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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430783/shigella-dysenteriae-infection-activates-proinflammatory-response-through-%C3%AE-catenin-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#1
Ashidha Gopal, Iyer Soumya Chidambaram, Niranjali Devaraj, Halagowder Devaraj
Shigella dysenteriae (S.dysenteriae) the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades the human colonic epithelium resulting in severe intestinal inflammatory response and epithelial destruction. However, the mechanism by which S.dysenteriae infection regulates proinflammatory cytokines during intestinal inflammation is still obscure. In this study, we evaluated whether the interaction of β-catenin and NF-κB regulates proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-8 by modulating GSK-3β activity during S.dysenteriae infection in rat ileal loop model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428292/shigella-draft-genome-sequences-resources-for-food-safety-and-public-health
#2
Allison M Weis, Brent Gilpin, Bihua C Huang, Nguyet Kong, Poyin Chen, Bart C Weimer
Shigella is a major foodborne pathogen that infects humans and nonhuman primates and is the major cause of dysentery and reactive arthritis worldwide. This is the initial public release of 16 Shigella genome sequences from four species sequenced as part of the 100K Pathogen Genome Project.
April 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419165/soaking-suggests-alternative-facts-only-co-crystallization-discloses-major-ligand-induced-interface-rearrangements-of-a-homodimeric-trna-binding-protein-indicating-a-novel-mode-of-inhibition
#3
Frederik Rainer Ehrmann, Johann Stojko, Alexander Metz, François Debaene, Luzi Jakob Barandun, Andreas Heine, François Diederich, Sarah Cianférani, Klaus Reuter, Gerhard Klebe
For the efficient pathogenesis of Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, full functionality of tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (TGT) is mandatory. TGT performs post-transcriptional modifications of tRNAs in the anticodon loop taking impact on virulence development. This suggests TGT as a putative target for selective anti-shigellosis drug therapy. Since bacterial TGT is only functional as homodimer, its activity can be inhibited either by blocking its active site or by preventing dimerization. Recently, we discovered that in some crystal structures obtained by soaking the full conformational adaptation most likely induced in solution upon ligand binding is not displayed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414041/acute-and-sub-acute-toxicological-evaluation-of-lyophilized-nymphaea-x-rubra-roxb-ex-andrews-rhizome-extract
#4
Kushal Kumar, Sabeena Sharma, Ashish Kumar, Pushpender Bhardwaj, Kalpana Barhwal, Sunil Kumar Hota
Nymphaea x rubra Roxb. ex Andrews (N. rubra) has been widely reported for immunomodulatory properties and treatment of piles, bleeding nose and dysentery in traditional medicinal systems. However, its in-vitro and in-vivo toxicity studies have never been investigated. So, the present study was designed to investigate in-vitro and in-vivo toxicity of methanolic extract of N. rubra rhizome in rats. In-vitro cytotoxicity studies were conducted for different doses of extract in N2a cell lines. For in-vivo toxicity studies, SD rats were divided into three groups and administered with 0, 300 and 2000 mg/kg b...
April 13, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412679/epidemic-characteristics-of-main-infectious-diseases-in-yantai-city-between-2010-and-2012-and-prevention-strategy-research
#5
Huimin Gao, Wenbo Luan, Maobo Wang, Yanjie Dong
To investigate the epidemic characteristics and prevention strategies of main infectious diseases. From 2010 to 2012, 23 notifiable diseases were reported in Yantai with average reported cases of 17,376. The morbidity was the highest in 2012 and the lowest in 2011. The accumulated death toll was 101 with the highest death rate in 2011 and the lowest in 2012. Major class A and B infectious diseases included viral hepatitis, phthisis, syphilis, clap and dysentery. The major class C infectious disease was hand-foot-and-mouth disease every year...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394930/analysis-of-host-microrna-function-uncovers-a-role-for-mir-29b-2-5p-in-shigella-capture-by-filopodia
#6
Ushasree Sunkavalli, Carmen Aguilar, Ricardo Jorge Silva, Malvika Sharan, Ana Rita Cruz, Caroline Tawk, Claire Maudet, Miguel Mano, Ana Eulalio
MicroRNAs play an important role in the interplay between bacterial pathogens and host cells, participating as host defense mechanisms, as well as exploited by bacteria to subvert host cellular functions. Here, we show that microRNAs modulate infection by Shigella flexneri, a major causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans. Specifically, we characterize the dual regulatory role of miR-29b-2-5p during infection, showing that this microRNA strongly favors Shigella infection by promoting both bacterial binding to host cells and intracellular replication...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393050/how-do-the-virulence-factors-of-shigella-work-together-to-cause-disease
#7
REVIEW
Emily Mattock, Ariel J Blocker
Shigella is the major cause of bacillary dysentery world-wide. It is divided into four species, named S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae, and S. boydii, which are distinct genomically and in their ability to cause disease. Shigellosis, the clinical presentation of Shigella infection, is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. Shigella's ability to cause disease has been attributed to virulence factors, which are encoded on chromosomal pathogenicity islands and the virulence plasmid...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389211/role-of-the-srrz-rz1-lambdoid-lysis-cassette-in-the-pathoadaptive-evolution-of-shigella
#8
Adriano Leuzzi, Milena Grossi, Maria Letizia Di Martino, Martina Pasqua, Gioacchino Micheli, Bianca Colonna, Gianni Prosseda
Shigella, the etiological agent of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), is a highly adapted human pathogen. It evolved from an innocuous ancestor resembling the Escherichia coli strain by gain and loss of genes and functions. While the gain process concerns the acquisition of the genetic determinants of virulence, the loss is related to the adaptation of the genome to the new pathogenic status and occurs by pathoadaptive mutation of antivirulence genes. In this study, we highlight that the SRRz/Rz1 lambdoid lysis cassette, even though stably adopted in E...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387879/brazilian-strain-of-bovine-respiratory-coronavirus-is-derived-from-dual-enteric-and-respiratory-tropism
#9
E A Beuttemmuller, A F Alfieri, S A Headley, A A Alfieri
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a pathogen related to enteric and respiratory diseases in cattle worldwide. Enteric (BECoV) strains of BCoV are predominant in South America, and genetic investigations have been conducted to identify its relationship with isolates of respiratory origin (BRCoV). In this study, we used a BRCoV strain (BR-UEL11) derived from an outbreak of respiratory disease in feedlot cattle in southern Brazil, and compared the partial sequence of the polymorphic region of Spike (which was detected and sequenced by two distinct reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions) with those of other BCoV strains...
April 5, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384119/status-of-water-pollution-in-relation-to-industrialization-in-rajasthan
#10
Ritu Singh Rajput, Sonali Pandey, Seema Bhadauria
India is a large and densely populated country; its economy is largely agricultural. Making the best use of the country's manpower has always posed a challenge. Industrialization could become a dominant component of the economy and displace agriculture. Traditional livelihoods of occupational groups are threatened by the practice of disposing untreated industrial waste into rivers and bodies of water. These uncontrolled disposals impact local natural resources with negative long-term effects. Industrialization is the development of intellectual and financial trade that changes a predominantly rustic culture into a modern one...
April 6, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375117/clinical-study-on-the-efficacy-of-amoebex-coded-herbal-drug-compared-with-metronidazole-for-the-treatment-of-amoebic-dysentery
#11
Syed MuhammadAli Shah, Khan Usmanghani, Naveed Akhtar, Muhammad Akram, Hafiz Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Mohtasheemul Hasan
Amoebiasisis an infectious disease, which originated with the single-celled parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. The parasitic amoeba infects the liver and intestine and may cause mild diarrhea and serious dysentery with bloody and mucoid stool. A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Amoebex (400mg), a herbal formulation for the treatment of amoebiasis infections as compared to that of Metronidazole (400mg). The therapeutic evaluations of these medicines were carried out on 184 clinically diagnosed cases of the amoebiasis infection...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373121/metabonomics-based-analysis-of-brachyspira-pilosicoli-s-response-to-tiamulin-reveals-metabolic-activity-despite-significant-growth-inhibition
#12
Caroline Ivanne Le Roy, Jade Louise Passey, Martin John Woodward, Roberto Marcello La Ragione, Sandrine Paule Claus
Pathogenic anaerobes Brachyspira spp. are responsible for an increasing number of Intestinal Spirochaetosis (IS) cases in livestock against which few approved treatments are available. Tiamulin is used to treat swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira spp. and recently has been used to handle avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS). The therapeutic dose used in chickens requires further evaluation since cases of bacterial resistance to tiamulin have been reported. In this study, we evaluated the impact of tiamulin at varying concentrations on the metabolism of B...
March 31, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324657/a-review-of-the-current-state-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-test-methods-for-brachyspira
#13
Dharmasiri G R S Kulathunga, Joseph E Rubin
The re-emergence of swine dysentery (Brachyspira-associated muco-haemorrhagic colitis) since the late 2000's has illuminated diagnostic challenges associated with this genus. The methods used to detect, identify and characterize Brachyspira from clinical samples have not been standardized and laboratories frequently rely heavily on in-house techniques. Particularly concerning is the lack of standardized methods for determining and interpreting the antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. The integration of laboratory data into a treatment plan is a critical component of prudent antimicrobial usage, the lack of standardized methods is therefore an important limitation to the evidence based use of antimicrobials...
March 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321826/the-role-of-probiotics-in-the-treatment-of-dysentery-a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial
#14
Alireza Sharif, Hamed Haddad Kashani, Elahe Nasri, Zahra Soleimani, Mohammad Reza Sharif
Diarrhea is considered as an important cause of morbidity and mortality, even though one of the main reasons of death following diarrhea is initiated by dysentery. In recent years, the consumption of probiotics has been proposed for the treatment of infectious diarrhea. Despite most of the studies on probiotics have focused on acute watery diarrhea, few studies in the field of dysentery have found beneficial effects of probiotics. This study is a randomized double-blind clinical trial. The patients were randomly placed into control and case groups...
March 21, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321350/shigellosis-caused-by-ctx-m-type-esbl-producing-shigella-flexneri-in-two-siblings-of-rural-nepal-first-case-report-from-the-country
#15
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Govardhan Joshi, Bashu Dev Pardhe, Jyotsna Shakya, Anjeela Bhetwal, Shreena Shakya, Roshan Pandit, Sumesh Shreekhanda Shrestha, Puspa Raj Khanal
Shigellosis is an acute infectious disease characterized as severe bloody diarrhea (dysentery) and is accountable for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality especially in children under the age of 5 years. Antimicrobial therapy is required in the cases of severe dysentery associated with Shigella. However, emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Shigella spp. over the last two decades has restricted the use of common therapeutic antimicrobials. In MDR strains, the third-generation cephalosporins have been used for the treatment, but, unfortunately, emerging reports of enzyme mediated β-lactam resistance among Shigella isolates from various parts of the world have greatly compromised the therapy of pediatric dysentery...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301166/brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-infection-regulates-mucin-glycosylation-synthesis-inducing-an-increased-expression-of-core-2-o-glycans-in-porcine-colon
#16
Vignesh Venkatakrishnan, Macarena P Quintana-Hayashi, Maxime Mahu, Freddy Haesebrouck, Frank Pasmans, Sara K Lindén
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae causes swine dysentery (SD), leading to global financial losses to the pig industry. Infection with this pathogen results in an increase in B. hyodysenteriae binding sites on mucins, along with increased colonic mucin secretion. We predict that B. hyodysenteriae modifies the glycosylation pattern of the porcine intestinal mucus layer to optimize its host niche. We characterized the swine colonic mucin O-glycome and identified the differences in glycosylation between B. hyodysenteriae-infected and noninfected pigs...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300698/antibacterial-screening-of-rumex-species-native-to-the-carpathian-basin-and-bioactivity-guided-isolation-of-compounds-from-rumex-aquaticus
#17
Orsolya Orbán-Gyapai, Erika Liktor-Busa, Norbert Kúsz, Dóra Stefkó, Edit Urbán, Judit Hohmann, Andrea Vasas
Plants belonging to the genus Rumex (family Polygonaceae) are used worldwide in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases caused by different microorganisms (e.g. bacteria-related dermatologic conditions, dysentery and enteritis). The present study focused on the antibacterial screening of Rumex species native to the Carpathian Basin, and isolation of compounds from one of the most efficient species, Rumex aquaticus. The antibacterial effects of n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous fractions of methanol extracts prepared from different parts of 14 Rumex species (R...
April 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294081/impacts-of-ambient-temperature-on-the-burden-of-bacillary-dysentery-in-urban-and-rural-hefei-china
#18
J Cheng, M Y Xie, K F Zhao, J J Wu, Z W Xu, J Song, D S Zhao, K S Li, X Wang, H H Yang, L Y Wen, H Su, S L Tong
Bacillary dysentery continues to be a major health issue in developing countries and ambient temperature is a possible environmental determinant. However, evidence about the risk of bacillary dysentery attributable to ambient temperature under climate change scenarios is scarce. We examined the attributable fraction (AF) of temperature-related bacillary dysentery in urban and rural Hefei, China during 2006-2012 and projected its shifting pattern under climate change scenarios using a distributed lag non-linear model...
March 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277944/the-galleria-mellonella-larvae-as-an-in-vivo-model-for-evaluation-of-shigella-virulence
#19
Shoshana Barnoy, Hanan Gancz, Yuewei Zhu, Cary L Honnold, Daniel V Zurawski, Malabi M Venkatesan
Shigella spp. causing bacterial diarrhea and dysentery are human enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens that are orally transmitted through contaminated food and water and cause bacillary dysentery. Although natural Shigella infections are restricted to humans and primates, several smaller animal models are used to analyze individual steps in pathogenesis. No animal model fully duplicates the human response and sustaining the models requires expensive animals, costly maintenance of animal facilities, veterinary services and approved animal protocols...
February 13, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266011/traditional-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-the-medicinal-species-of-the-genus-cordia-boraginaceae
#20
REVIEW
Manisha J Oza, Yogesh A Kulkarni
OBJECTIVES: Cordia (family Boraginaceae) is a genus of deciduous flowering trees or shrubs comprising more than 300 species distributed widely in the tropical regions. The aim of this review was to provide exhaustive scientific information on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the 36 important species with medicinal value from the genus Cordia, to divulge prospects for further research on its therapeutic potential. KEY FINDINGS: Leaves, fruit, bark and seed of a majority of the species were found to possess abundant ethnomedicinal value, but leaves were found to be used most frequently to treat many ailments such as respiratory disorders, stomach pain, wound, inflammation, myalgia, cough, dysentery and diarrhoea...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
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