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Judith Rohde, Monir Majzoub-Altweck, Almuth Falkenau, Walter Hermanns, Eric R Burrough, Mathias Ritzmann, Julia Stadler
The anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira (B.) suanatina was first described in 2007 but since then no further isolates have been reported from pigs. Accordingly, when the species was validly published in 2016, the overall occurrence and clinical relevance in pigs were unknown. In a fattening farm in southern Germany, mucohaemorrhagic diarrhoea was observed in 60 per cent (750 animals) of the finisher pigs. A diagnostic workup including Brachyspira culture, Salmonella culture, Lawsonia intracellularis-specific, B...
February 1, 2018: Veterinary Record
Ruthly François, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Saba Rouhani, Mery Siguas Salas, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Dixner Rengifo Trigoso, Nora Pisanic, Rosa Burga, Rina Meza, Graciela Meza Sanchez, Michael J Gregory, Eric R Houpt, James A Platts-Mills, Margaret N Kosek
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is one of the main causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. Most of the current knowledge about the epidemiology of this food-borne infection concerns two species, C. coli and C. jejuni. Recent studies conducted in developing countries and using novel diagnostic techniques have generated evidence of the increasing burden and importance of other Campylobacter species, i.e. non-C. coli/jejuni. We performed a nested case-control study to compare the prevalence of C...
February 7, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
A Angel Ezhilarasi, J Judith Vijaya, K Kaviyarasu, L John Kennedy, R Jothi Ramalingam, Hamad A Al-Lohedan
In the present study, we report the green synthesis of NiO nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos as a fuel and this method is ecofriendly and cost effective. The plant Aegle marmelos is used in the field of pharmaceuticals to cure diseases like chronic diarrhea, peptic ulcers and dysentery in India for nearly 5 centuries. The as-prepared nanoparticles were confirmed as pure face centered cubic phase and single crystalline in nature by XRD. The formation of agglomerated spherical nanoparticles was shown by HR-SEM and HR-TEM images...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Chun-Seob Ahn, Jeong-Geun Kim, Myeong Heon Shin, Young Ah Lee, Yoon Kong
The obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, causes amebic dysentery and liver abscess. E. histolytica adheres to the host tissues in a contact-dependent manner. E. histolytica excretory-secretory products (ESP) might play critical roles during invasion. We comparatively analyzed the secretome profile of E. histolytica pathogenic HM-1:IMSS and non-pathogenic Rahman strains. The two ESP revealed similar but distinct spotting patterns. In both ESP, alcohol dehydrogenase, enolase 1 and transketolase, which control classical carbohydrate metabolism and other moonlighting effects, constituted the most abundant fractions...
February 6, 2018: Proteomics
Olusola Bodede, Shakira Shaik, Hafizah Chenia, Parvesh Singh, Roshila Moodley
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Senegalia nigrescens is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of dysentery and convulsions. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study was aimed at identifying bioactive compounds from S. nigrescens and carry out in vitro and in silico anti-quorum sensing studies on the compounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extracts of S. nigrescens were chromatographed repeatedly. The isolated compounds were characterised using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Lisa A Johnson, Champika Fernando, John C S Harding, Janet E Hill
Swine dysentery is traditionally associated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, but the re-emergence of Brachyspira-associated disease in North America associated with a novel causative species, B. hampsonii, is now a concern for swine producers. The pathogenesis of Brachyspira-associated disease is not completely understood, and it is not known whether mixed infections of Brachyspira spp. are important in disease development. Deep sequencing of partial sequences of the nox gene amplified with genus-specific primers was used to detect Brachyspira spp...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Silvio De Luca, Pamela Nicholson, Chiara F Magistrali, Ana B García-Martín, Lorenz Rychener, Friederike Zeeh, Joachim Frey, Vincent Perreten
Treatment of Swine Dysentery (SD) caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B. hyodysenteriae) is carried out using antimicrobials such as macrolides, lincosamides and pleuromutilins leading to the selection of resistant strains. Whole genome sequencing of a multidrug-resistant B. hyodysenteriae strain called BH718 belonging to sequence type (ST) 83 revealed the presence of the lincosamide resistance gene lnu(C) on the small 1724-bp transposon MTnSag1. The strain also contains an A to T substitution at position 2058 (A2058T) in the 23S rRNA gene which is known to be associated with macrolide and lincosamide resistance in B...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Khashayar Shahin, Majid Bouzari
Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery) is an acute enteric infection caused by members of Shigella genus. It causes annual deaths of approximately five million children in developing countries. Among Shigella spp., S. flexneri causes more serious forms of dysentery than other Shigella species. Due to the appearance of multidrug-resistant strains of Shigella spp., it is necessary to find alternative antimicrobial agents. The aims of this study were the isolation of a novel species-specific phage against S. flexneri and to evaluate its potential and efficacy for biocontrolling of S...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Iriny M Ayoub, Michal Korinek, Tsong-Long Hwang, Bing-Hung Chen, Fang-Rong Chang, Mohamed El-Shazly, Abdel Nasser B Singab
Dietes bicolor (Iridaceae) is an ornamental plant used by African local healers to treat diarrhea and dysentery. A new dihydroflavonol, (2R,3R)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavanone (1); two known dihydroflavonols, trans-3-hydroxy-5-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavanone (2) and trans-3-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavanone (3); the known isoflavone orobol 7,3'-di-O-methyl ether (4); the known biflavones lanaroflavone (5), robustaflavone (6), and amentoflavone (7); and β-sitosterol (8) were isolated from the CH2Cl2 fraction of D...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Thomas C Darton, Ha Thanh Tuyen, Hao Chung The, Paul N Newton, David A B Dance, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Viengmon Davong, James I Campbell, Nguyen Van Minh Hoang, Guy E Thwaites, Christopher M Parry, Duy Pham Thanh, Stephen Baker
Infection by Shigella spp. is a common cause of dysentery in Southeast Asia. Antimicrobials are thought to be beneficial for treatment, however antimicrobial resistance in Shigella spp. is becoming widespread. We aimed to assess the frequency and mechanisms associated with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin in Southeast Asian Shigella isolates and use these data to assess appropriate susceptibility breakpoints. Shigella isolated in Vietnam and Laos were screened for susceptibility against azithromycin (15μg) by disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)...
January 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
P Zhang, J Zhang, Z R Chang, Z J Li
Objective: To analyze the spatial and temporal distributions of bacillary dysentery in Chongqing, Yichang and Enshi (the Three Gorges Area) from 2005 to 2016, and provide evidence for the disease prevention and control. Methods: The incidence data of bacillary dysentery in the Three Gorges Area during this period were collected from National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System. The spatial-temporal scan statistic was conducted with software SaTScan 9.4 and bacillary dysentery clusters were visualized with software ArcGIS 10...
January 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Divya Hosangadi, Peter G Smith, David C Kaslow, Birgitte K Giersing
According to the 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study, diarrhea ranked ninth among causes of death for all ages, and fourth among children under 5 years old, accounting for an estimated 499,000 deaths in this young age group. It was also the second most common cause of years lived with disability (2.39 billion YLDs). The goal of the WHO/UNICEF Integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) is to reduce deaths from diarrhea in children under 5 years of age to less than 1 per 1000 live births, by 2025...
January 15, 2018: Vaccine
Paphavee Lertsethtakarn-Ketwalha, Sasikorn Silapong, Pimmada Sakpaisal, Oralak Serichantalergs, Nattaya Ruamsap, Woradee Lurchachaiwong, Sinn Anuras, James A Platts-Mills, Jie Liu, Eric R Houpt, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Brett E Swierczewski, Carl J Mason
Background: Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is a common illness experienced by travelers from developed countries visiting developing countries. Recent questionnaire-based surveillance studies reported that approximately 6-16% of travelers experienced TD while visiting Thailand; however, a majority of TD information was limited mainly to US military populations. Methods: A TD surveillance study was conducted at Bumrungrad International Hospital in 2012-2014 in Bangkok, Thailand...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Mitsuru Toda, Dejan Zurovac, Ian Njeru, David Kareko, Matilu Mwau, Kouichi Morita
BACKGROUND: The correct knowledge of standard case definition is necessary for frontline health workers to diagnose suspected diseases across Africa. However, surveillance evaluations commonly assume this prerequisite. This study assessed the knowledge of case definitions for health workers and their supervisors for disease surveillance activities in rural Kenya. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey including 131 health workers and their 11 supervisors was undertaken in two counties in Kenya...
January 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
Young-Rak Cho, Jung A Lee, Yoon Yeon Kim, Jae-Shin Kang, Jae-Ho Lee, Eun-Kyung Ahn
Clausena excavata (C. excavata) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, enteritis, dysentery, and malaria. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 50% ethanol extract of C. excavata (ECE) on weight loss, adipocyte size, and obesity-related biochemical parameters in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. After 6 weeks of HFD + ECE administration, HFD-induced total fat, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat were evaluated by micro-computed tomography. The serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were evaluated with a biochemical analyzer, and leptin and adiponectin levels in the serum were assessed via enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA)...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jessica Joerling, Stefanie A Barth, Karen Schlez, Hermann Willems, Werner Herbst, Christa Ewers
Swine dysentery (SD) is an economically important diarrheal disease in pigs caused by different strongly hemolytic Brachyspira (B.) species, such as B. hyodysenteriae, B. suanatina and B. hampsonii. Possible associations of epidemiologic data, such as multilocus sequence types (STs) to virulence gene profiles and antimicrobial susceptibility are rather scarce, particularly for B. hyodysenteriae isolates from Germany. In this study, B. hyodysenteriae (n = 116) isolated from diarrheic pigs between 1990 and 2016 in Germany were investigated for their STs, susceptibility to the major drugs used for treatment of SD (tiamulin and valnemulin) and genes that were previously linked with virulence and encode for hemolysins (tlyA, tlyB, tlyC, hlyA, BHWA1_RS02885, BHWA1_RS09085, BHWA1_RS04705, and BHWA1_RS02195), outer membrane proteins (OMPs) (bhlp16, bhlp17...
2018: PloS One
Keith A Lampel, Samuel B Formal, Anthony T Maurelli
The history of Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, is a long and fascinating one. This brief historical account starts with descriptions of the disease and its impact on human health from ancient time to the present. Our story of the bacterium starts just before the identification of the dysentery bacillus by Kiyoshi Shiga in 1898 and follows the scientific discoveries and principal scientists who contributed to the elucidation of Shigella pathogenesis in the first 100 years. Over the past century, Shigella has proved to be an outstanding model of an invasive bacterial pathogen and has served as a paradigm for the study of other bacterial pathogens...
January 2018: EcoSal Plus
Heasim Sul
This article demonstrates the medicinal usage of ginseng in the West from 1660 to 1914. Asian[Korea] ginseng was first introduced into England in the early 17th century, and North American ginseng was found in the early 18th century. Starting from the late 17th century doctors prescribed ginseng to cure many different kinds of ailments and disease such as: fatigue general lethargy, fever, torpidity, trembling in the joints, nervous disorder, laughing and crying hysteria, scurvy, spermatic vessel infection, jaundice, leprosy, dry gripes and constipation, strangury, yellow fever, dysentery, infertility and addictions of alcohol, opium and tobacco, etc...
December 2017: Ŭi Sahak
Chengdong Xu, Gexin Xiao, Jinfeng Wang, Xiangxue Zhang, Jinjun Liang
Bacillary dysentery remains a public health concern in the world. Hunan Province is one of the provinces having the highest risk of bacillary dysentery in China, however, the spatial-temporal distribution, variation of bacillary dysentery and sensitivity to meteorological factors in there are unclear. In this paper, a Bayesian space-time hierarchical model (BSTHM) was used to detect space-time variation, and effects of meteorological factors between 2010 and 2015. The risk of bacillary dysentery showed apparent spatial-temporal heterogeneity...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Martina Pasqua, Valeria Michelacci, Maria Letizia Di Martino, Rosangela Tozzoli, Milena Grossi, Bianca Colonna, Stefano Morabito, Gianni Prosseda
Among the intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli, enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) are a group of intracellular pathogens able to enter epithelial cells of colon, multiplicate within them, and move between adjacent cells with a mechanism similar to Shigella, the ethiological agent of bacillary dysentery. Despite EIEC belong to the same pathotype of Shigella, they neither have the full set of traits that define Shigella nor have undergone the extensive gene decay observed in Shigella. Molecular analysis confirms that EIEC are widely distributed among E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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