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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334209/comparative-study-of-chemosensory-organs-of-shrimp-from-hydrothermal-vent-and-coastal-environments
#1
Magali Zbinden, Camille Berthod, Nicolas Montagné, Julia Machon, Nelly Léger, Thomas Chertemps, Nicolas Rabet, Bruce Shillito, Juliette Ravaux
The detection of chemical signals is involved in a variety of crustacean behaviors, such as social interactions, search and evaluation of food and navigation in the environment. At hydrothermal vents, endemic shrimp may use the chemical signature of vent fluids to locate active edifices, however little is known on their sensory perception in these remote deep-sea habitats. Here, we present the first comparative description of the sensilla on the antennules and antennae of 4 hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata, Mirocaris fortunata, Chorocaris chacei, and Alvinocaris markensis) and of a closely related coastal shrimp (Palaemon elegans)...
February 22, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322959/synergistic-effect-of-divalent-cations-in-improving-technological-properties-of-cross-linked-alginate-beads
#2
Andrea Cerciello, Pasquale Del Gaudio, Veronica Granata, Marina Sala, Rita P Aquino, Paola Russo
Gelling solution parameters are some of the most important variables in ionotropic gelation and consequently influence the technological characteristics of the product. To date, only a few studies have focused on the simultaneous use of multiple cations as gelling agents. With the aim to deeply explore this possibility, in this research we investigated the effect of two divalent cations (Ca(2+) and Zn(2+)) on alginate beads formation and properties. Alginate beads containing prednisolone (P) as model drug were prepared by prilling technique...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318542/monoamine-transporters-as-ionotropic-receptors
#3
Louis J De Felice
It is well established that glutamate and GABA signal through both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Conversely, it is thought that, with one exception, monoamines (dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) signal via metabotropic receptors. Given their capacity to generate fast-acting currents, I suggest that the monoamine transporters should be considered as ionotropic receptors.
March 16, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306571/cns-syndromes-associated-with-antibodies-against-metabotropic-receptors
#4
Eric Lancaster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autoantibodies to Central nervous system (CNS) metabotropic receptors are associated with a growing family of autoimmune brain diseases, including encephalitis, basal ganglia encephalitis, Ophelia syndrome, and cerebellitis. The purpose of this review is to summarize the state of knowledge regarding the target receptors, the neurological autoimmune disorders, and the pathogenic mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Antibodies to the γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor are associate with limbic encephalitis and severe seizures, often with small cell lung cancers...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303017/nmda-receptors-linking-physiological-output-to-biophysical-operation
#5
REVIEW
Gary J Iacobucci, Gabriela K Popescu
NMDA receptors are preeminent neurotransmitter-gated channels in the CNS, which respond to glutamate in a manner that integrates multiple external and internal cues. They belong to the ionotropic glutamate receptor family and fulfil unique and crucial roles in neuronal development and function. These roles depend on characteristic response kinetics, which reflect the operation of the receptors. Here, we review biologically salient features of the NMDA receptor signal and its mechanistic origins. Knowledge of distinctive NMDA receptor biophysical properties, their structural determinants and physiological roles is necessary to understand the physiological and neurotoxic actions of glutamate and to design effective therapeutics...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300784/the-molecular-basis-of-toxins-interactions-with-intracellular-signaling-via-discrete-portals
#6
REVIEW
Adi Lahiani, Ephraim Yavin, Philip Lazarovici
An understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which microbial, plant or animal-secreted toxins exert their action provides the most important element for assessment of human health risks and opens new insights into therapies addressing a plethora of pathologies, ranging from neurological disorders to cancer, using toxinomimetic agents. Recently, molecular and cellular biology dissecting tools have provided a wealth of information on the action of these diverse toxins, yet, an integrated framework to explain their selective toxicity is still lacking...
March 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297661/t-follicular-helper-cells-promote-a-beneficial-gut-ecosystem-for-host-metabolic-homeostasis-by-sensing-microbiota-derived-extracellular-atp
#7
Lisa Perruzza, Giorgio Gargari, Michele Proietti, Bruno Fosso, Anna Maria D'Erchia, Caterina Elisa Faliti, Tanja Rezzonico-Jost, Daniela Scribano, Laura Mauri, Diego Colombo, Giovanni Pellegrini, Annalisa Moregola, Catherine Mooser, Graziano Pesole, Mauro Nicoletti, Giuseppe Danilo Norata, Markus B Geuking, Kathy D McCoy, Simone Guglielmetti, Fabio Grassi
The ATP-gated ionotropic P2X7 receptor regulates T follicular helper (Tfh) cell abundance in the Peyer's patches (PPs) of the small intestine; deletion of P2rx7, encoding for P2X7, in Tfh cells results in enhanced IgA secretion and binding to commensal bacteria. Here, we show that Tfh cell activity is important for generating a diverse bacterial community in the gut and that sensing of microbiota-derived extracellular ATP via P2X7 promotes the generation of a proficient gut ecosystem for metabolic homeostasis...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284314/chitosan-based-biocatalytic-nanoparticles-for-pollutant-removal-from-wastewater
#8
Dulce A Alarcón-Payán, Rina D Koyani, Rafael Vazquez-Duhalt
Chitosan, a renewable biopolymer has the prospective applications in different fields due to its gelation capacity. Nanoconfiguration of chitosan through ionotropic gelation to encapsulate enzymatic activity offers numerous potential applications. In the present study, the preparation and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with versatile peroxidase are reported. Their performance in bioremediation process and the resistance enhancement against natural microbial biodegradation were studied. The average diameter of enzymatic nanoparticles was 120nm and showed a high enzyme loading capacity...
May 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283559/a-rare-variant-identified-within-the-glun2b-c-terminus-in-a-patient-with-autism-affects-nmda-receptor-surface-expression-and-spine-density
#9
Shuxi Liu, Liang Zhou, Hongjie Yuan, Marta Vieira, Antonio Sanz-Clemente, John D Badger, Wei Lu, Stephen F Traynelis, Katherine W Roche
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors that are crucial for neuronal development and higher cognitive processes. NMDAR dysfunction is involved in a variety of neurological and psychiatric diseases; however, the mechanistic link between the human pathology and NMDAR dysfunction is poorly understood. Rare missense variants within NMDAR subunits have been identified in numerous patients with mental or neurological disorders. We specifically focused on the GluN2B NMDAR subunit, which is highly expressed in the hippocampus and cortex throughout development...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282540/ionotropic-ampa-type-glutamate-and-metabotropic-gabab-receptors-determining-cellular-physiology-by-proteomes
#10
REVIEW
Bernhard Bettler, Bernd Fakler
Ionotropic AMPA-type glutamate receptors and G-protein-coupled metabotropic GABAB receptors are key elements of neurotransmission whose cellular functions are determined by their protein constituents. Over the past couple of years unbiased proteomic approaches identified comprehensive sets of protein building blocks of these two types of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain (termed receptor proteomes). This provided the opportunity to match receptor proteomes with receptor physiology and to study the structural organization, regulation and function of native receptor complexes in an unprecedented manner...
March 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279354/garlh-family-proteins-stabilize-gabaa-receptors-at-synapses
#11
Tokiwa Yamasaki, Erika Hoyos-Ramirez, James S Martenson, Megumi Morimoto-Tomita, Susumu Tomita
Ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors mediate fast synaptic transmission by functioning as ligand-gated ion channels. Fast inhibitory transmission in the brain is mediated mostly by ionotropic GABAA receptors (GABAARs), but their essential components for synaptic localization remain unknown. Here, we identify putative auxiliary subunits of GABAARs, which we term GARLHs, consisting of LH4 and LH3 proteins. LH4 forms a stable tripartite complex with GABAARs and neuroligin-2 in the brain. Moreover, LH4 is required for the synaptic localization of GABAARs and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276429/building-a-5-ht3a-receptor-expression-map-in-the-mouse-brain
#12
Yoshihisa Koyama, Makoto Kondo, Shoichi Shimada
Of the many serotonin receptors, the type 3 receptors (5-HT3R) are the only ionotropic ones, playing a key role in fast synaptic transmission and cognitive and emotional brain function through controlled neuronal excitation. To better understand the various functions of 5-HT3Rs, it is very important to know their expression pattern in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, many distributional studies have shown localized 5-HT3R expression in the brain and spinal cord. However, an accurate pattern of 5-HT3R expression in the CNS remains to be elucidated...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272262/accumulated-gaba-activates-presynaptic-gabab-receptors-and-inhibits-both-excitatory-and-inhibitory-synaptic-transmission-in-rat-midbrain-periaqueductal-gray
#13
Guangying Li, Caifeng Shao, Qian Chen, Qiang Wang, Kun Yang
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, activates ionotropic GABAA receptors and metabotropic GABAB receptors in the central nervous system, respectively. In ventrolateral division of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), GABAB receptors play important roles in pain modulation. However, the role of endogenous GABA action in presynaptic GABAB receptors remains elusive. Using whole-cell recordings on acute PAG slices from adult rats, here, we show that ambient GABA exerts a tonic inhibition on presynaptic terminals by binding GABAB receptors...
March 7, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271373/optimization-and-evaluation-of-gastroretentive-ranitidine-hcl-microspheres-by-using-factorial-design-with-improved-bioavailability-and-mucosal-integrity-in-ulcer-model
#14
Abeer Khattab, Nashwah Zaki
The purpose of our investigation was to develop and optimize the drug entrapment efficiency and bioadhesion properties of mucoadhesive chitosan microspheres containing ranitidine HCl prepared by an ionotropic gelation method as a gastroretentive delivery system; thus, we improved their protective and therapeutic gastric effects in an ulcer model. A 3 × 2(2) full factorial design was adopted to study the effect of three different factors, i.e., the type of polymer at three levels (chitosan, chitosan/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, and chitosan/methylcellulose), the type of solvent at two levels (acetic acid and lactic acid), and the type of chitosan at two levels (low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW))...
March 7, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270746/effects-of-repeated-ethanol-exposures-on-nmda-receptor-expression-and-locomotor-sensitization-in-mice-expressing-ethanol-resistant-nmda-receptors
#15
Carolina R den Hartog, Meghin Gilstrap, Bethany Eaton, Daniel H Lench, Patrick J Mulholland, Gregg E Homanics, John J Woodward
Evidence from a large number of preclinical studies suggests that chronic exposure to drugs of abuse, such as psychostimulants or ethanol induces changes in glutamatergic transmission in key brain areas associated with reward and control of behavior. These changes include alterations in the expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) that are important for regulating neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity. NMDA receptors are inhibited by ethanol and reductions in NMDA-mediated signaling are thought to trigger homestatic responses that limit ethanol's effects on glutamatergic transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267198/serotonergic-transmission-at-merkel-discs-modulation-by-exogenously-applied-chemical-messengers-and-involvement-of-ih-currents
#16
Weipang Chang, Hirosato Kanda, Ryo Ikeda, Jennifer Ling, Jianguo G Gu
The Merkel disc is a main type of tactile end organ consisting of Merkel cells and Aβ-afferent endings that responds to tactile stimulation with slowly adapting type 1 (SA1) afferent impulses. Our recent study has shown that Merkel discs in whisker hair follicles are serotonergic synapses using endogenous serotonin to transmit tactile signals from Merkel cells to Aβ-afferent endings. In the present study, we hypothesize that tactile sensitivity of Merkel discs can be modulated by chemical messengers. We tested this hypothesis by determining whether and how SA1 responses of mouse whisker hair follicles may be affected by exogenously applied chemical messengers...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263869/does-aging-alter-the-molecular-substrate-of-ionotropic-neurotransmitter-receptors-in-the-rostral-ventral-lateral-medulla-a-short-communication
#17
Hitesh N Pawar, Sivasai Balivada, Michael J Kenney
Aging alters sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulation, although central mechanisms are not well understood. In young rats the rostral ventral lateral medulla (RVLM) is critically involved in central SNS regulation and RVLM neuronal activity is mediated by a balance of excitatory and inhibitory ionotropic neurotransmitters and receptors, providing the foundation for hypothesizing that with advanced age the molecular substrate of RVLM ionotropic receptors is characterized by upregulated excitatory and downregulated inhibitory receptor subunits...
March 2, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260506/ph-dependent-behavior-of-novel-gellan-beads-loaded-with-naproxen
#18
Tomasz Osmałek, Anna Froelich, Bartłomiej Milanowski, Magdalena Białas, Kinga Hyla, Mirosław Szybowicz
We have designed, formulated and characterized low-acyl gellan gum (GG) macrobeads to be applied as potential carriers for the delivery of naproxen (NPX) to the distal parts of the gastrointestinal tract. The beads were obtained by ionotropic gelation technique. CaCl2 solution (1%, 9.0×10-2 M) was used as a cross-linking medium. Nine different polymer, drug and surfactant (Tween®80) mixtures were used for beads production. The surface and morphology of the dried beads were analyzed by SEM. Raman spectra of NPX powder and the beads confirmed that NPX did not undergo structural changes during production process...
March 3, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259867/review-of-pharmacogenetics-studies-of-l-asparaginase-hypersensitivity-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-points-to-variants-in-the-gria1-gene
#19
Maria Lopez-Santillan, Leire Iparraguirre, Idoia Martin-Guerrero, Angela Gutierrez-Camino, Africa Garcia-Orad
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a major pediatric cancer in developed countries. Although treatment outcome has improved owing to advances in chemotherapy, there is still a group of patients who experience severe adverse events. L-Asparaginase is an effective antineoplastic agent used in chemotherapy of ALL. Despite its indisputable indication, hypersensitivity reactions are common. In those cases, discontinuation of treatment is usually needed and anti-asparaginase antibody production may also attenuate asparaginase activity, compromising its antileukemic effect...
March 1, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256589/chemosensory-adaptations-of-the-mountain-fly-drosophila-nigrosparsa-insecta-diptera-through-genomics-and-structural-biology-s-lenses
#20
Francesco Cicconardi, Daniele Di Marino, Pier Paolo Olimpieri, Wolfgang Arthofer, Birgit C Schlick-Steiner, Florian M Steiner
Chemoreception is essential for survival. Some chemicals signal the presence of nutrients or toxins, others the proximity of mating partners, competitors, or predators. Chemical signal transduction has therefore been studied in multiple organisms. In Drosophila species, a number of odorant receptor genes and various other types of chemoreceptors were found. Three main gene families encode for membrane receptors and one for globular proteins that shuttle compounds with different degrees of affinity and specificity towards receptors...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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