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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240420/iodine-promoted-aromatization-of-p-menthane-type-phytocannabinoids
#1
Federica Pollastro, Diego Caprioglio, Patrizia Marotta, Aniello Schiano Moriello, Luciano De Petrocellis, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati, Giovanni Appendino
Treatment with iodine cleanly converts various p-menthane-type phytocannabinoids and their carboxylated precursors into cannabinol (CBN, 1a). The reaction is superior to previously reported protocols in terms of simplicity and substrate range, which includes not only tricyclic tetrahydrocannabinols such as Δ9-THC (2a) but also bicyclic phytocannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD, 3a). Lower homologues from the viridin series (2c and 3c, respectively) afforded cannabivarin (CBV), a non-narcotic compound that, when investigated against a series of ionotropic (thermo-TRPs) biological end-points of phytocannabinoids, retained the submicromolar TRPA1-activating and TRPM8-inhibiting properties of CBN, while also potently activating TRPV2...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229241/intelligent-poly-vinyl-alcohol-chitosan-nanoparticles-mulberry-extracts-films-capable-of-monitoring-ph-variations
#2
Qianyun Ma, Tieqiang Liang, Lele Cao, Lijuan Wang
The aim of this study was to prepare a visually responsive intelligent film based on poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), chitosan nanoparticles (CHNPs) and mulberry extracts (MBE). CHNPs were first prepared by using ionotropic gelation method to enhance the mechanical properties of PVA based films. The morphology, particle size, zeta potential and crystallinity of CHNPs were measured. The resultant CHNPs were spherical with a diameter of 381.2nm, with high stability and a zeta potential of 49.1±1.33mV. The film with 6% CHNPs (P-C6) had the highest tensile strength (∼73...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224722/nrap-1-is-a-presynaptically-released-nmda-receptor-auxiliary-protein-that-modifies-synaptic-strength
#3
Ning Lei, Jerry E Mellem, Penelope J Brockie, David M Madsen, Andres V Maricq
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are a subtype of postsynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors that function as molecular coincidence detectors, have critical roles in models of learning, and are associated with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. To date, no auxiliary proteins that modify NMDARs have been identified. Here, we report the identification of NRAP-1, an auxiliary protein in C. elegans that modulates NMDAR function. NMDAR-mediated currents were eliminated in nrap-1 mutants, as was NMDA-dependent behavior...
December 1, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222778/astrocyte-microglia-cocultures-as-a-model-to-study-neuroinflammation
#4
Laura Facci, Massimo Barbierato, Stephen D Skaper
Glial cell activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders as well as in chronic and neuropathic pain. This chapter describes a model which allows one to assess the individual and combined contributions of astrocytes and microglia in response to a pro-inflammatory stimulus, with emphasis on ionotropic purinergic receptors.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222130/stargazin-and-cornichon-3-relieve-polyamine-block-of-ampa-receptors-by-enhancing-blocker-permeation
#5
Patricia M G E Brown, Hugo McGuire, Derek Bowie
Most ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels assemble as signaling complexes consisting of pore-forming and auxiliary subunits. In the mammalian brain, AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs) coassemble with several families of auxiliary subunits that regulate channel gating as well as ion channel block and permeation. Previous work has shown that auxiliary proteins stargazin (or γ2) and cornichon-3 (CNIH-3) attenuate the cytoplasmic polyamine channel block of AMPARs, although the underlying mechanism has yet to be established...
December 8, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212793/pacap-6-38-or-kynurenate-microinjections-into-the-rvlm-prevent-development-of-sympathetic-long-term-facilitation-following-acute-intermittent-hypoxia
#6
Zohra M Kakall, Paul M Pilowsky, Melissa Mj Farnham
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intermittent hypoxia causes a persistent increase in sympathetic activity, which progresses to hypertension in chronic conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an excitatory neurotransmitter that causes long-lasting sympathetic excitation. We aimed to determine if intermittent activation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) causes PACAP-mediated elevation of sympathetic nerve activity (sSNA), termed sympathetic long-term facilitation (sLTF)...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209233/chemosensory-gene-families-in-ectropis-grisescens-and-candidates-for-detection-of-type-ii-sex-pheromones
#7
Zhao-Qun Li, Zong-Xiu Luo, Xiao-Ming Cai, Lei Bian, Zhao-Jun Xin, Yan Liu, Bo Chu, Zong-Mao Chen
Tea grey geometrid (Ectropis grisescens), a devastating chewing pest in tea plantations throughout China, produces Type-II pheromone components. Little is known about the genes encoding proteins involved in the perception of Type-II sex pheromone components. To investigate the olfaction genes involved in E. grisescens sex pheromones and plant volatiles perception, we sequenced female and male antennae transcriptomes of E. grisescens. After assembly and annotation, we identified 153 candidate chemoreception genes in E...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207480/improved-in-vivo-efficacy-of-anti-hypertensive-biopeptides-encapsulated-in-chitosan-nanoparticles-fabricated-by-ionotropic-gelation-on-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#8
Shehu Muhammad Auwal, Mohammad Zarei, Chin Ping Tan, Mahiran Basri, Nazamid Saari
Recent biotechnological advances in the food industry have led to the enzymatic production of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory biopeptides with a strong blood pressure lowering effect from different food proteins. However, the safe oral administration of biopeptides is impeded by their enzymatic degradation due to gastrointestinal digestion. Consequently, nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery systems are used to overcome these gastrointestinal barriers to maintain the improved bioavailability and efficacy of the encapsulated biopeptides...
December 2, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207018/clinical-significance-of-interleukin%C3%A2-6-and-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-ketamine%C3%A2-induced-cystitis
#9
Chi-Jung Huang, Fa-Kung Lee, Shao-Kuan Chen, Chih-Cheng Chien, Sheng-Tang Wu, Yen-Chieh Wang
Ketamine is an ionotropic glutamatergic N‑methyl‑D‑aspartate receptor antagonist, which is widely used among recreational drug abusers. Ketamine abusers exhibit substantially reduced bladder capacity, which can lead to urinary frequency. The molecular pathogenesis of ketamine‑induced cystitis has been scarcely reported. Given previous clinical findings, it may be hypothesized that pathological alterations in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the urinary bladder serve a crucial role in the mechanism underlying cystitis...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206245/correction-liu-et-al-dynamics-of-gnrh-neuron-ionotropic-gaba-and-glutamate-synaptic-receptors-are-unchanged-during-estrogen-positive-and-negative-feedback-in-female-mice-eneuro-september-october-2017-4-5-e0259-17-2017-1-14-http-dx-doi-org-10-1523-eneuro-0259
#10
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205034/augmentation-of-anticancer-drug-efficacy-in-murine-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-by-a-peripherally-acting-competitive-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptor-antagonist
#11
Mikko Gynther, Ilaria Proietti Silvestri, Jacob C Hansen, Kasper B Hansen, Tarja Malm, Yevheniia Ishchenko, Younes Larsen, Liwei Han, Silke Kayser, Seppo Auriola, Aleksanteri Petsalo, Birgitte Nielsen, Darryl S Pickering, Lennart Bunch
The most common solid tumors show intrinsic multidrug resistance (MDR) or inevitably acquire such when treated with anticancer drugs. In this work, we describe the discovery of a peripherally restricted, potent, competitive NMDA receptor antagonist 1l by a structure-activity study of the broad-acting ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist 1a. Subsequently, we demonstrate that 1l augments the cytotoxic action of sorafenib in murine hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The underlying biological mechanism was shown to be interference with the lipid signaling pathway, leading to reduced expression of MDR transporters and thereby an increased accumulation of sorafenib in the cancer cells...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204722/preparation-of-ngf-encapsulated-chitosan-nanoparticles-and-its-evaluation-on-neuronal-differentiation-potentiality-of-canine-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Bhabesh Mili, Kinsuk Das, Ajay Kumar, A C Saxena, Praveen Singh, Srikanta Ghosh, Sadhan Bag
Sustained and controlled release of neurotrophic factors in target tissue through nanomaterial based delivery system could be a better strategy for nerve tissue regeneration. The present study aims to prepare the nerve growth factor (NGF) encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles (NGF-CNPs) and its evaluation on neuronal differentiation potentiality of canine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (cBM-MSCs). The NGF-CNPs were prepared by ionotropic gelation method with tripolyphosphate (TPP) as an ionic cross-linking agent...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204679/gestational-exposure-to-inorganic-arsenic-ias3-alters-glutamate-disposition-in-the-mouse-hippocampus-and-ionotropic-glutamate-receptor-expression-leading-to-memory-impairment
#13
Janikua Nelson-Mora, Martha L Escobar, Luis Rodríguez-Durán, Lourdes Massieu, Teresa Montiel, Verónica M Rodríguez, Karina Hernández-Mercado, María E Gonsebatt
Early life exposure to environmental pollutants and toxic chemicals has been linked to learning and behavioral alterations in children. iAs exposure is associated with different types neurological disorders such as memory and learning impairment. iAs is methylated in the brain by the arsenic III-methyltransferase in a process that requires glutathione (GSH). The xCT-antiporter cell membrane transporter participates in the influx of cystine for GSH synthesis in exchange for glutamate in a 1:1 ratio. In CD-1 mice gestationally exposed to 20 ppm of sodium arsenite in drinking water, we have previously observed up-regulation of xCT in the male mouse hippocampus which caused glutamatergic synapse alterations affecting learning and memory processes...
December 4, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203410/breathing-disturbances-in-a-model-of-rett-syndrome-a-potential-involvement-of-the-glycine-receptor-%C3%AE-3-subunit
#14
Guillaume Mesuret, Julia Dannenberg, Mauricio Arnoldt, Anja-Annett Grützner, Marcus Niebert, Swen Hülsmann
The glycine receptor α3 subunit is known to be a target for cAMP/PKA-mediated phosphorylation and regulation. Mice that lack this subunit are apparently normal but the 5-HT1A-receptor mediated modulation of respiratory network activity is disturbed. Since the intracellular cAMP-concentration is reduced in mice that lack the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene, we aimed to test if the α3 subunit of the glycine receptor is involved in the development of the breathing phenotype of MeCP2-deficient mice (Mecp2-/y)...
December 1, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198196/the-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-candidate-chemosensory-genes-in-the-bird-cherry-oat-aphid-rhopalosiphum-padi-l
#15
Z-W Kang, F-H Liu, R-P Pang, W-B Yu, X-L Tan, Z-Q Zheng, H-G Tian, T-X Liu
The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) is one of the most important wheat pests with polyphagia and autumn migrants. And, chemosensory genes were thought to play a key role in insect searching their hosts, food and mate. However, a systematic identification of the chemosensory genes in this pest has not been reported. Thus, in this study, we identified 14 odorant-binding proteins, nine chemosensory proteins, one sensory neuron membrane protein, 15 odorant receptors, 19 gustatory receptors and 16 ionotropic receptors from R...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195910/dispelling-myths-about-connexins-pannexins-and-p2%C3%A3-7-in-hypoxic-ischemic-central-nervous-system
#16
REVIEW
Pedro Henrique Moreira de Freitas, Natiele Carla da Silva Ferreira, Jairo Guedes Fioravante-Rezende, Laura de Menezes Santos, Luiz Anastacio Alves, Renato Rozental
In membrane physiology, as in other fields, myths or speculations may be repeated so often and so widely that they are perceived as facts. To some extent, this has occurred with regard to gap junctions, hemichannels, pannexin channels and P2×7 (ionotropic receptors), especially concerning the interpretation of the individual role of these channels in hypoxic-ischemic CNS since these channels may be closed by the same pharmacological blockers. Significance of existing controversial data are highlighted and contradictory views from different groups are critically discussed herein...
November 28, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194360/the-modulation-of-nmda-and-ampa-kainate-receptors-by-tocotrienol-rich-fraction-and-%C3%AE-tocopherol-in-glutamate-induced-injury-of-primary-astrocytes
#17
Zahra Abedi, Huzwah Khaza'ai, Sharmili Vidyadaran, Mohd Sokhini Abd Mutalib
Astrocytes are known as structural and supporting cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Glutamate, as a main excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, can be excitotoxic, playing a key role in many chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the potential of vitamin E in protecting glutamate-injured primary astrocytes. Hence, primary astrocytes were isolated from mixed glial cells of C57BL/6 mice by applying the EasySep® Mouse CD11b Positive Selection Kit, cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) and supplemented with special nutrients...
December 1, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193067/the-role-of-s-nitrosylation-of-kainate-type-of-ionotropic-glutamate-receptor-2-in-epilepsy-induced-by-kainic-acid
#18
Linxiao Wang, Yanyan Liu, Rulan Lu, Guoying Dong, Xia Chen, Wenwei Yun, Xianju Zhou
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease affecting millions of individuals. Kainate receptors (KARs),especially kainate-type of ionotropic glutamate receptor 2 (GluK2), play an important role in epileptogenesis. Recent data showed GluK2 could undergo post-translational modifications in terms of S-nitrosylation (SNO), and affect the signaling pathway of cell death in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. However, it is unclear whether S-nitrosylation of GluK2 (SNO-GluK2) contributes to cell death induced by epilepsy. Here we report that kainic acid (KA)-induced SNO-GluK2 is mediated by GluK2 itself, regulated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the level of cytoplasmic calcium in vivo and in vitro hippocampus neurons...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192252/restoration-of-patterned-vision-with-an-engineered-photoactivatable-g-protein-coupled-receptor
#19
Michael H Berry, Amy Holt, Joshua Levitz, Johannes Broichhagen, Benjamin M Gaub, Meike Visel, Cherise Stanley, Krishan Aghi, Yang Joon Kim, Dirk Trauner, John Flannery, Ehud Y Isacoff
Retinitis pigmentosa results in blindness due to degeneration of photoreceptors, but spares other retinal cells, leading to the hope that expression of light-activated signaling proteins in the surviving cells could restore vision. We used a retinal G protein-coupled receptor, mGluR2, which we chemically engineered to respond to light. In retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of blind rd1 mice, photoswitch-charged mGluR2 ("SNAG-mGluR2") evoked robust OFF responses to light, but not in wild-type retinas, revealing selectivity for RGCs that have lost photoreceptor input...
November 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191862/gabaa-receptors-activate-fish-feeding-behaviour-via-two-distinct-functional-pathways
#20
Sergey Snigirov, Sergiy Sylantyev
Benzodiazepines, acting through ionotropic receptor of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA receptor, GABAR), were shown to modify feeding behaviour and increase appetite in humans and non-human subjects. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms which underlie connected short-term behavioural fluctuations are still unclear. In the present study, we used Carassius gibelio (Prussian carp) as a model organism to research the impact of scantily explored benzodiazepine phenazepam (PNZ) on feeding behaviour and the related molecular mechanisms of PNZ action at single-cell and single-receptor levels...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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