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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642010/magnetic-nanogels-as-dual-triggered-anticancer-drug-delivery-toxicity-evaluation-on-isolated-rat-liver-mitochondria
#1
Somayeh Sadighian, Kobra Rostamizadeh, Mehrdad Hamidi, Mir-Jamal Hosseini, Hassan Hosseini-Monfared
This study aimed to evaluate bio-safety of magnetic chitosan nanogels as dual triggered drug carrier for doxorubicin through analysis of mitochondrial function. In the present study, chitosan/TPP nanogels containing magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared according to the ionotropic gelation method as novel pH-sensitive magnetic nanogels. The NPs showed outstanding entrapment efficiency for doxorubicin (76.6%) with a sustained and high extent of drug release in the acidic media (pH=5-7) compared to the neutral media...
June 19, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638084/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-chemosensory-receptor-genes-in-an-aphid-endoparasitoid-aphidius-gifuensis
#2
Zhi-Wei Kang, Hong-Gang Tian, Fang-Hua Liu, Xiang Liu, Xiang-Feng Jing, Tong-Xian Liu
Olfaction and gustation play critical roles during the host-location search process of insects. Several chemosensory receptor genes are thought to be involved in providing specificity to the olfactory sensory neuron responses. The aphid endoparasitoid, Aphidius gifuensis, has been used as a biological control agent against a variety of aphid species; this parasitoid is able to detect its target host(s) effectively during the parasitic process. To understand the mechanism of host detection in A. gifuensis, we assembled specific antennal transcriptomes of each sex through next generation sequencing technology to identify the major chemosensory receptor genes...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637049/protecting-oligodendrocytes-by-targeting-non-glutamate-receptors-as-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-for-ischemic-stroke
#3
Pan Luo, Dong Liu, Lianjun Guo
Ischemic stroke has many devastating effects within the brain. At the cellular level, excitotoxicity has been a popular pharmacological target for therapeutics. To date, many clinical trials have been performed with drugs that target excitatory neurotransmitter receptors, such as NMDA receptor agonists. The results, however, have been lackluster. Most efforts to understand the impacts of excitotoxicity on the brain have focused primarily on neurons, and to a lesser degree, on gliocytes as cellular targets. Recent evidence suggests that oligodendrocytes (OLGs), the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system, are damaged by ischemia in a manner completely different from that in neurons...
June 21, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636947/assembly-secretory-pathway-trafficking-and-surface-delivery-of-kainate-receptors-is-regulated-by-neuronal-activity
#4
Ashley J Evans, Sonam Gurung, Kevin A Wilkinson, David J Stephens, Jeremy M Henley
Ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) trafficking and function underpin excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity and shape neuronal networks. It is well established that the transcription, translation, and endocytosis/recycling of iGluRs are all regulated by neuronal activity, but much less is known about the activity dependence of iGluR transport through the secretory pathway. Here, we use the kainate receptor subunit GluK2 as a model iGluR cargo to show that the assembly, early secretory pathway trafficking, and surface delivery of iGluRs are all controlled by neuronal activity...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636281/aryl-and-heteroaryl-substituted-phenylalanines-as-ampa-receptor-ligands
#5
Ewa Szymańska, Paulina Chałupnik, Tommy N Johansen, Birgitte Nielsen, Ana Maria Cuñado Moral, Darryl S Pickering, Anna Więckowska, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz
A series of racemic unnatural amino acids was rationally designed on the basis of recently published X-ray structures of the GluA2 LBD with bound phenylalanine-based antagonists. Twelve new diaryl- or aryl/heteroaryl-substituted phenylalanine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated in vitro in radioligand binding assays at native rat ionotropic glutamate receptors. The most interesting compound in this series, (RS)-2-amino-3-(3'-hydroxy-5-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)propanoic acid 7e, showed the binding affinity of 4...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634140/novel-nanoparticles-based-on-chitosan-dicarboxylate-conjugates-via-tandem-ionotropic-covalent-crosslinking-with-tripolyphosphate-and-subsequent-evaluation-as-drug-delivery-vehicles
#6
Isra Dmour, Mutasem O Taha
Chitosan-based nanoparticles prepared by ionotropic gelation are prone to stability issues. The aim of this work is to chemically modify chitosan by grafting to succinate, phthalate, glutarate and phenylsuccinate moieties and to investigate the suitability of the resulting polymers as covalently-crosslinked nanocarriers. Corresponding nanoparticles (NPs) were formulated by ionotropic gelation using tripolyphosphate (TPP) anion then they were covalently crosslinked using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC)...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631555/grik3-a-novel-oncogenic-protein-related-to-tumor-tnm-stage-lymph-node-metastasis-and-poor-prognosis-of-gc
#7
Baocheng Gong, Yuan Li, Zhenguo Cheng, Pengliang Wang, Lei Luo, Hanwei Huang, Shijie Duan, Funan Liu
Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, kainate 3 (GRIK3), as a member of the glutamate kainate receptor family, mainly participated in neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway. Other members of GRIK family were previously reported to regulate cellular migration, transformation, and proliferation in tumor. However, the mechanism of GRIK3 in tumor is still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to reveal the expression and clinical significance of GRIK3 in gastric cancer (GC). First, we performed the expression analysis and survival analysis of GRIK3 using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and the results showed that the GRIK3 expressed differentially between gastric cancer tissues and the adjacent normal tissues and that higher expression of GRIK3 was associated with poor survival outcomes...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623703/praseodymium-sorption-on-laminaria-digitata-algal-beads-and-foams
#8
Shengye Wang, Mohammed F Hamza, Thierry Vincent, Catherine Faur, Eric Guibal
Algal (Laminaria digitata) beads and algal foams have been prepared by a new synthesis mode and the sorbents were tested for praseodymium sorption in batch and fixed-bed like systems (recirculation or one-pass modes), respectively. Metal binding occurs through ion-exchange with Ca(II) ions used for ionotropic gelation of alginate contained in the algal biomass and eventually with protons. Sorption isotherms at pH 4 are described by the Langmuir and the Sips equations with maximum sorption capacities close to 110-120mgPrg(-1)...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621663/ionotropic-receptor-dependent-moist-and-dry-cells-control-hygrosensation-in-drosophila
#9
Zachary A Knecht, Ana F Silbering, Joyner Cruz, Ludi Yang, Vincent Croset, Richard Benton, Paul A Garrity
Insects use hygrosensation (humidity sensing) to avoid desiccation and, in vectors such as mosquitoes, to locate vertebrate hosts. Sensory neurons activated by either dry or moist air ('dry cells' and 'moist cells') have been described in many insects, but their behavioral roles and the molecular basis of their hygrosensitivity remain unclear. We recently reported that Drosophila hygrosensation relies on three Ionotropic Receptors (IRs) required for dry cell function: IR25a, IR93a and IR40a (Knecht et al., 2016)...
June 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620235/a-non-ionotropic-activity-of-nmda-receptors-contributes-to-glycine-induced-neuroprotection-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#10
Juan Chen, Rong Hu, Huabao Liao, Ya Zhang, Ruixue Lei, Zhifeng Zhang, Yang Zhuang, Yu Wan, Ping Jin, Hua Feng, Qi Wan
NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is known for its ionotropic function. But recent evidence suggests that NMDAR also has a non-ionotropic property. To determine the role of non-ionotropic activity of NMDARs in clinical relevant conditions, we tested the effect of glycine, a co-agonist of NMDARs, in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), an animal model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury after the animals were injected with the NMDAR channel blocker MK-801 and the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine. We show that glycine reduces the infarct volume in the brain of ischemic stroke animals pre-injected with MK-801 and strychnine...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614384/antennal-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-piercing-moth-oraesia-emarginata-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#11
Bo Feng, Qianshuang Guo, Kaidi Zheng, Yuanxia Qin, Yongjun Du
The piercing fruit moth Oraesia emarginata is an economically significant pest; however, our understanding of its olfactory mechanisms in infestation is limited. The present study conducted antennal transcriptome analysis of olfactory genes using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis (RT-qPCR). We identified a total of 104 candidate chemosensory genes from several gene families, including 35 olfactory receptors (ORs), 41 odorant-binding proteins, 20 chemosensory proteins, 6 ionotropic receptors, and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611595/mtorc1-is-a-local-postsynaptic-voltage-sensor-regulated-by-positive-and-negative-feedback-pathways
#12
Farr Niere, Kimberly F Raab-Graham
The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) serves as a regulator of mRNA translation. Recent studies suggest that mTORC1 may also serve as a local, voltage sensor in the postsynaptic region of neurons. Considering biochemical, bioinformatics and imaging data, we hypothesize that the activity state of mTORC1 dynamically regulates local membrane potential by promoting and repressing protein synthesis of select mRNAs. Our hypothesis suggests that mTORC1 uses positive and negative feedback pathways, in a branch-specific manner, to maintain neuronal excitability within an optimal range...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611378/identification-of-postsynaptic-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-pip2-roles-for-synaptic-plasticity-using-chemically-induced-dimerization
#13
Su-Jeong Kim, Min-Jae Jeong, Hee-Jung Jo, Jung Hoon Jung, Bong-Kiun Kaang, Yun-Beom Choi, Joung-Hun Kim
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), one of the key phospholipids, directly interacts with several membrane and cytosolic proteins at neuronal plasma membranes, leading to changes in neuronal properties including the feature and surface expression of ionotropic receptors. Although PIP2 is also concentrated at the dendritic spines, little is known about the direct physiological functions of PIP2 at postsynaptic as opposed to presynaptic sites. Most previous studies used genetic and pharmacological methods to modulate enzymes that alter PIP2 levels, making it difficult to delineate time- or region-specific roles of PIP2...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606041/mechanisms-of-action-resistance-and-toxicity-of-insecticides-targeting-gaba-receptors
#14
Steven Buckingham, Makoto Ihara, David B Sattelle, Kazuhiko Matsuda
Ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels belong to the cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (cys-loop LGICs) and mediate fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the nervous system and at neuromuscular junctions of insects. Insect GABA-gated cation channels have also been described. The sequencing of insect genomes has enhanced our understanding of the subunits that make up GABA receptor gene families of many species, including a genetic model organism (Drosophila melanogaster) as well as pest, vector and beneficial (pollinator) species...
June 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605494/glutamate-transport-a-new-bench-to-bedside-mechanism-for-treating-drug-abuse
#15
Sade Spencer, Peter W Kalivas
Drug addiction has often been described as a "hijacking" of the brain circuits involved in learning and memory. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and its contribution to synaptic plasticity and learning processes is well established in animal models. Likewise, over the past twenty years the addiction field has ascribed a critical role for glutamatergic transmission in the development of addiction. Chronic drug use produces enduring neuroadaptations in corticostriatal projections that are believed to contribute to a maladaptive deficit in inhibitory control over behavior...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603864/ediii-denv3-nanospheres-drive-immature-dendritic-cells-into-a-mature-phenotype-in-an-in-vitro-model
#16
Nattika Nantachit, Panya Sunintaboon, Sukathida Ubol
Domain III of E protein of DENV is one of the targets for vaccine development. Unfortunately, this protein-based platform has generally low immunogenicity. To circumvent this problem, we investigated the use of an adjuvant-nanoparticle delivery system to facilitate immunogenicity of soluble DENV-EDIII protein. One of the key features of this delivery system is its ability to simultaneously deliver antigens and exert adjuvanticity to specialized immune cells. In this study, we generated N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles (NPs) to be used as adjuvant and carrier for the soluble E-domain III of dengue virus serotype 3 (sEDIII-D3)...
June 12, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596537/transcriptome-sequencing-of-tessaratoma-papillosa-antennae-to-identify-and-analyze-expression-patterns-of-putative-olfaction-genes
#17
Zhong-Zhen Wu, Meng-Qiu Qu, Xin-Hua Pu, Yang Cui, Wan-Yu Xiao, Hong-Xia Zhao, Shu-Ying Bin, Jin-Tian Lin
Studies on insect olfaction have increased our understanding of insect's chemosensory system and chemical ecology, and have improved pest control strategies based on insect behavior. In this study, we assembled the antennal transcriptomes of the lychee giant stink bug, Tessaratoma papillosa, by using next generation sequencing to identify the major olfaction gene families in this species. In total, 59 odorant receptors, 14 ionotropic receptors (8 antennal IRs), and 33 odorant binding proteins (28 classic OBPs and 5 plus-C OBPs) were identified from the male and female antennal transcriptomes...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595874/evaluation-of-anti-diabetic-activity-of-glycyrrhizin-loaded-nanoparticles-in-nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#18
Ruma Rani, Shakti Dahiya, Dinesh Dhingra, Neeraj Dilbaghi, Ki-Hyun Kim, Sandeep Kumar
Glycyrrhizin is an active constituent of the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra and has anti-hyperglycemic effects. In this study, nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with glycyrrhizin or metformin were evaluated in vivo for their anti-hyperglycemic potency towards type-II diabetes in rats. The NPs were produced via the ionotropic gelation method using the biocompatible polymers chitosan and gum arabic. The polymer concentration was optimized using the 3(2) factorial method to acquire both minimum particle size and maximum encapsulation efficiency...
June 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592905/functional-consequences-of-neuropeptide-and-small-molecule-co-transmission
#19
REVIEW
Michael P Nusbaum, Dawn M Blitz, Eve Marder
Colocalization of small-molecule and neuropeptide transmitters is common throughout the nervous system of all animals. The resulting co-transmission, which provides conjoint ionotropic ('classical') and metabotropic ('modulatory') actions, includes neuropeptide- specific aspects that are qualitatively different from those that result from metabotropic actions of small-molecule transmitter release. Here, we focus on the flexibility afforded to microcircuits by such co-transmission, using examples from various nervous systems...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591602/configurational-preference-of-the-glutamate-receptor-ligand-binding-domain-dimers
#20
Michael Yonkunas, Maiti Buddhadev, Jose C Flores Canales, Maria G Kurnikova
Ionotropic glutamate receptors are a family of tetrameric ion channels with functional states consisting of nonconducting, conducting, and desensitized states that are starting to become well characterized by electrophysiological and biophysical studies. However, the structure and relative energetics of these states beyond the general structure of the receptor are still not well understood. It is known that the interface between monomeric subunits of the tetramer plays a major role in distinguishing these functional states...
June 6, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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