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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324657/a-review-of-the-current-state-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-test-methods-for-brachyspira
#1
Dharmasiri G R S Kulathunga, Joseph E Rubin
The re-emergence of swine dysentery (Brachyspira-associated muco-haemorrhagic colitis) since the late 2000's has illuminated diagnostic challenges associated with this genus. The methods used to detect, identify and characterize Brachyspira from clinical samples have not been standardized and laboratories frequently rely heavily on in-house techniques. Particularly concerning is the lack of standardized methods for determining and interpreting the antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. The integration of laboratory data into a treatment plan is a critical component of prudent antimicrobial usage, the lack of standardized methods is therefore an important limitation to the evidence based use of antimicrobials...
March 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321826/the-role-of-probiotics-in-the-treatment-of-dysentery-a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial
#2
Alireza Sharif, Hamed Haddad Kashani, Elahe Nasri, Zahra Soleimani, Mohammad Reza Sharif
Diarrhea is considered as an important cause of morbidity and mortality, even though one of the main reasons of death following diarrhea is initiated by dysentery. In recent years, the consumption of probiotics has been proposed for the treatment of infectious diarrhea. Despite most of the studies on probiotics have focused on acute watery diarrhea, few studies in the field of dysentery have found beneficial effects of probiotics. This study is a randomized double-blind clinical trial. The patients were randomly placed into control and case groups...
March 21, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321350/shigellosis-caused-by-ctx-m-type-esbl-producing-shigella-flexneri-in-two-siblings-of-rural-nepal-first-case-report-from-the-country
#3
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Govardhan Joshi, Bashu Dev Pardhe, Jyotsna Shakya, Anjeela Bhetwal, Shreena Shakya, Roshan Pandit, Sumesh Shreekhanda Shrestha, Puspa Raj Khanal
Shigellosis is an acute infectious disease characterized as severe bloody diarrhea (dysentery) and is accountable for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality especially in children under the age of 5 years. Antimicrobial therapy is required in the cases of severe dysentery associated with Shigella. However, emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Shigella spp. over the last two decades has restricted the use of common therapeutic antimicrobials. In MDR strains, the third-generation cephalosporins have been used for the treatment, but, unfortunately, emerging reports of enzyme mediated β-lactam resistance among Shigella isolates from various parts of the world have greatly compromised the therapy of pediatric dysentery...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301166/brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-infection-regulates-mucin-glycosylation-synthesis-inducing-an-increased-expression-of-core-2-o-glycans-in-porcine-colon
#4
Vignesh Venkatakrishnan, Macarena Paz Quintana-Hayashi, Maxime Mahu, Freddy Haesebrouck, Frank Pasmans, Sara K Lindén
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae causes swine dysentery (SD), leading to global financial losses to the pig industry. Infection with this pathogen results in an increase of B. hyodysenteriae binding sites on mucins, along with increased colonic mucin secretion. We here predict that B. hyodysenteriae modifies the glycosylation pattern of the porcine intestinal mucus layer to optimize its host niche. We characterized the swine colonic mucin O-glycome and identified the differences in glycosylation between B. hyodysenteriae infected and non-infected pigs...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300698/antibacterial-screening-of-rumex-species-native-to-the-carpathian-basin-and-bioactivity-guided-isolation-of-compounds-from-rumex-aquaticus
#5
Orsolya Orbán-Gyapai, Erika Liktor-Busa, Norbert Kúsz, Dóra Stefkó, Edit Urbán, Judit Hohmann, Andrea Vasas
Plants belonging to the genus Rumex (family Polygonaceae) are used worldwide in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases caused by different microorganisms (e.g. bacteria-related dermatologic conditions, dysentery and enteritis). The present study focused on the antibacterial screening of Rumex species native to the Carpathian Basin, and isolation of compounds from one of the most efficient species, Rumex aquaticus. The antibacterial effects of n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous fractions of methanol extracts prepared from different parts of 14 Rumex species (R...
March 11, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294081/impacts-of-ambient-temperature-on-the-burden-of-bacillary-dysentery-in-urban-and-rural-hefei-china
#6
J Cheng, M Y Xie, K F Zhao, J J Wu, Z W Xu, J Song, D S Zhao, K S Li, X Wang, H H Yang, L Y Wen, H Su, S L Tong
Bacillary dysentery continues to be a major health issue in developing countries and ambient temperature is a possible environmental determinant. However, evidence about the risk of bacillary dysentery attributable to ambient temperature under climate change scenarios is scarce. We examined the attributable fraction (AF) of temperature-related bacillary dysentery in urban and rural Hefei, China during 2006-2012 and projected its shifting pattern under climate change scenarios using a distributed lag non-linear model...
March 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277944/the-galleria-mellonella-larvae-as-an-in-vivo-model-for-evaluation-of-shigella-virulence
#7
Shoshana Barnoy, Hanan Gancz, Yuewei Zhu, Cary L Honnold, Daniel V Zurawski, Malabi M Venkatesan
Shigella spp. causing bacterial diarrhea and dysentery are human enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens that are orally transmitted through contaminated food and water and cause bacillary dysentery. Although natural Shigella infections are restricted to humans and primates, several smaller animal models are used to analyze individual steps in pathogenesis. No animal model fully duplicates the human response and sustaining the models requires expensive animals, costly maintenance of animal facilities, veterinary services and approved animal protocols...
February 13, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266011/traditional-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-the-medicinal-species-of-the-genus-cordia-boraginaceae
#8
REVIEW
Manisha J Oza, Yogesh A Kulkarni
OBJECTIVES: Cordia (family Boraginaceae) is a genus of deciduous flowering trees or shrubs comprising more than 300 species distributed widely in the tropical regions. The aim of this review was to provide exhaustive scientific information on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the 36 important species with medicinal value from the genus Cordia, to divulge prospects for further research on its therapeutic potential. KEY FINDINGS: Leaves, fruit, bark and seed of a majority of the species were found to possess abundant ethnomedicinal value, but leaves were found to be used most frequently to treat many ailments such as respiratory disorders, stomach pain, wound, inflammation, myalgia, cough, dysentery and diarrhoea...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264507/chemical-composition-antioxidant-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-essential-oil-from-premna-microphylla-turczaninow
#9
Han-Yu Zhang, Yang Gao, Peng-Xiang Lai
Premna microphylla Turczaninow, an erect shrub, was widely used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat dysentery, appendicitis, and infections. In this study, the essential oil from P. microphylla Turcz. was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC (Gas Chromatography) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer). Fifty-six compounds were identified in the oil which comprised about 97.2% of the total composition of the oil. Major components of the oil were blumenol C (49.7%), β-cedrene (6.1%), limonene (3...
February 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249822/ethnobotanical-survey-of-herbal-tea-plants-from-the-traditional-markets-in-chaoshan-china
#10
Dong-Lin Li, Xi-Long Zheng, Lei Duan, Shuang-Wen Deng, Wen Ye, Ai-Hua Wang, Fu-Wu Xing
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Herbal tea, which refers to "cooling tea", "cool beverage", or "liáng chá" in China, includes a range of drinks with heat-clearing and detoxification qualities. Herbal tea plants are great contributive to the health and prosperity of Chaoshan people. The aim of the study was to document herbal tea plant species used and commercialized as "liáng chá" in Chaoshan area, to facilitate the use and development of herbal tea enterprises, and to promote the further development of national herbal tea...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249175/an-update-of-brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-serotyping
#11
Werner Herbst, Simone Schneider, Georg Baljer, Stefanie A Barth
Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD) has been divided into 9 serotypes on basis of its lipooligosaccharide (LOS). Knowledge on circulating serotypes in Europe, however, is rare. Regarding that immunity to SD is serotype specific an update of B. hyodysenteriae serotyping was undertaken. A LOS band of 10 to 25kDa was identified being appropriate for this purpose. Isolates from Germany, Spain, Denmark, USA and Japan were characterized in the immunoblot by sera raised to serotypes 1 through 7, serogroups H and I (reference strains) and to eight German strains...
February 16, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216899/antiprotozoal-constituents-from-annona-cherimola-miller-a-plant-used-in-mexican-traditional-medicine-for-the-treatment-of-diarrhea-and-dysentery
#12
Fernando Calzada, Jose Correa-Basurto, Elizabeth Barbosa, David Mendez-Luna, Lilian Yepez-Mulia
BACKGROUND: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae) is a medicinal plant frequently recommended in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery. OBJECTIVE: This work was undertaken to obtain information that support the traditional use of A. cherimola, on pharmacological basis using in vitro and computational experiments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the leaves of A...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208681/the-effects-of-floods-on-the-incidence-of-bacillary-dysentery-in-baise-guangxi-province-china-from-2004-to-2012
#13
Xuena Liu, Zhidong Liu, Ying Zhang, Baofa Jiang
Research shows potential effects of floods on intestinal infections. Baise, a city in Guangxi Province (China) had experienced several floods between 2004 and 2012 due to heavy and constant precipitation. This study aimed to examine the relationship between floods and the incidence of bacillary dysentery in Baise. A mixed generalized additive model and Spearman correlation were applied to analyze the relationship between monthly incidence of bacillary dysentery and 14 flood events with two severity levels. Data collected from 2004 to 2010 were utilized to estimate the parameters, whereas data from 2011 to 2012 were used to validate the model...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183311/evaluation-of-the-antidiarrheal-activity-of-the-leaf-extracts-of-myrtus-communis-linn-myrtaceae-in-mice-model
#14
Mekonnen Sisay, Ephrem Engidawork, Workineh Shibeshi
BACKGROUND: Myrtus communis L. has a folkloric repute for the management of diarrhea and dysentery in different parts of the world. However, the safety and efficacy of the leaf extract have not been scientifically validated in animal model. This study was, therefore, aimed to investigate the antidiarrheal effect of 80% methanol extract (80ME) and solvent fractions of the leaves of Myrtus communis L. in mice. METHODS: The antidiarrheal activity of the 80ME and solvent fractions was evaluated against castor oil induced diarrheal model, charcoal meal and enteropooling tests...
February 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182670/killing-of-diverse-eye-pathogens-acanthamoeba-spp-fusarium-solani-and-chlamydia-trachomatis-with-alcohols
#15
Yousuf Aqeel, Raquel Rodriguez, Aparajita Chatterjee, Robin R Ingalls, John Samuelson
BACKGROUND: Blindness is caused by eye pathogens that include a free-living protist (Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. byersi, and/or other Acanthamoeba spp.), a fungus (Fusarium solani), and a bacterium (Chlamydia trachomatis). Hand-eye contact is likely a contributor to the spread of these pathogens, and so hand washing with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizers (when water is not available) might reduce their transmission. Recently we showed that ethanol and isopropanol in concentrations present in hand sanitizers kill walled cysts of Giardia and Entamoeba, causes of diarrhea and dysentery, respectively...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173799/a-novel-multiplex-qpcr-targeting-23s-rdna-for-diagnosis-of-swine-dysentery-and-porcine-intestinal-spirochaetosis
#16
Anna Borgström, Simone Scherrer, Constanze Kirchgässner, Sarah Schmitt, Daniel Frei, Max M Wittenbrink
BACKGROUND: A multiplex qPCR targeting a 128 bp region on the 23S rDNA gene was developed for detection of Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli, the agents of swine dysentery (SD) and porcine intestinal spirochaetosis (PIS), together with a triplet of apathogenic Brachyspira spp. (B. innocens, B. intermedia, B. murdochii) in porcine feces. The multiplex qPCR was evaluated against a duplex PCR (La et al., J Clin Microbiol 41:3372-5, 2003). RESULTS: Using DNA extracted from fecal culture, the multiplex qPCR showed excellent agreement with the duplex PCR (κ = 0...
February 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157786/campylobacter-jejuni-and-associated-immune-mechanisms-short-term-effects-and-long-term-implications-for-infants-in-low-income-countries
#17
Amanda E Schnee, William A Petri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as one of the most common causes of food-borne gastrointestinal illness worldwide, resulting in a self-limiting dysentery in developed countries. However, it is increasingly gaining attention due to its association with postinfectious complications such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome and recently recognized importance in early childhood diarrhea in developing countries. We hypothesize that the inflammation mediated by C. jejuni infection causes environmental enteric dysfunction, and with contribution from diet and the host, microbiome may be responsible for growth faltering in children and developmental disability...
February 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152649/anti-inflammatory-anti-cholinergic-and-cytotoxic-effects-of-sida-rhombifolia
#18
Siau Hui Mah, Soek Sin Teh, Gwendoline Cheng Lian Ee
CONTEXT: Sida (Malvaceae) has been used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of diarrhoea, malarial, gastrointestinal dysentery, fevers, asthma and inflammation. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and anti-cholinergic activities of Sida rhombifolia Linn. whole plant for the first time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: S. rhombifolia whole plant was extracted by n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149488/multi-locus-sequence-type-analysis-of-shigellas-pp-isolates-from-tehran-iran
#19
Shadi Shahsavan, Maliheh Nobakht, Abdolaziz Rastegar-Lari, Parviz Owlia, Bita Bakhshi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Strains of Shigella spp. can cause shigellosis, or bacillary dysentery. that is a public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the population structure and genetic relatedness of multidrug resistant S. sonnei and S. flexneri isolated during a one year period from children with diarrhea in Tehran, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 70 Shigella spp. were detected during the study period. Twenty MDR isolates of Shigella spp...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146074/lannea-coromandelica-houtt-merr-induces-heme-oxygenase-1-ho-1-expression-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-via-the-p38-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-p38-jnk-nrf2-mediated-antioxidant-pathway
#20
Md Badrul Alam, Kyoo-Ri Kwon, Seok-Hyun Lee, Sang-Han Lee
The leaves of Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. are used in the Garo, Pahan, and Teli tribal communities of Bangladesh as a traditional medicinal plant to treat hepatitis, diabetes, ulcers, heart disease, and dysentery. However, there have been limited phytochemical and biological studies on the bark of L. coromandelica. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant activities of L. coromandelica bark extract (LCBE) and the underlying mechanism using RAW 264.7 cells. The LCBE was analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect its key polyphenolic compounds...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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