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Dysentery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909896/detection-of-shigella-sonnei-in-a-respiratory-specimen-in-a-patient-with-subacute-atypical-pneumonia
#1
Hiwa Nahid, Désirée Staub, Herbert Hächler, Werner C Albrich
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia caused by shigellosis with or without typical dysentery in immunocompetent patients is an uncommon entity. CASE REPORT: We describe a case of pneumonia in an immunocompetent, previously healthy middle-aged man from Switzerland without relevant travel history which was presumably caused by Shigella sonnei. He was originally admitted for suspected lung cancer. The clinical picture was remarkable as the patient presented with cough and purulent sputum production, but otherwise no classical signs of pneumonia...
December 1, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907102/an-investigation-into-the-etiological-agents-of-swine-dysentery-in-australian-pig-herds
#2
Tom La, Nyree D Phillips, David J Hampson
Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohemorrhagic colitis, classically seen in grower/finisher pigs and caused by infection with the anaerobic intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. More recently, however, the newly described species Brachyspira hampsonii and Brachyspira suanatina have been identified as causing SD in North America and/or Europe. Furthermore, there have been occasions where strains of B. hyodysenteriae have been recovered from healthy pigs, including in multiplier herds with high health status...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881679/the-shigella-virulence-factor-icsa-relieves-n-wasp-autoinhibition-by-displacing-the-vca-domain
#3
Rui P M Mauricio, Cy M Jeffries, Dmitri I Svergun, Janet E Deane
Shigella flexneri is a bacterial pathogen that invades cells of the gastrointestinal tract causing severe dysentery. Shigella mediate intracellular motility and spreading via actin comet tail formation. This process is dependent on the surface-exposed, membrane-embedded virulence factor IcsA, which recruits the host actin regulator N-WASP. Although it is clear that Shigella require N-WASP for this process, the molecular details of this interaction and the mechanism of N-WASP activation remain poorly understood...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863468/the-changing-epidemiology-of-bacillary-dysentery-and-characteristics-of-antimicrobial-resistance-of-shigella-isolated-in-china-from-2004-2014
#4
Zhaorui Chang, Jing Zhang, Lu Ran, Junling Sun, Fengfeng Liu, Li Luo, Lingjia Zeng, Liping Wang, Zhongjie Li, Hongjie Yu, Qiaohong Liao
BACKGROUND: Bacillary dysentery caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella is a significant public health problem in developing countries such as China. The objective of this study was to analyze the epidemiological pattern of bacillary dysentery, the diversity of the causative agent, and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Shigella spp. for the purpose of determining the most effective allocation of resources and prioritization of interventions. METHODS: Surveillance data were acquired from the National Infectious Disease Information Reporting System (2004-2014) and from the sentinel hospital-based surveillance system (2005-2014)...
November 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861238/complementary-feeding-and-diarrhea-and-respiratory-infection-among-hiv-exposed-tanzanian-infants
#5
P Kamenju, E Liu, E Hertzmark, D Spiegelman, R R Kisenge, R Kupka, S Aboud, K P Manji, C Duggan, W W Fawzi
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between complementary feeding (CF) and risks of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) among HIV-exposed infants aged 6-24 months. DESIGN: We prospectively employed an Infant and Child Feeding Index (ICFI) to measure CF practices (breastfeeding status, food consistency, dietary diversity, food group frequency and meal frequency). We determined the association of ICFI and each of its components with the risk of diarrhea and ARI...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834204/one-gene-and-two-proteins-a-leaderless-mrna-supports-the-translation-of-a-shorter-form-of-the-shigella-virf-regulator
#6
Maria Letizia Di Martino, Cédric Romilly, E Gerhart H Wagner, Bianca Colonna, Gianni Prosseda
: VirF, an AraC-like activator, is required to trigger a regulatory cascade that initiates the invasive program of Shigella spp., the etiological agents of bacillary dysentery in humans. VirF expression is activated upon entry into the host and depends on many environmental signals. Here, we show that the virF mRNA is translated into two proteins, the major form, VirF30 (30 kDa), and the shorter VirF21 (21 kDa), lacking the N-terminal segment. By site-specific mutagenesis and toeprint analysis, we identified the translation start sites of VirF30 and VirF21 and showed that the two different forms of VirF arise from differential translation...
November 8, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819667/deletion-of-toxin-antitoxin-systems-in-the-evolution-of-shigella-sonnei-as-a-host-adapted-pathogen
#7
Gareth McVicker, Christoph M Tang
Pathogenic Shigella spp. are the leading cause of bacterial dysentery, with Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei accounting for around 90% of cases worldwide. Although S. flexneri causes most disease in low-income countries (following ingestion of contaminated food and/or water), S. sonnei predominates in wealthy countries and is mainly spread from person to person. Although both species contain a large virulence plasmid, pINV, that is essential for the organism to cause disease, little is known about its maintenance...
November 7, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815960/evaluation-of-cytotoxic-analgesic-antidiarrheal-and-phytochemical-properties-of-hygrophila-spinosa-t-anders-whole-plant
#8
S M Faysal Bellah, Md Nur Islam, Md Rezaul Karim, Md Masudur Rahaman, Mst Samima Nasrin, Md Atiar Rahman, A S M Ali Reza
BACKGROUND: Synthetic drugs are going to be replaced by plant-derived traditional drugs due to their cost effectiveness, relatively less harmfulness, and efficacy against multidrug resistance organisms. Hygrophila spinosa (Acanthaceae) has been used in a wide range of ailments including flatulence, diarrhea, dysentery, gonorrhea, and menorrhagia. Therefore, we investigated the cytotoxic, antinociceptive, and antidiarrheal effects of H. spinosa ethanol extract (EExHs). METHODS: Preliminary phytochemical screening was accomplished by established methods modified in experimental protocol...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815078/ziziphora-tenuior-l-essential-oil-from-dana-biosphere-reserve-southern-jordan-chemical-characterization-and-assessment-of-biological-activities
#9
M S Abu-Darwish, C Cabral, M J Gonçalves, C Cavaleiro, M T Cruz, M Paoli, F Tomi, T Efferth, L Salgueiro
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGIC RELEVANCE: Ziziphora tenuior L. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant in Jordan, which is included in various antimicrobial, antiseptic, expectorant and wound healing preparations. It is used for the treatment of cough, stomach ache, dysentery, fever, uterus infection, gut inflammation and painful menstruation. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the chemical composition of the essential oil of Z. tenuior originated from southern Jordan and its antifungal effects against several yeasts...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812190/a-school-health-project-can-uplift-the-health-status-of-school-children-in-nepal
#10
Rachana Manandhar Shrestha, Moe Miyaguchi, Akira Shibanuma, Arun Khanal, Junko Yasuoka, Masamine Jimba
BACKGROUND: School health is effective in helping students achieve health literacy, enhance their health-related behaviors, and thereby improve their health status. However, in resource-limited countries, evidence is limited to show the impact of school health. We determined the association of the school health and nutrition (SHN) project activities on students' a) health knowledge, b) hygiene practices, and c) health outcomes, one year after the project completion. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among the schools with the SHN project and without the project in four districts of Nepal...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763815/diverted-recycling-shigella-subversion-of-rabs
#11
Noelia Lopez Montero, Jost Enninga
Small GTPases of the Rab protein family control intracellular vesicular trafficking to allow their communication and maintenance. It is a common strategy for intracellular bacteria to exploit these pathways to shape their respective niches for survival. The subversion of Rabs for the generation of an intracellular environment favoring the pathogen has been described almost exclusively for intracellular bacteria that reside within bacterial containing vacuoles (BCVs). However, less is known about Rab subversion for bacteria that rupture the BCV to reach the host cytoplasm...
October 20, 2016: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742060/identification-of-weather-variables-sensitive-to-dysentery-in-disease-affected-county-of-china
#12
Jianing Liu, Xiaoxu Wu, Chenlu Li, Bing Xu, Luojia Hu, Jin Chen, Shuang Dai
Climate change mainly refers to long-term change in weather variables, and it has significant impact on sustainability and spread of infectious diseases. Among three leading infectious diseases in China, dysentery is exclusively sensitive to climate change. Previous researches on weather variables and dysentery mainly focus on determining correlation between dysentery incidence and weather variables. However, the contribution of each variable to dysentery incidence has been rarely clarified. Therefore, we chose a typical county in epidemic of dysentery as the study area...
October 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737634/a-prospective-study-of-the-importance-of-enteric-fever-as-a-cause-of-non-malarial-febrile-illness-in-patients-admitted-to-chittagong-medical-college-hospital-bangladesh
#13
Rapeephan R Maude, Aniruddha Ghose, Rasheda Samad, Hanna K de Jong, Masako Fukushima, Lalith Wijedoru, Mahtab Uddin Hassan, Md Amir Hossain, Md Rezaul Karim, Abdullah Abu Sayeed, Stannie van den Ende, Sujat Pal, A S M Zahed, Wahid Rahman, Rifat Karnain, Rezina Islam, Dung Thi Ngoc Tran, Tuyen Thanh Ha, Anh Hong Pham, James I Campbell, H Rogier van Doorn, Richard J Maude, Tom van der Poll, W Joost Wiersinga, Nicholas P J Day, Stephen Baker, Arjen M Dondorp, Christopher M Parry, Md Abul Faiz
BACKGROUND: Fever is a common cause of hospital admission in Bangladesh but causative agents, other than malaria, are not routinely investigated. Enteric fever is thought to be common. METHODS: Adults and children admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital with a temperature of ≥38.0 °C were investigated using a blood smear for malaria, a blood culture, real-time PCR to detect Salmonella Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and other pathogens in blood and CSF and an NS1 antigen dengue ELISA...
October 13, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730005/scutellaria-baicalensis-the-golden-herb-from-the-garden-of-chinese-medicinal-plants
#14
Qing Zhao, Xiao-Ya Chen, Cathie Martin
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, or Chinese skullcap, has been widely used as a medicinal plant in China for thousands of years, where the preparation from its roots is called Huang-Qin. It has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, hypertension, hemorrhaging, insomnia, inflammation and respiratory infections. Flavones such as baicalin, wogonoside and their aglycones baicalein wogonin are the major bioactive compounds extracted from the root of S. baicalensis. These flavones have been reported to have various pharmacological functions, including anti-cancer, hepatoprotection, antibacterial and antiviral, antioxidant, anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects...
2016: Science Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671824/gambogic-acid-and-its-role-in-chronic-diseases
#15
Manoj K Pandey, Deepkamal Karelia, Shantu G Amin
Kokum, a spice derived from the fruit of the Garcinia hanburyi tree, is traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicines to facilitate digestion and to treat sores, dermatitis, diarrhoea, dysentery, and ear infection. One of the major active components of kokum is gambogic acid, also known as guttic acid, guttatic acid, beta-guttilactone, and beta-guttiferin. Gambogic acid's anti-proliferative, anti-bacterial; antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects result from its modulation of numerous cell-signaling intermediates...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664096/cross-reactions-in-specific-brachyspira-spp-pcr-assays-caused-by-brachyspira-hampsonii-isolates-implications-for-detection
#16
Luis M Aller-Morán, F Javier Martínez-Lobo, Pedro Rubio, Ana Carvajal
An emerging novel spirochete in swine, provisionally designated "Brachyspira hampsonii," has been detected worldwide. It has been associated with swine dysentery and cannot be differentiated from B. hyodysenteriae, the classical etiologic agent of this disease, using standard phenotypic methods. We evaluated cross-reactions of "B. hampsonii" isolates recovered from avian species in some of the currently available species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the identification of swine Brachyspira species...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652161/epidemiological-and-clinical-aspects-of-ulcerative-colitis-in-west-of-iran-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Koroush Ghanadi, Javad Valizadeh, Afshin Hasanvand
INTRODUCTION: One of the forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes inflammation and ulcers in colon is ulcerative colitis (UC). This study was aimed to determine the epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients with ulcerative colitis in the west of Iran. METHODS: In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 150 patients with definite diagnosis of UC who referred to a subspecialty gastroenterology clinic in Khorramabad, Iran. The study was performed from May 2014 to August 2015 by using census method...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635212/virulence-gene-profile-and-multilocus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-mlva-of-enteroinvasive-escherichia-coli-eiec-isolates-from-patients-with-diarrhea-in-kerman-iran
#18
Hossein Hosseini Nave, Shahla Mansouri, Majid Taati Moghadam, Mohammad Moradi
BACKGROUND: Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) isolates cause dysentery in humans. Several virulence factors associated with EIEC pathogenesis have been characterized. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) is a PCR-based method that has been used for genotyping bacterial pathogens. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of virulence factor genes in EIEC isolates from patients with diarrhea in Kerman, Iran, as well as the genetic relationships between these isolates...
June 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629903/characterization-and-recognition-of-brachyspira-hampsonii-sp-nov-a-novel-intestinal-spirochete-that-is-pathogenic-to-pigs
#19
Nandita S Mirajkar, Nyree D Phillips, Tom La, David J Hampson, Connie J Gebhart
Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohemorhagic colitis of swine classically caused by infection with the intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Since around 2007, cases of SD have occurred in North America associated with a different strongly beta-hemolytic spirochete that has been molecularly and phenotypically characterized and provisionally named "Brachyspira hampsonii". Despite increasing international interest, "B. hampsonii" is currently not recognized as a valid species. To support its recognition, we sequenced the genomes of strains NSH-16, NSH-24 and P280/1, representing "B...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608699/gastric-mucormycosis-with-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#20
K Sunil Raviraj, P Miglani, A Garg, P K Agarwal
Mucormycosis, is an emerging fungal infection in immunocompromised and diabetic individuals, usually affects rhino-orbito-cerebral, cutaneous and pulmonary regions. But mucormycosis in immunocompetent environment is rare and occurrence of gastric mucormycosis is unusual. We report a case of 19 year old female, with no pre-existing co-morbidities, presented with fever, dysentery, vomiting, and melena for 4 days. On evaluation she was found to have pancytopenia, acute kidney injury, hemolytic anemia, coagulopathy and hepatic derangement and treated with hemodialysis, plasmapheresis along with antibiotics and packed cell RBC transfusion...
October 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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