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Dysentery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242089/cocos-nucifera-in-combination-with-metformin-for-modulation-of-diabetic-symptoms-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#1
Ginpreet Kaur, Himanshu Sankrityayan, Deepashree Dixit, Priyanka Jadhav
BACKGROUND: Cocos nucifera, belonging to Arecaceae family, holds quite an importance in the Indian traditional medicinal system. C.nucifera inflorescence (CnI) has been reported in the literature to be useful in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes, and dyspepsia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of CnI as an adjuvant with metformin in ameliorating Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antidiabetic activity of CnI in combination with metformin in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231810/shigella-entry-unveils-a-calcium-calpain-dependent-mechanism-for-inhibiting-sumoylation
#2
Pierre Lapaquette, Sabrina Fritah, Nouara Lhocine, Alexandra Andrieux, Giulia Nigro, Joëlle Mounier, Philippe Sansonetti, Anne Dejean
Disruption of the sumoylation/desumoylation equilibrium is associated with several disease states such as cancer and infections, however the mechanisms regulating the global SUMO balance remain poorly defined. Here, we show that infection by Shigella flexneri, the causative agent of human bacillary dysentery, switches off host sumoylation during epithelial cell infection in vitro and in vivo and that this effect is mainly mediated by a calcium/calpain-induced cleavage of the SUMO E1 enzyme SAE2, thus leading to sumoylation inhibition...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205196/speciation-clinical-profile-antibiotic-resistance-in-aeromonas-species-isolated-from-cholera-like-illnesses-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-north-india
#3
Balvinder Mohan, Nandini Sethuraman, Ritu Verma, Neelam Taneja
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Aeromonas species have been reported to cause various illnesses in humans such as wound infections, septicaemia, peritonitis and pneumonia. Their role in causation of cholera-like illness is also being increasingly recognized. This retrospective study was done to know the presence of Aeromonas as a cause of acute diarrhoea in a tertiary care hospital and to find the common species of Aeromonas causing diarrhoea and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. METHODS: Fifty isolates of Aeromonas were obtained over a period of 15 yr from 2000 to 2014 from patients of suspected acute gastroenteritis resembling cholera...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198398/intestinal-parasites-from-the-2nd-5th-century-ad-latrine-in-the-roman-baths-at-sagalassos-turkey
#4
Faith S Williams, Theo Arnold-Foster, Hui-Yuan Yeh, Marissa L Ledger, Jan Baeten, Jeroen Poblome, Piers D Mitchell
The aim of this research was to determine the species of intestinal parasite present in a Roman Imperial period population in Asia Minor, and to use this information to improve our understanding of health in the eastern Mediterranean region in Roman times. We analyzed five samples from the latrines of the Roman bath complex at Sagalassos, Turkey. Fecal biomarker analysis using 5β-stanols has indicated the feces were of human origin. The eggs of roundworm (Ascaris) were identified in all five samples using microscopy, and the cysts of the protozoan Giardia duodenalis (which causes dysentery) were identified multiple times in one sample using ELISA...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151079/mechanisms-of-vasorelaxation-induced-by-total-flavonoids-of-euphorbia-humifusa-in-rat-aorta
#5
T T Wang, Z Q Zhou, S Wang, X W Ji, B Wu, L Y Sun, J F Wen, D G Kang, H S Lee, K W Cho, S N Jin
Euphorbia humifusa Willd. (EH), rich in flavonoids, has long been used for the treatment of bacillary dysentery and enteritis in China, and is known to have antioxidant, hypotensive and hypolipidemic properties. However, the vasorelaxant effect of total flavonoids of EH (TFEH) and action mechanisms are not clearly defined yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of TFEH on the vascular tension and its underlying mechanisms. Experiments were performed in rat thoracic aorta using the organ bath system...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144452/ubiquitination-and-degradation-of-gbps-by-a-shigella-effector-to-suppress-host-defence
#6
Peng Li, Wei Jiang, Qin Yu, Wang Liu, Ping Zhou, Jun Li, Junjie Xu, Bo Xu, Fengchao Wang, Feng Shao
Interferon-inducible guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous antimicrobial defences. Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative cytoplasmic free-living bacterium that causes bacillary dysentery, encodes a repertoire of highly similar type III secretion system effectors called invasion plasmid antigen Hs (IpaHs). IpaHs represent a large family of bacterial ubiquitin-ligases, but their function is poorly understood. Here we show that S. flexneri infection induces rapid proteasomal degradation of human guanylate binding protein-1 (hGBP1)...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142418/marantodes-pumilum-blume-kuntze-inhibited-secretion-of-lipopolysaccharide-and-monosodium-urate-crystal-stimulated-cytokines-and-plasma-prostaglandin-e2
#7
Eldiza Puji Rahmi, Jamia Azdina Jamal, Endang Kumolosasi, Juriyati Jalil, Nor-Ashila Aladdin
Background: Marantodes pumilum is traditionally used for dysentery, gonorrhea, and sickness in the bones. Previous studies revealed its antibacterial and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Objective: To evaluate the inhibitory effects of three M. pumilum varieties on the secretion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and monosodium urate crystal (MSU)-induced cytokines and plasma prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in vitro. Materials and Methods: The leaves and roots of M...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141342/-influence-of-humidex-on-incidence-of-bacillary-dysentery-in-hefei-a-time-series-study
#8
H Zhang, K F Zhao, R X He, D S Zhao, M Y Xie, S S Wang, L J Bai, Q Cheng, Y W Zhang, H Su
Objective: To investigate the effect of humidex combined with mean temperature and relative humidity on the incidence of bacillary dysentery in Hefei. Methods: Daily counts of bacillary dysentery cases and weather data in Hefei were collected from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2013. Then, the humidex was calculated from temperature and relative humidity. A Poisson generalized linear regression combined with distributed lag non-linear model was applied to analyze the relationship between humidex and the incidence of bacillary dysentery, after adjusting for long-term and seasonal trends, day of week and other weather confounders...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132613/identification-and-management-of-shigella-infection-in-children-with-diarrhoea-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Kirkby D Tickell, Rebecca L Brander, Hannah E Atlas, Jeffrey M Pernica, Judd L Walson, Patricia B Pavlinac
BACKGROUND: Shigella infections are a leading cause of diarrhoeal death among children in low-income and middle-income countries. WHO guidelines reserve antibiotics for treating children with dysentery. Reliance on dysentery for identification and management of Shigella infection might miss an opportunity to reduce Shigella-associated morbidity and mortality. We aimed to systematically review and evaluate Shigella-associated and dysentery-associated mortality, the diagnostic value of dysentery for the identification of Shigella infection, and the efficacy of antibiotics for children with Shigella or dysentery, or both...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113957/ecological-observations-and-altered-indigenous-harvesting-practices-of-trillium-govanianum-melanthiaceae-in-indian-himalayas
#10
Harsh K Chauhan, Anil K Bisht, Indra D Bhatt, Arvind Bhatt, David Gallacher, Andrea Santo
ETHANOBOTANICAL RELEVANCE: Trillium govanianum Wall. ex D. Don (Melanthiaceae) is a high value medicinal herb which is used in both Indian and Chinese traditional medicines for various purposes such as treatment of cancer, hypertension, neurasthenia, giddiness, arthritis, dysentery, inflammation, sepsis and reproductive disorders. This species is restricted to specific habitat types, such as shaded, cold, moist habitats. However, the rhizomes of this species which are collected from wild populations have been traded throughout the Himalayan region and recently emerged as a significant source of income among local people of Indian Himalayan region...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104539/annonaceae-breaking-the-wall-of-inflammation
#11
REVIEW
Ali Attiq, Juriyati Jalil, Khairana Husain
Inventories of tropical forests have listed Annonaceae as one of the most diverse plant families. For centuries, it is employed in traditional medicines to cure various pathological conditions including snakebite, analgesic, astringent, diarrhea, dysentery, arthritis pain, rheumatism, neuralgia, and weight loss etc. Phytochemical analysis of Annonaceae family have reported the occurrence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, diterpenes and diterpene flavone glycosides, sterols, lignans, and annonaceous acetogenin characteristically affiliated with Annonaceae sp...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100875/assessment-on-the-burden-of-bacillary-dysentery-associated-with-floods-during-2005-2009-in-zhengzhou-city-china-using-a-time-series-analysis
#12
Xiaowen Hu, Guoyong Ding, Ying Zhang, Qiyong Liu, Baofa Jiang, Wei Ni
BACKGROUND: We aimed to quantify the impact of few times floods on bacillary dysentery in Zhengzhou during 2005-2009. METHODS: The Spearman correlation test was applied first to examine the lagged effects of floods on monthly morbidity of bacillary dysentery during 2005-2009 in Zhengzhou. We further quantified the effects of 7 flood events on the morbidity of bacillary dysentery using the time-series Poisson regression controlling for climatic factors, seasonality, gender and age groups...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099898/isolation-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-brachyspira-species-from-feces-of-layer-chickens-in-germany
#13
Werner Herbst, Hermann Willems, Jörg Heuser, Christa Ewers
OBJECTIVE: Anaerobic spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira are important pathogens causing swine dysentery (Brachyspira [B.] hyodysenteriae) and porcine intestinal spirochetosis (B. pilosicoli, PIS). In addition, avian intestinal spirochetosis (AIS) is caused by B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia and B. alvinipulli. Despite the economic impact of AIS, the disease has not received appropriate attention in Germany. This study was aimed at identifying Brachyspira spp. in Germany and determining their antimicrobial susceptibility...
November 3, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082265/vaccinomics-approach-for-designing-potential-peptide-vaccine-by-targeting-shigella-spp-serine-protease-autotransporter-subfamily-protein-siga
#14
Arafat Rahman Oany, Tahmina Pervin, Mamun Mia, Motaher Hossain, Mohammad Shahnaij, Shahin Mahmud, K M Kaderi Kibria
Shigellosis, a bacillary dysentery, is closely associated with diarrhoea in human and causes infection of 165 million people worldwide per year. Casein-degrading serine protease autotransporter of enterobacteriaceae (SPATE) subfamily protein SigA, an outer membrane protein, exerts both cytopathic and enterotoxic effects especially cytopathic to human epithelial cell type-2 (HEp-2) and is shown to be highly immunogenic. In the present study, we have tried to impose the vaccinomics approach for designing a common peptide vaccine candidate against the immunogenic SigA of Shigella spp...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073283/identification-of-novel-substrates-of-shigella-t3sa-through-analysis-of-its-virulence-plasmid-encoded-secretome
#15
Laurie Pinaud, Mariana L Ferrari, Robin Friedman, Nico Jehmlich, Martin von Bergen, Armelle Phalipon, Philippe J Sansonetti, François-Xavier Campbell-Valois
Many human Gram-negative bacterial pathogens express a Type Three Secretion Apparatus (T3SA), including among the most notorious Shigella spp., Salmonella enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). These bacteria express on their surface multiple copies of the T3SA that mediate the delivery into host cells of specific protein substrates critical to pathogenesis. Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens responsible for human bacillary dysentery. The effector function of several Shigella T3SA substrates has largely been studied but their potential cellular targets are far from having been comprehensively delineated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071279/immunogenic-evaluation-of-chimeric-recombinant-protein-against-etec-ehec-and-shigella
#16
Farzane Khalouie, Seyed Latif Mousavi, Shahram Nazarian, Jafar Amani, Poune Pourfarzam
Diarrheal diseases still remain health problem worldwide and out of many bacteria responsible for, Shigella and pathogenic Escherichia cause the most diarrheas in the world. Shigellacause bacterial dysenteries and shigellosis through invasion where the most effective proteins for pathogenesis is Ipac. Critical virulence protein for ETEC infection is CFA/I with two subunits called cfab and cfae. . Attachment of EHEC is the main step of infection and the protein Intimin plays the key role in this function. Protection against the vast majority of responsible pathogens of diarrheas requires development of the combination vaccine against Shigella, ETEC and EHEC...
September 2017: Molecular Biology Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069340/in-vitro-attenuation-of-a-virulent-swine-isolate-of-brachyspira-hampsonii
#17
Jason Byron D S Perez, Champika Fernando, Roman V Nosach, Yanyun Huang, John C S Harding, Janet E Hill
'Brachyspira hampsonii ' causes dysentery-like disease in infected pigs. Serial passage of a virulent swine isolate (P13) one-hundred times in laboratory culture medium was conducted to produce an attenuated strain, and to identify genomic determinants of virulence through comparison of genome sequences of the original and passaged strains. The resulting strain, P113, did not differ from P13 in terms of diagnostic biochemical characteristics, but had an enhanced growth rate in culture, indicating laboratory adaptation...
October 24, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059681/protective-effect-of-phillyrin-on-lethal-lps-induced-neutrophil-inflammation-in-zebrafish
#18
Liling Yang, Xiangjun Zhou, Weijuan Huang, Qin Fang, Jianlan Hu, Linzhong Yu, Ning Ma, Wenqing Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Forsythia suspensa Vahl. (Oleaceae) fruits are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat pneumonia, typhoid, dysentery, ulcers and oedema. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities have been reported for phillyrin (PHN), the main ingredient in Forsythia suspensa Vahl fruits, in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms in vivo remain poorly defined. In this study, we discovered that PHN exerted potent anti-inflammatory effects in lethal LPS-induced neutrophil inflammation by suppressing the MyD88-dependent signalling pathway in zebrafish...
October 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058340/molecular-typing-and-occurrence-of-beta-lactam-resistance-genes-of-shigella-sonnei-strains-isolated-during-1983-2014-in-the-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-in-brazil
#19
Amanda Ap Seribelli, Miliane R Frazão, Marta I Cazentini Medeiros, Eliana G Stehling, Juliana P Falcão
Shigella sonnei is generally associated with dysentery in developed countries; but it has recently emerged in developing countries. Specifically, in Brazil there are few published studies that molecularly characterized this species. The aims of this study were to analyze the efficacy of the MLVA typing method, to study the phylogeny by MLST and to assess the presence of some beta-lactam resistance genes in S. sonnei strains isolated from human diarrhoeic faeces in the São Paulo State in Brazil between 1983-2014...
October 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037797/flow-cytometric-characterization-of-encystation-in-entamoeba-invadens
#20
Brenda H Welter, Michael G Sehorn, Lesly A Temesvari
Entamoeba histolytica causes dysentery and liver abscess mostly in countries that lack proper sanitation. Infection is acquired by ingestion of the cyst form in contaminated food or water. E. histolytica does not encyst in vitro; thus, E. invadens, a reptilian parasite that encysts in vitro, has been used as a surrogate. Cysts are small and possess chitin-rich walls. These are characteristics that may be exploited by flow cytometry. We stained encysting E. invadens cells with a fluorescent chitin stain, and analyzed fluorescence and forward scatter by flow cytometry...
December 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
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