keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Ionotrope

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458577/a-novel-delivery-method-of-cyclovirobuxine-d-for-brain-targeting-chitosan-coated-nanoparticles-loading-cyclovirobuxine-d-by-intranasal-administration
#1
Hanmei Wei, Sisi Lai, Jiabao Wei, Lei Yang, Ning Jiang, Qing Wang, Yang Yu
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the delivery of most drugs to the brain. In our previous study, the feasibility of cyclovirobuxine D delivery to the brain by a non-invasive nasal route was evaluated. In this study, a suitable drug delivery system by way of intranasal administration was developed, which could improve brain targeting. First, a formulation of cyclovirobuxine D (CVB-D) based on chitosan nanoparticles (CS-CVB-D-NPs) was prepared by the modified ionotropic gelation method through single-factor screening experiment...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455987/design-and-biological-response-of-doxycycline-loaded-chitosan-microparticles-for-periodontal-disease-treatment
#2
Silvana Gjoseva, Nikola Geskovski, Simona Dimchevska Sazdovska, Riste Popeski-Dimovski, Gjorgji Petruševski, Kristina Mladenovska, Katerina Goracinova
The aim of this study was to develop chitosan (CS) microparticulated mucoadhesive drug delivery system (DDS) with improved therapeutic performance and biological responce. Ionotropic gelation/spray drying process was used for preparation of doxycycline hyclate (DOXY) loaded low and medium molecular weight (LMw and MMw) CS/sodium tripolyphosphate microparticles (CS/TPP MPs), further coated with ethyl cellulose (EC) using coacervation/solvent displacement technique. The relevant physico-chemical and biopharmaceutical properties were optimized using experimental design approach...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454833/towards-resolving-the-presynaptic-nmda-receptor-debate
#3
REVIEW
Guy Bouvier, Rylan S Larsen, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno, Ole Paulsen, P Jesper Sjöström
In the classical view, postsynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs) trigger Hebbian plasticity via Ca2+ influx. However, unconventional presynaptic NMDARs (preNMDARs) which regulate both long-term and short-term plasticity at several synapse types have also been found. A lack of sufficiently specific experimental manipulations and a poor understanding of how preNMDARs signal have contributed to long-standing controversy surrounding these receptors. Although several prior studies linked preNMDARs to neocortical timing-dependent long-term depression (tLTD), a recent study argues that the NMDARs are actually postsynaptic and signal metabotropically, that is, without Ca2+ ...
January 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429379/formulation-development-and-evaluation-of-nifedipine-as-pylorospasm-inhibitor
#4
Shaheen Sultana, Sushma Talegaonkar, Bhaskar Ray, Harvinder Singh, F J Ahmad, Gaurav Mittal, Aseem Bhatnagar
INTRODUCTION: In this study, different nifedipine-loaded formulations were prepared to treat pylorospasm, a sphincter muscle disorder characterized by delayed gastric emptying process. The efficacy of formulation was evaluated in patients by subjective assessment, gamma scintigraphic approaches, and confocal microscopy. METHODS: Nifedipine-loaded different formulations such as sucrose bead, pellets, and microparticles (slugging method, ionotropic gelation, and chemical denaturation) were designed...
February 21, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428175/beyond-the-channel-metabotropic-signaling-by-nicotinic-receptors
#5
REVIEW
Nadine Kabbani, Robert A Nichols
The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel (LGIC) that plays an important role in cellular calcium signaling and contributes to several neurological diseases. Agonist binding to the α7 nAChR induces fast channel activation followed by inactivation and prolonged desensitization while triggering long-lasting calcium signaling. These activities foster neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, and somatodendritic regulation in the brain. We discuss here the ability of α7 nAChRs to operate in ionotropic (α7 i ) and metabotropic (α7 m ) modes, leading to calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) and G protein-associated inositol trisphosphate (IP 3 )-induced calcium release (IICR), respectively...
February 7, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421062/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-thermo-rheological-behaviour-and-ionotropic-crosslinking-of-new-gellan-gum-alkyl-derivatives
#6
Stefano Agnello, Fabio Salvatore Palumbo, Giovanna Pitarresi, Calogero Fiorica, Gaetano Giammona
This paper reports the synthesis and the physicochemical characterization of two series of gellan gum (GG) derivatives functionalized with alkyl chains with different number of carbon, from 8 to 18. In particular, low molecular weight gellan gum samples with 52.6 or 96.7 kDa, respectively, were functionalized with octylamine (C8), dodecylamine (C12) and octadecylamine (C18) by using bis(4-nitrophenyl) carbonate (4-NPBC) as a coupling agent. Thermo-rheological and ionotropic crosslinking properties of these gellan gum-alkyl derivatives were evaluated and related to the degree of derivatization in alkyl chains...
April 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405480/diverse-actions-of-the-modulatory-peptide-neurotensin-on-central-synaptic-transmission
#7
Christopher W Tschumi, Michael J Beckstead
Neurotensin (NT) is a 13 amino acid neuropeptide that is expressed throughout the central nervous system and is implicated in the etiology of multiple diseases and disorders. Many primary investigations of NT-induced modulation of neuronal excitability at the level of the synapse have been conducted, but they have not been summarized in review form in nearly 30 years. Therefore, the goal of this review is to discuss the many actions of NT on neuronal excitability across brain regions as well as NT circuit architecture...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387966/glutamatergic-mechanisms-in-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-and-therapeutic-implications
#8
Manuela Mellone, Fabrizio Gardoni
Overactivation of the glutamatergic synapse leading to maladaptive synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia is a well-demonstrated process involved in the onset of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Changes in glutamate release are paralleled by compensatory modifications of the expression and/or synaptic localization of both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Accordingly, compounds targeting N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs) and specific subtypes of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR4 and mGluR5) have been tested both in preclinical and clinical studies...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381344/on-the-structural-analysis-of-polysaccharide-networks-by-transmission-electron-microscopy-comparison-with-saxs
#9
Pablo Hernandez-Cerdan, Bradley William Mansel, Andrew Leis, Leif Lundin, Martin A K Williams
Polysaccharide gels assembled from the anionic biopolymers pectin and carrageenan have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Gels were formed in several different ways: for pectin, hydrogen bonding was used to form junction-zones between strands, while for carrageenan systems several different ion types were used to form ionotropic networks. Using this approach, several distinct network architectures were realized. In addition to preparing gelled samples for electron microscopy, a set of samples was taken without performing the additional treatment necessitated by the TEM measurements, and these were studied directly by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS)...
January 30, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372452/hibiscus-rosa-sinensis-mediate-anxiolytic-effect-via-modulation-of-ionotropic-gaba-a-receptors-possible-mechanism-of-action
#10
Zubia Begum, Ishrat Younus
The current study was designed with the aim to investigate anti-anxiety potential of Hibiscus rosa sinensis roots and its possible mechanism of action. For this purpose hole board test, elevated plus maze test and light/dark exploration test were employed. The ethanol extract of plant was administered orally at two different doses i.e. 100 and 500 mg/kg for consecutive 14 days. The results of present investigation indicate that plant extract significantly (p < 0.05) increased the number of head dips and rearings as compared to control on respective days of observation...
January 25, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356168/altered-transcription-of-glutamatergic-and-glycinergic-receptors-in-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn-following-spinal-cord-transection-is-minimally-affected-by-passive-exercise-of-the-hindlimbs
#11
Jeremy W Chopek, Christopher W MacDonell, Patricia C Shepard, Kalan R Gardiner, Phillip F Gardiner
Gene expression is altered following a spinal transection (STx) in both motor and sensory systems. Exercise has been shown to influence gene expression in both systems post-STx. Gene expression alterations have also been shown in the dorsal root ganglia and nociceptive laminae of the spinal cord following either an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) or a contusive SCI. However, the effect of STx and exercise on gene expression in spinal cord laminae I-III has not fully been examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if gene expression in laminae I-III is altered following STx and determine if superimposed passive exercise of the hindlimbs would influence gene expression post-STx in laminae I-III...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355693/genetic-deletion-of-nmda-receptors-suppresses-gabaergic-synaptic-transmission-in-two-distinct-types-of-central-neurons
#12
Xinglong Gu, Wei Lu
NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDARs) play an important role in the regulation of synapse development and function in the brain. Recently we have shown that NMDARs are critical for GABAergic synapse development in developing hippocampal neurons. However, it remains unclear whether NMDARs are important for establishment of GABAergic synaptic transmission in other types of neurons in the brain. Here we report that in both cortical pyramidal neurons and midbrain dopamine neurons in ventral tegmental area (VTA), genetic deletion of the GluN1 subunit, which is required for assembly of functional NMDARs, leads to a strong reduction of GABAergic synaptic transmission...
January 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350251/pyramidal-cell-selective-glun1-knockout-causes-impairments-in-salience-attribution-and-related-eeg-activity
#13
Alexandra D Forrest, Jakyung Bang, Robert E Featherstone, Jonathan H Bloom, Matthew S Luminais, Rebecca V Zhang, Christopher R Gajewski, Mary F McMullen, Yuling Liang, Steven J Siegel
Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric disease characterized by symptoms including hallucinations, delusions, social withdrawal, loss of pleasure, and inappropriate affect. Although schizophrenia is marked by dysfunction in dopaminergic and glutamatergic signaling, it is not presently clear how these dysfunctions give rise to symptoms. The aberrant salience hypothesis of schizophrenia argues that abnormal attribution of motivational salience to stimuli is one of the main contributors to both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia...
January 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344671/role-of-mir-34c-in-the-cognitive-function-of-epileptic-rats-induced-by-pentylenetetrazol
#14
Yiqing Huang, Xixia Liu, Yuhan Liao, Yayun Liao, Donghua Zou, Xing Wei, Qi Huang, Yuan Wu
Studies suggest that microRNA (miR)‑34c may serve a role in cognitive function in rodent and primate groups. A previous study demonstrated an increase in miR‑34c expression in chronic epileptic rats with memory disorders, induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). However, the mechanism underlying the effects of miR‑34c on cognitive function in epileptic rats remains unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated alterations in cognitive function in temporal lobe epileptic rats, induced by repeated injections of PTZ, following treatment with an miR‑34c agomir compared with a scramble group...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337105/chitosan-sodium-tripolyphosphate-nanoparticles-as-efficient-vehicles-for-antioxidant-peptidic-fraction-from-common-kilka
#15
Seyed Fakhreddin Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Soleimani, Maryam Nikkhah
Fish-purified antioxidant peptide (AOP)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) were synthesized based on the ionotropic gelation between CS and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). The ζ-potential showed an earlier rise and later decrease with increasing concentrations of AOP. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images also revealed roughly uniform spherical-shaped nanoparticles with diameter of <100 nm. Molecular interactions among the components of the NPs and peptides were confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334982/genome-wide-identification-characterization-and-classification-of-ionotropic-glutamate-receptor-genes-iglurs-in-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-sinensis-diptera-culicidae
#16
Ting-Ting Wang, Feng-Ling Si, Zheng-Bo He, Bin Chen
BACKGROUND: Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are conserved ligand-gated ion channel receptors, and ionotropic receptors (IRs) were revealed as a new family of iGluRs. Their subdivision was unsettled, and their characteristics are little known. Anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector in eastern Asia, and its genome was recently well sequenced and annotated. METHODS: We identified iGluR genes in the An. sinensis genome, analyzed their characteristics including gene structure, genome distribution, domains and specific sites by bioinformatic methods, and deduced phylogenetic relationships of all iGluRs in An...
January 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326174/muscle-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-may-mediate-trans-synaptic-signaling-at-the-mouse-neuromuscular-junction
#17
Xueyong Wang, J Michael McIntosh, Mark M Rich
Block of neurotransmitter receptors at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has been shown to trigger upregulation of the number of synaptic vesicles released (quantal content, QC), a response termed homeostatic synaptic plasticity. The mechanism underlying this plasticity is not known. Here, we used selective toxins to demonstrate that block of α1-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at the neuromuscular junction of male and female mice, triggers the upregulation of QC. Reduction of current flow through nAChRs, induced by drugs with antagonist activity, demonstrated that reduction in synaptic current per se does not trigger upregulation of QC...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325748/cranberry-proanthocyanidin-chitosan-hybrid-nanoparticles-as-a-potential-inhibitor-of-extra-intestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-invasion-of-gut-epithelial-cells
#18
Emilia Alfaro-Viquez, Daniel Esquivel-Alvarado, Sergio Madrigal-Carballo, Christian G Krueger, Jess D Reed
Chitosan interacts with proanthocyanidins through hydrogen-bonding, which allows encapsulation and development of stable nanoparticles via ionotropic gelation. Cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) are associated with the prevention of urinary tract infections and PAC inhibit invasion of gut epithelial cells by extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC). We determined the effect of cranberry proanthocyanidin-chitosan hybrid nanoparticles (PAC-CHTNp) on the ExPEC invasion of gut epithelial cells in vitro...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318639/interaction-between-caffeine-and-polymorphisms-of-glutamate-ionotropic-receptor-nmda-type-subunit-2a-grin2a-and-cytochrome-p450-1a2-cyp1a2-on-parkinson-s-disease-risk
#19
Iris Y Kim, Éilis J O'Reilly, Katherine C Hughes, Xiang Gao, Michael A Schwarzschild, Marjorie L McCullough, Marian T Hannan, Rebecca A Betensky, Alberto Ascherio
BACKGROUND: Caffeine intake has been inversely associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. This relationship may be modified by polymorphisms of glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A (GRIN2A) and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), but the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. METHOD: We examined the interaction of caffeine intake with GRIN2A-rs4998386 and CYP1A2-rs762551 polymorphisms in influencing PD risk among 829 incident cases of PD and 2,754 matched controls selected among participants in the following 3 large prospective ongoing cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study, the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study, and the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort...
January 10, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318454/gl261-glioma-tumor-cells-respond-to-atp-with-an-intracellular-calcium-rise-and-glutamate-release
#20
Averey D Strong, M Caitlin Indart, Nolan R Hill, Richard L Daniels
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive brain cancer with an average survival rate of 15 months. The composition of the GBM tumor microenvironment-its pH, the presence of growth and immune factors, neurotransmitters, and gliotransmitters-plays an important role in GBM pathophysiology and facilitates tumor survival and growth. In particular, GBM tumor cells produce glutamate, which is toxic to healthy tissue and is associated with increased tumor invasion into adjacent brain regions. The conditions that lead to this excitotoxic release of glutamate are not completely understood...
January 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
keyword
keyword
23668
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"