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Dysentery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983415/bilharzial-arthropathy-rare-cause-of-chronic-arthritis-in-tropical-areas
#1
Hoby N Rakotomalala, Maminirina V Ranaivoarison, Francia Andrianjafison, Dimby S Ralandison
Bilharziasis is a parasitic disease that affects the urinary tract and intestines. Finding bilharzia in joints is exceptional. We report two cases of Malagasy patients living in a highly endemic bilharziasis area and having chronic arthritis due to bilharziasis. The first case was a 32-year-old man presenting with a clinical picture of spondylitis with chronic oligoarthritis and paroxysmal asymmetric in his lower limbs, accompanied with sacroiliac pain and episodic dysentery. We retained the diagnosis of bilharziasis arthritis because of positive schistosomiasis serology in the joint fluid and the blood, poor response to therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and high efficacy of treatment with specific antiparasitic drugs...
September 2017: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982389/an-avirulent-brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-strain-elicits-intestinal-iga-and-slows-down-spread-of-swine-dysentery
#2
Maxime Mahu, Filip Boyen, Stefano Canessa, Jackeline Zavala Marchan, Freddy Haesebrouck, An Martel, Frank Pasmans
Swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, results in substantial economic losses in swine producing countries worldwide. Although a number of different vaccine approaches have been explored with regard to this disease, they show limitations and none of them have reached the market. We here determine the vaccine potential of a weakly haemolytic B. hyodysenteriae strain. The virulence of this strain was assessed in experimental infection trials and its protection against swine dysentery was quantified in a vaccination-challenge experiment using a seeder infection model...
October 5, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971100/comparison-of-the-luminal-and-mucosa-associated-microbiota-in-the-colon-of-pigs-with-and-without-swine-dysentery
#3
Eric R Burrough, Bailey L Arruda, Paul J Plummer
Colonic contents and mucosal scrapings from pigs inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae or Brachyspira hampsonii were collected at necropsy and classified as either positive (n = 29) or negative (n = 7) for swine dysentery (SD) based upon lesions and positive culture from the source pig. The microbiota in each sample was analyzed by bacterial census taking (16S rRNA gene sequencing). Procrustes analysis revealed similar clustering by disease classification with a relatively high M2 value (0.44) suggesting differences in the microbiota between mucosal and luminal samples from the same pig...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951481/bacterial-whack-a-mole-reconsidering-the-public-health-relevance-of-using-carbadox-in-food-animals
#4
Lance B Price
Carbadox is an antibiotic used to control dysentery and promote growth in swine in the United States; however, the drug also causes tumors and birth defects in laboratory animals. Despite this and because the drug has no analogs in human medicine, it is not considered "medically important" and can be used in livestock without veterinarian oversight. In their recent study, T. A. Johnson et al. (mBio 8:e00709-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00709-17) demonstrated that carbadox has profound effects on the swine gut microbiome, including the induction of transducing phage carrying tetracycline, aminoglycoside, and beta-lactam resistance genes...
September 26, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948960/remediation-of-intramacrophageal-shigella-dysenteriae-type-1-by-probiotic-lactobacilli-isolated-from-human-infants-stool-samples
#5
Radhika Trikha, Praveen Rishi, Rupinder Tewari
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Shigella dysenteriae is one of the most virulent pathogens causing bacillary dysentery and is responsible for high mortality in infants. To reduce the load of antibiotic therapy for treating shigellosis, this study was carried out to assess the ex vivo effect of novel probiotic lactobacilli, isolated from infant's stool samples, on killing S. dysenteriae type 1 residing in the rat macrophages. METHODS: Stool samples from infants were collected, processed for the isolation of lactobacilli and screened for the probiotic attributes (acid tolerance, bile tolerance, ability to adhere intestinal cells and anti-S...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946856/spatial-temporal-detection-of-risk-factors-for-bacillary-dysentery-in-beijing-tianjin-and-hebei-china
#6
Chengdong Xu, Yuanyuan Li, Jinfeng Wang, Gexin Xiao
BACKGROUND: Bacillary dysentery is the third leading notifiable disease and remains a major public health concern in China. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban region is the biggest urban agglomeration in northern China, and it is one of the areas in the country that is most heavily infected with bacillary dysentery. The objective of the study was to analyze the spatial-temporal pattern and to determine any contributory risk factors on the bacillary dysentery. METHODS: Bacillary dysentery case data from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 in Beijing-Tianjin- Hebei were employed...
September 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919592/the-study-on-the-lives-and-health-conditions-of-internees-in-santo-thomas-camp-of-philippines-based-on-mcanlis-s-the-war-in-manila-1941-1945
#7
Jueyeon Lee, Youngsoo Cho
When Japan invaded the Philippines, two missionary dentists (Dr. McAnlis and Dr. Boots) who were forced to leave Korea were captured and interned in the Santo Thomas camp in Manila. Japan continued to bombard and plunder the Philippines in the wake of the Pacific War following the Great East Asia policy, leading to serious inflation and material deficiency. More than 4,000 Allied citizens held in Santo Thomas camp without basic food and shelter. Santo Thomas Camp was equipped with the systems of the Japanese military medical officers and Western doctors of captivity based on the Geneva Conventions(1929)...
August 2017: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899344/bacteriophages-are-the-major-drivers-of-shigella-flexneri-serotype-1c-genome-plasticity-a-complete-genome-analysis
#8
Pawan Parajuli, Marcin Adamski, Naresh K Verma
BACKGROUND: Shigella flexneri is the primary cause of bacillary dysentery in the developing countries. S. flexneri serotype 1c is a novel serotype, which is found to be endemic in many developing countries, but little is known about its genomic architecture and virulence signatures. We have sequenced for the first time, the complete genome of S. flexneri serotype 1c strain Y394, to provide insights into its diversity and evolution. RESULTS: We generated a high-quality reference genome of S...
September 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894631/ethnopharmacological-survey-on-traditional-medicinal-plants-at-kalaroa-upazila-satkhira-district-khulna-division-bangladesh
#9
Oby Dulla, Farhana Israt Jahan
AIM: The traditional source of medicinal plants is an important way for daily curative uses in the rural area throughout Bangladesh. An ethnomedicinal survey was conducted in a randomized manner among traditional medicinal practitioners to find out about the medicinal plants of Kalaroa, Bangladesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information was collected through conducting interviews, discussion, and field observations with herbal healers and knowledgeable elders of the study areas from November 01, 2015, to December 31, 2015, who pointed out various medicinal plants and described their uses, using semi-structured questionnaires...
July 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886559/sewage-treatment-effluents-in-delhi-a-key-contributor-of-%C3%AE-lactam-resistant-bacteria-and-genes-to-the-environment
#10
Manisha Lamba, Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad
Rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) in developing countries is posing a greater health risk and increasing the global disease burden. Lack of access to safe drinking water, poor sanitation and inadequate sewage treatment facilities in these countries are fueling the problem associated with emergence of AR. Rapid proliferation of AR mediated by treated and untreated discharges from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is a prime public health concern. This study aims to understand the occurrence, fate, and routes of proliferation of carbapenem (KPC) and extended spectrum β-lactam (ESBL) resistant bacteria, and selected resistant genes in the samples collected from different unit operations in 12 STPs in New Delhi over two seasons...
August 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885922/management-of-acute-diarrheal-illness-during-deployment-a-deployment-health-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#11
Mark S Riddle, Gregory J Martin, Clinton K Murray, Timothy H Burgess, Patrick Connor, James D Mancuso, Elizabeth R Schnaubelt, Timothy P Ballard, Jamie Fraser, David R Tribble
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrheal illness during deployment causes significant morbidity and loss of duty days. Effective and timely treatment is needed to reduce individual, unit, and health system performance impacts. METHODS: This critical appraisal of the literature, as part of the development of expert consensus guidelines, asked several key questions related to self-care and healthcare-seeking behavior, antibiotics for self-treatment of travelers' diarrhea, what antibiotics/regimens should be considered for treatment of acute watery diarrhea and febrile diarrhea and/or dysentery, and when and what laboratory diagnostics should be used to support management of deployment-related travelers' diarrhea...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885920/antibiotic-therapy-for-acute-watery-diarrhea-and-dysentery
#12
David R Tribble
Diarrheal disease affects a large proportion of military personnel deployed to developing countries, resulting in decreased job performance and operational readiness. Travelers' diarrhea is self-limiting and generally resolves within 5 days; however, antibiotic treatment significantly reduces symptom severity and duration of illness. Presently, azithromycin is the preferred first-line antibiotic for the treatment of acute watery diarrhea (single dose 500 mg), as well as for febrile diarrhea and dysentery (single dose 1,000 mg)...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885917/preface-guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-travelers-diarrhea-in-deployed-military-personnel
#13
Mark S Riddle, David Tribble
Diarrheal disease frequently affects military personnel deployed to developing countries, resulting in decreased job performance and potential negative impacts on military operational readiness. Travelers' diarrhea is a self-limiting illness; however, antibiotic treatment (with and without use of adjunct loperamide therapy) has been shown to significantly reduce clinical presentation of symptoms and duration of illness. Nonetheless, the choice of first-line antibiotics must be carefully considered as increasing resistance of enteric pathogens in endemic regions has rendered many first-line antibiotics ineffective (e...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885590/ethnopharmacology-and-therapeutic-value-of-bridelia-micrantha-hochst-baill-in-tropical-africa-a-comprehensive-review
#14
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
Bridelia micrantha is traditionally used in tropical Africa to treat a wide range of human and animal diseases. The aim of this study was to summarise the research that has been done on the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of B. micrantha so as to understand its importance and potential value in primary healthcare systems. The literature search for information on ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological activities of B. micrantha was undertaken using databases such as Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, BioMed Central (BMC), PubMed and Springerlink...
September 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859342/developing-research-in-infectious-and-tropical-diseases-in-africa-the-paradigm-of-senegal
#15
Cheikh Sokhna, Oumar Gaye, Ogobara Doumbo
Infectious diseases represent one of the greatest potential barriers to achievement of the third Sustainable Development Goals in African countries and around the world because they continue to pose major public health challenges. The surveillance of infectious diseases has recently assumed greater importance in most African countries, both because of the emergence of infectious diseases and because strains of pathogens that cause tuberculosis, malaria, cholera, dysentery, and pneumonia have developed resistance to common and inexpensive antimicrobial drugs...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851846/cardiolipin-synthesis-and-outer-membrane-localization-are-required-for-shigella-flexneri-virulence
#16
Rachael M Rossi, Lauren Yum, Hervé Agaisse, Shelley M Payne
Cardiolipin, an anionic phospholipid that resides at the poles of the inner and outer membranes, is synthesized primarily by the putative cardiolipin synthase ClsA in Shigella flexneri An S. flexneri clsA mutant had no cardiolipin detected within its membrane, grew normally in vitro, and invaded cultured epithelial cells, but it failed to form plaques in epithelial cell monolayers, indicating that cardiolipin is required for virulence. The clsA mutant was initially motile within the host cell cytoplasm but formed filaments and lost motility during replication and failed to spread efficiently to neighboring cells...
August 29, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851845/inhibition-of-amebic-lysosomal-acidification-blocks-amebic-trogocytosis-and-cell-killing
#17
Allissia A Gilmartin, Katherine S Ralston, William A Petri
Entamoeba histolytica ingests fragments of live host cells in a nibbling-like process termed amebic trogocytosis. Amebic trogocytosis is required for cell killing and contributes to tissue invasion, which is a hallmark of invasive amebic colitis. Work done prior to the discovery of amebic trogocytosis showed that acid vesicles are required for amebic cytotoxicity. In the present study, we show that acidified lysosomes are required for amebic trogocytosis and cell killing. Interference with lysosome acidification using ammonium chloride, a weak base, or concanamycin A, a vacuolar H(+) ATPase inhibitor, decreased amebic trogocytosis and amebic cytotoxicity...
August 29, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846684/outer-membrane-proteins-analysis-of-shigella-sonnei-and-evaluation-of-their-antigenicity-in-shigella-infected-individuals
#18
Hemavathy Harikrishnan, Kirnpal Kaur Banga Singh, Asma Ismail
Bacillary dysentery caused by infection with Shigella spp. remains as serious and common health problem throughout the world. It is a highly multi drug resistant organism and rarely identified from the patient at the early stage of infection. S. sonnei is the most frequently isolated species causing shigellosis in industrialized countries. The antigenicity of outer membrane protein of this pathogen expressed during human infection has not been identified to date. We have studied the antigenic outer membrane proteins expressed by S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844213/effects-of-rhubarb-rheum-ribes-l-syrup-on-dysenteric-diarrhea-in-children-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Ali Khiveh, Mohammad Hashem Hashempur, Mehrdad Shakiba, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi, Afsaneh Shakeri, SeidKazem Kazemeini, Zohre Mousavi, Marzie Jabbari, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Majid Emtiazy
BACKGROUND: Rheum ribes L. is a plant native to China, Iran, Turkey, India, and a few other countries. Antidiarrheal activity is considered to be one of its important properties according to various systems of traditional medicine. An increasing rate of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has led to treatment failure in some cases of shigellosis in children, and underlines a need for safe, efficient and valid options. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of R...
September 2017: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842484/single-domain-antibodies-pinpoint-potential-targets-within-shigella-invasion-plasmid-antigen-d-of-the-needle-tip-complex-for-inhibition-of-type-iii-secretion
#20
Michael L Barta, Jonathan P Shearer, Olivia Arizmendi, Jacqueline M Tremblay, Nurjahan Mehzabeen, Qi Zheng, Kevin P Battaile, Scott Lovell, Saul Tzipori, William D Picking, Charles B Shoemaker, Wendy L Picking
Numerous Gram-negative pathogens infect eukaryotes and use the type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into host cells. One important T3SS feature is an extracellular needle with an associated tip complex responsible for assembly of a pore-forming translocon in the host cell membrane. Shigella spp. cause shigellosis, also called bacillary dysentery, and invade colonic epithelial cells via the T3SS. The tip complex of Shigella flexneri contains invasion plasmid antigen D (IpaD), which initially regulates secretion and provides a physical platform for the translocon pore...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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