigella mediates intracellular motility and spreading via actin comet tail formation. This process is dependent on the surface-exposed, membrane-embedded virulence factor IcsA, which recruits the host actin regulator N-WASP. Although it is clear that Shigella requires N-WASP for this process, the molecular details of this interaction and the mechanism of N-WASP activation remain poorly understood...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863468/the-changing-epidemiology-of-bacillary-dysentery-and-characteristics-of-antimicrobial-resistance-of-shigella-isolated-in-china-from-2004-2014
#15
Zhaorui Chang, Jing Zhang, Lu Ran, Junling Sun, Fengfeng Liu, Li Luo, Lingjia Zeng, Liping Wang, Zhongjie Li, Hongjie Yu, Qiaohong Liao
BACKGROUND: Bacillary dysentery caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella is a significant public health problem in developing countries such as China. The objective of this study was to analyze the epidemiological pattern of bacillary dysentery, the diversity of the causative agent, and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Shigella spp. for the purpose of determining the most effective allocation of resources and prioritization of interventions. METHODS: Surveillance data were acquired from the National Infectious Disease Information Reporting System (2004-2014) and from the sentinel hospital-based surveillance system (2005-2014)...
November 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861238/complementary-feeding-and-diarrhea-and-respiratory-infection-among-hiv-exposed-tanzanian-infants
#16
P Kamenju, E Liu, E Hertzmark, D Spiegelman, R R Kisenge, R Kupka, S Aboud, K P Manji, C Duggan, W W Fawzi
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between complementary feeding (CF) and risks of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) among HIV-exposed infants aged 6-24 months. DESIGN: We prospectively employed an Infant and Child Feeding Index (ICFI) to measure CF practices (breastfeeding status, food consistency, dietary diversity, food group frequency and meal frequency). We determined the association of ICFI and each of its components with the risk of diarrhea and ARI...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834204/one-gene-and-two-proteins-a-leaderless-mrna-supports-the-translation-of-a-shorter-form-of-the-shigella-virf-regulator
#17
Maria Letizia Di Martino, Cédric Romilly, E Gerhart H Wagner, Bianca Colonna, Gianni Prosseda
: VirF, an AraC-like activator, is required to trigger a regulatory cascade that initiates the invasive program of Shigella spp., the etiological agents of bacillary dysentery in humans. VirF expression is activated upon entry into the host and depends on many environmental signals. Here, we show that the virF mRNA is translated into two proteins, the major form, VirF30 (30 kDa), and the shorter VirF21 (21 kDa), lacking the N-terminal segment. By site-specific mutagenesis and toeprint analysis, we identified the translation start sites of VirF30 and VirF21 and showed that the two different forms of VirF arise from differential translation...
November 8, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819667/deletion-of-toxin-antitoxin-systems-in-the-evolution-of-shigella-sonnei-as-a-host-adapted-pathogen
#18
Gareth McVicker, Christoph M Tang
Pathogenic Shigella spp. are the leading cause of bacterial dysentery, with Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei accounting for around 90% of cases worldwide. Although S. flexneri causes most disease in low-income countries (following ingestion of contaminated food and/or water), S. sonnei predominates in wealthy countries and is mainly spread from person to person. Although both species contain a large virulence plasmid, pINV, that is essential for the organism to cause disease, little is known about its maintenance...
November 7, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815960/evaluation-of-cytotoxic-analgesic-antidiarrheal-and-phytochemical-properties-of-hygrophila-spinosa-t-anders-whole-plant
#19
S M Faysal Bellah, Md Nur Islam, Md Rezaul Karim, Md Masudur Rahaman, Mst Samima Nasrin, Md Atiar Rahman, A S M Ali Reza
BACKGROUND: Synthetic drugs are going to be replaced by plant-derived traditional drugs due to their cost effectiveness, relatively less harmfulness, and efficacy against multidrug resistance organisms. Hygrophila spinosa (Acanthaceae) has been used in a wide range of ailments including flatulence, diarrhea, dysentery, gonorrhea, and menorrhagia. Therefore, we investigated the cytotoxic, antinociceptive, and antidiarrheal effects of H. spinosa ethanol extract (EExHs). METHODS: Preliminary phytochemical screening was accomplished by established methods modified in experimental protocol...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815078/ziziphora-tenuior-l-essential-oil-from-dana-biosphere-reserve-southern-jordan-chemical-characterization-and-assessment-of-biological-activities
#20
M S Abu-Darwish, C Cabral, M J Gonçalves, C Cavaleiro, M T Cruz, M Paoli, F Tomi, T Efferth, L Salgueiro
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGIC RELEVANCE: Ziziphora tenuior L. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant in Jordan, which is included in various antimicrobial, antiseptic, expectorant and wound healing preparations. It is used for the treatment of cough, stomach ache, dysentery, fever, uterus infection, gut inflammation and painful menstruation. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the chemical composition of the essential oil of Z. tenuior originated from southern Jordan and its antifungal effects against several yeasts...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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