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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638879/traditional-knowledge-of-medicinal-plants-in-tribes-of-tripura-in-northeast-india
#1
Maria Debbarma, Nazir A Pala, Munesh Kumar, Rainer W Bussmann
BACKGROUND: The present study was carried out in Mandwi area and its outskirts of Tripura district of tribal areas Autonomous district council to document the available ethno-medicinal plants and their traditional application among Mandwi tribes. METHODOLOGY: Field explorations were carried out during the months of March-June 2013. The ethno-medicinal survey was conducted particularly with Tripuri tribe in Mandai area, with the help of local medicine men, locally known as bhoidho (Tripuri)...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637484/seasonal-and-geographical-distribution-of-bacillary-dysentery-shigellosis-and-associated-climate-risk-factors-in-kon-tam-province-in-vietnam-from-1999-to-2013
#2
Hu Suk Lee, T T Ha Hoang, Phuc Pham-Duc, Mihye Lee, Delia Grace, Dac Cam Phung, Vu Minh Thuc, Hung Nguyen-Viet
BACKGROUND: Bacillary dysentery (BD) is an acute bacterial infection of the intestine caused by Shigella spp., with clinical symptoms ranging from fever to bloody diarrhoea to abdominal cramps to tenesmus. In Vietnam, enteric bacterial pathogens are an important cause of diarrhoea and most cases in children under 5 years of age are due to Shigella strains. The serogroups S. flexneri and S. sonnei are considered to be the most common. The main objective of this study was to, for the first time, assess the seasonal patterns and geographic distribution of BD in Vietnam, and to determine the climate risk factors associated with the incidence of BD in Kon Tum Province, where the highest rate of bacillary dysentery was observed from 1999 to 2013...
June 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635648/deoxyelephantopin-and-isodeoxyelephantopin-as-potential-anticancer-agents-with-effects-on-multiple-signaling-pathways
#3
REVIEW
Tahir Mehmood, Amara Maryam, Hamed A Ghramh, Muhammad Khan, Tonghui Ma
Cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death worldwide. The development of drugs to target only one specific signaling pathway has limited therapeutic success. Developing chemotherapeutics to target multiple signaling pathways has emerged as a new prototype for cancer treatment. Deoxyelephantopin (DET) and isodeoxyelephantopin (IDET) are sesquiterpene lactone components of "Elephantopus scaber and Elephantopus carolinianus", traditional Chinese medicinal herbs that have long been used as folk medicines to treat liver diseases, diabetes, diuresis, bronchitis, fever, diarrhea, dysentery, cancer, and inflammation...
June 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629185/leptadenia-reticulata-retz-wight-arn-jivanti-botanical-agronomical-phytochemical-pharmacological-and-biotechnological-aspects
#4
REVIEW
Sudipta Kumar Mohanty, Mallappa Kumara Swamy, Uma Rani Sinniah, Maniyam Anuradha
Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant species widely used to treat various ailments such as tuberculosis, hematopoiesis, emaciation, cough, dyspnea, fever, burning sensation, night blindness, cancer, and dysentery. In Ayurveda, it is known for its revitalizing, rejuvenating, and lactogenic properties. This plant is one of the major ingredients in many commercial herbal formulations, including Speman, Envirocare, Calshakti, Antisept, and Chyawanprash. The therapeutic potential of this herb is because of the presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, ferulic acid, luteolin, diosmetin, rutin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, hentricontanol, a triterpene alcohol simiarenol, apigenin, reticulin, deniculatin, and leptaculatin...
June 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621111/antiamoebic-activity-of-petiveria-alliacea-leaves-and-their-main-component-isoarborinol
#5
Lizeth Zavala Ocampo, Eva Aguirre HernÁndez, Nury Pérez HernÁndez, Gildardo Rivera SÁnchez, Laurence A Marchat, Esther Ramírez Moreno
Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolacaceae) is a medicinal plant with a broad range of traditional therapeutic properties, including the treatment of dysentery and intestinal infections caused by protozoan parasites. However its effects against Entamoeba histolytica have not been reported yet. We here investigated the antiamoebic activity present in the leaves of P. alliacea L. Antiamoebic activity was evaluated in methanolic and aqueous extract, as well as in the hexanic, methanolic and EtOAc fractions. P. alliacea L...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618272/shigella-sonnei-encodes-a-functional-t6ss-used-for-interbacterial-competition-and-niche-occupancy
#6
Mark C Anderson, Pascale Vonaesch, Azadeh Saffarian, Benoit S Marteyn, Philippe J Sansonetti
Shigella is a leading cause of dysentery worldwide, with the majority of infections caused by two subgroups, S. flexneri and S. sonnei. Although S. flexneri has been highly prevalent in low-income countries, global development has brought an increase in S. sonnei at the expense of S. flexneri. However, the mechanisms behind this shift are not understood. Here we report that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri, encodes a type VI secretion system (T6SS) that provides a competitive advantage in the gut. S. sonnei competes against E...
June 14, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611956/comparative-genomic-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-a-shiga-toxin-producing-shigella-sonnei-stss-strain
#7
Domonkos Sváb, Balázs Bálint, Bálint Vásárhelyi, Gergely Maróti, István Tóth
Shigella strains are important agents of bacillary dysentery, and in recent years Shigella sonnei has emerged as the leading cause of shigellosis in industrialized and rapidly developing countries. More recently, several S. sonnei and Shigella flexneri strains producing Shiga toxin (Stx) have been reported from sporadic cases and from an outbreak in America. In the present study we aimed to shed light on the evolution of a recently identified Shiga toxin producing S. sonnei (STSS) isolated in Europe. Here we report the first completely assembled whole genome sequence of a multidrug resistant (MDR) Stx-producing S...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609838/hepatoprotective-mechanism-of-lygodium-microphyllum-cav-r-br-through-ultrastructural-signaling-prevention-against-carbon-tetrachloride-ccl4-mediated-oxidative-stress
#8
Charles Gnanaraj, Muhammad Dawood Shah, Tan Tek Song, Mohammad Iqbal
Plants have been consumed in medicinal practices for centuries. Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R.Br. (Lygodiaceae), also known as Old World Climbing Fern, is a medicinal plant used by local communities in Sabah for skin and dysentery ailments. This study aims to test aqueous extract of L. microphyllum leaves for hepatoprotective and immunosuppressive activity in rats. Animal studies were carried out to evaluate hepatoprotection of aqueous extract of L. microphyllum at different doses (200, 400 and 600mg/kg b...
June 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605848/projected-burden-of-disease-for-bacillary-dysentery-due-to-flood-events-in-guangxi-china
#9
Xuena Liu, Zhidong Liu, Guoyong Ding, Baofa Jiang
Many researchers have been studying the influence of floods on intestinal infection in recent years. This study aimed to project the future disease burden of bacillary dysentery associated with floods in Guangxi, China. Relying on the longitudinal data, a generalized additive mixed model was applied to quantify the relationship between the monthly morbidity of bacillary dysentery and floods with two severity levels from 2004 to 2010, controlling for other meteorological variables. Years Lived with Disability (YLDs) was used as the measure of the burden of bacillary dysentery in the future of Guangxi, China...
June 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601443/a-cohort-study-of-the-effect-of-winter-dysentery-on-herd-level-milk-production
#10
Ingrid Toftaker, Ingrid Holmøy, Ane Nødtvedt, Olav Østerås, Maria Stokstad
Winter dysentery (WD) is a contagious disease caused by bovine coronavirus. It is characterized by acute onset of diarrhea, fever, depression, and reduced milk yield in adult cattle. Although production loss is a well-known consequence of WD, large-scale studies estimating the effect on milk production are lacking. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of farmer-reported WD on herd-level milk production and milk composition. A cohort study was performed based on reports of herd outbreaks of winter dysentery during a regional epidemic in Norway during the winter of 2011-2012...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595500/the-genus-patrinia-a-review-of-traditional-uses-phytochemical-and-pharmacological-studies
#11
Xirui He, Fei Luan, Zefeng Zhao, Ning Ning, Maoxing Li, Ling Jin, Yu Chang, Qiang Zhang, Ni Wu, Linhong Huang
The aim of the present review is to comprehensively outline the botanical description, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Patrinia, and to discuss possible trends for the further study of medicinal plants from the genus Patrinia. The genus Patrinia plays an important role in Asian medicine for the treatment of erysipelas, conjunctival congestion with swelling and pain, peri-appendicular abscesses, lung carbuncle, dysentery, leucorrhea, and postpartum disease. More than 210 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from Patrinia plants, especially P...
2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589459/quality-of-groundwater-resources-in-afghanistan
#12
Ehsanullah Hayat, Alper Baba
Water is the main source of energy production and economy in Afghanistan where agriculture accounts for more than 50% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Access to safe drinking water is still a problem in the country, which has caused different health issues and even child mortality especially in rural areas. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the country. However, little knowledge is available about the quality of groundwater throughout the entire country, and its quality has not been investigated extensively yet like in other countries in the world...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574473/phytochemical-quantification-and-the-in-vitro-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-activity-of-phellodendron-chinense-and-its-components
#13
Yu Jin Kim, Hye-Sun Lim, Yoonju Kim, Jun Lee, Bu-Yeo Kim, Soo-Jin Jeong
The dried bark of Phellodendron chinense has been used as a traditional herbal medicine to remove damp heat, relieve consumptive fever, and cure dysentery and diarrhea. In the present study, we performed quantitative analyses of the two components of P. chinense, phellodendrine and berberine, using high-performance liquid chromatography. A 70% ethanol extract of P. chinense was prepared and the two components were separated on a C-18 analytical column using a gradient solvent system of acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) aqueous trifluoroacetic acid...
June 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573238/kirkia-acuminata-oliv-a-review-of-its-ethnobotany-and-pharmacology
#14
Alfred Maroyi
BACKGROUND: Local communities in sub-Saharan Africa have a long history of medicinal plant usage. Like in other parts of the developing world, rural and urban communities are still dependent on herbal medicines for primary health care, and the use of herbal medicines is still an integral part of their daily life and socio-cultural life style. The objective of this paper is to summarise information on the ethnobotany and pharmacology of Kirkia acuminata Oliv. throughout its distributional range...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558874/identification-of-c-geranylated-flavonoids-from-paulownia-catalpifolia-gong-tong-fruits-by-hplc-dad-esi-ms-ms-and-their-anti-aging-effects-on-2bs-cells-induced-by-h2o2
#15
Wen-Zhao Tang, Ying-Ai Wang, Tian-Yang Gao, Xiao-Jing Wang, Yun-Xue Zhao
The fruits of Paulownia catalpifolia Gong Tong are used as a Chinese folk herbal medicine for the treatment of enteritis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, and dysentery, etc. Our previous study has identified new C-geranylated flavanones with obvious anti-proliferative effects in lung cancer A549 cells. In the present study, a new C-geranylated flavone, paucatalinone C (1) and five known C-geranylated flavanones (2-6) were isolated. In addition, a total of 34 C-geranylated flavonoids were detected by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS coupling techniques from the CH2Cl2 extract of P...
May 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556951/the-human-mast-cell-line-1-cell-membrane-chromatography-coupled-with-hplc-esi-ms-ms-method-for-screening-potentical-anaphylactic-components-from-chuanxinlian-injection
#16
Yuanyuan Lin, Cheng Wang, Yajing Hou, Huaizhen Hev Limin Huang, Liu Yang, Meng Sun
Chuanxinlian injection is a traditional Chinese medicine injection widely used in China to treat sore throat, cough, and dysentery. While, the high occurrence of severe adverse reactions had been reported in clinical practice in recent years. In the present study, a human mast cell line-1 cell membrane chromatography coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was established to screen and identify potentical anaphylactic components in chuanxinlian injection, and the dehydroandrographolide was identified as a potential anaphylactic component...
May 29, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552105/acacia-karroo-hayne-ethnomedicinal-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-an-important-medicinal-plant-in-southern-africa
#17
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
Acacia karroo (A. karroo) has been used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of southern Africa for several centuries. The potential of A. karroo as herbal medicine, its associated phytochemistry and biological activities are reviewed. The extensive literature survey revealed that A. karroo is traditionally used to treat or manage 32 and five human and animal diseases and ailments, respectively. The species is used as herbal medicine for diseases and ailments such as colds, diarrhoea, dysentery, flu, malaria, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), wounds, and also as colic and ethnoveterinary medicine...
April 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541454/comprehensive-analysis-of-prevalence-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-mono-infections-and-co-infections-in-diarrhoeal-diseases-in-children-in-tanzania
#18
Sabrina J Moyo, Øyvind Kommedal, Bjorn Blomberg, Kurt Hanevik, Marit Gjerde Tellevik, Samuel Y Maselle, Nina Langeland
The role of interactions between intestinal pathogens in diarrheal disease is uncertain. From August 2010 to July 2011, we collected stool samples from 723 children admitted with diarrhoea (cases) to three major hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and from 564 non-diarrheic children (controls). We analysed the samples for 17 pathogens and assessed interactions between co-infections in additive and multiplicative models. At least one pathogen was detected in 86.9% of the cases and 62.8%, of the controls. Prevalence of co-infections was 58...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539736/antiprotozoal-activities-of-tiliroside-and-other-compounds-from-sphaeralcea-angustifolia-cav-g-don
#19
Fernando Calzada, Jose Correa Basurto, Elizabeth Barbosa, Claudia Velázquez, Normand García Hernández, R M Ordoñez Razo, David Mendez Luna, Lilian Yepez Mulia
BACKGROUND: Sphaeralcea angustifolia (Malvaceae) is extensively used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery. OBJECTIVE: The current study was to validate the traditional use of S. angustifolia for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery on biological grounds using in vitro antiprotozoal activity and computational experiments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ethanol extract, subsequent fractions, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and a sterol were evaluated on Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia trophozoites...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539715/antiprotozoal-antibacterial-and-antidiarrheal-properties-from-the-flowers-of-chiranthodendron-pentadactylon-and-isolated-flavonoids
#20
Fernando Calzada, Teresa Juárez, Normand García-Hernández, Miguel Valdes, Oscar Ávila, Lilian Yepez Mulia, Claudia Velázquez
BACKGROUND: Chiranthodendron pentadactylon Larreat. (Sterculiaceae) is a Mexican plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of heart disease symptoms and infectious diarrhea. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro antiprotozoal and antibacterial activities and in vivo antidiarrheal activity from the flowers of C. pentadactylon using the extract, fractions, and major isolated flavonoids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of C...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
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