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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918990/effects-of-tripolyphosphate-on-cellular-uptake-and-rna-interference-efficiency-of-chitosan-based-nanoparticles-in-raw-264-7-macrophages
#1
Bo Xiao, Panpan Ma, Lijun Ma, Qiubing Chen, Xiaoying Si, Lewins Walter, Didier Merlin
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine that is mainly secreted by macrophages during inflammation. Here, we synthesized a series of N-(2-hydroxy)propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chlorides (HTCCs), and then used a complex coacervation technique or tripolyphosphate (TPP)-assisted ionotropic gelation strategy to complex the HTCCs with TNF-α siRNA (siTNF) to form nanoparticles (NPs). The resultant NPs had a desirable particle size (210-279nm), a slightly positive zeta potential (14-22mV), and negligible cytotoxicity against Raw 264...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910251/cloaked-caged-compounds-chemical-probes-for-two-photon-optoneurobiology
#2
Matthew T Richers, Joseph M Amatrudo, Jeremy P Olson, Graham C R Ellis-Davies
Caged neurotransmitters, in combination with focused light beams, enable precise interrogation of neuronal function, even at the level of single synapses. However, most caged transmitters are, surprisingly, severe antagonists of ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. By conjugation of a large, neutral dendrimer to a caged GABA probe we introduce a "cloaking" technology that effectively reduces such antagonism to very low levels. Such cloaked caged compounds will enable the study of the signaling of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in its natural state using two-photon uncaging microscopy for the first time...
December 2, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907106/brain-transcriptional-profiles-of-male-alternative-reproductive-tactics-and-females-in-bluegill-sunfish
#3
Charlyn G Partridge, Matthew D MacManes, Rosemary Knapp, Bryan D Neff
Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) are one of the classic systems for studying male alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) in teleost fishes. In this species, there are two distinct life histories: parental and cuckolder, encompassing three reproductive tactics, parental, satellite, and sneaker. The parental life history is fixed, whereas individuals who enter the cuckolder life history transition from sneaker to satellite tactic as they grow. For this study, we used RNAseq to characterize the brain transcriptome of the three male tactics and females during spawning to identify gene ontology (GO) categories and potential candidate genes associated with each tactic...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902689/using-intrinsic-flavoprotein-and-nad-p-h-imaging-to-map-functional-circuitry-in-the-main-olfactory-bulb
#4
Cedric R Uytingco, Adam C Puche, Steven D Munger
Neurons exhibit strong coupling of electrochemical and metabolic activity. Increases in intrinsic fluorescence from either oxidized flavoproteins or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) [NAD(P)H] in the mitochondria have been used as an indicator of neuronal activity for the functional mapping of neural circuits. However, this technique has not been used to investigate the flow of olfactory information within the circuitry of the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We found that intrinsic flavoprotein fluorescence signals induced by electrical stimulation of single glomeruli displayed biphasic responses within both the glomerular (GL) and external plexiform layers (EPL) of the MOB...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889182/development-of-polyethyleneimine-loaded-core-shell-chitosan-hollow-beads-and-their-application-for-platinum-recovery-in-sequential-metal-scavenging-fill-and-draw-process
#5
Myung-Hee Song, Sok Kim, D Harikishore Kumar Reddy, Wei Wei, John Kwame Bediako, Sangwon Park, Yeoung-Sang Yun
Polyethyleneimine (PEI)-loaded chitosan hollow beads (CHBs) were fabricated through the ionotropic gelation process using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a counter polyanion. The CHBs were loaded with hydrophilic PEI in pre- and/or post-loading methods. Hence, the sorbent could possess a large number of amine groups which were able to function as the binding sites to recover platinum metal ions. The enhancement of the amine groups was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Isotherm and kinetic studies were carried out to evaluate the sorption performance of the sorbents...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888648/identification-and-characterization-of-the-distinct-expression-profiles-of-candidate-chemosensory-membrane-proteins-in-the-antennal-transcriptome-of-adelphocoris-lineolatus-goeze
#6
Y Xiao, L Sun, X-Y Ma, K Dong, H-W Liu, Q Wang, Y-Y Guo, Z-W Liu, Y-J Zhang
Chemosensory membrane proteins, including odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and sensory neurone membrane proteins (SNMPs), are supposed to be crucial macromolecules in the insect olfactory signal transduction pathway. The alfalfa plant bug Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is highly attracted to high-nitrogen or flowering plants and destroys many important agricultural crops. We assembled the antennal transcriptome of A. lineolatus using Illumina sequencing technology and identified a total of 108 transcripts encoding chemosensory membrane proteins (88 ORs, 12 IRs, four GRs and four SNMPs), amongst which 90 candidates appeared to be full length...
November 26, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886179/astrocytic-gaba-transporter-activity-modulates-excitatory-neurotransmission
#7
Kim Boddum, Thomas P Jensen, Vincent Magloire, Uffe Kristiansen, Dmitri A Rusakov, Ivan Pavlov, Matthew C Walker
Astrocytes are ideally placed to detect and respond to network activity. They express ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, and can release gliotransmitters. Astrocytes also express transporters that regulate the extracellular concentration of neurotransmitters. Here we report a previously unrecognized role for the astrocytic GABA transporter, GAT-3. GAT-3 activity results in a rise in astrocytic Na(+) concentrations and a consequent increase in astrocytic Ca(2+) through Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange. This leads to the release of ATP/adenosine by astrocytes, which then diffusely inhibits neuronal glutamate release via activation of presynaptic adenosine receptors...
November 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885718/purinergic-receptors-new-targets-for-the-treatment-of-gout-and-fibrosis
#8
REVIEW
Thomas Gicquel, Brendan Le Daré, Elisabeth Boichot, Vincent Lagente
Adenosine triphosphate is involved in many metabolic reactions, but it has also a role as a cellular danger signal transmitted through purinergic receptors (PRs). Indeed, ATP can bind to PRs which are found in the membrane of many cell types, although the relative proportions of the receptor subtypes differ. PRs are classified according to genetic and pharmacological criteria and especially their affinities for agonists and their transduction mechanism (i.e. as metabotropic P2YRs or ionotropic P2XRs). Extracellular ATP release by activated or necrotic cells may activate various PRs and especially P2X7R, the best-characterized PR, on immune cells...
November 25, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885632/glutamine-metabolism-in-gliomas
#9
Monika Szeliga, Jan Albrecht
By histological, morphological criteria, and malignancy, brain tumors are classified by WHO into grades I (most benign) to IV (highly malignant), and gliomas are the most frequently occurring class throughout the grades. Similar to peripheral tumors, the growth of glia-derived tumor cells largely depends on glutamine (Gln), which is vividly taken up by the cells, using mostly ASCT2 and SN1 as Gln carriers. Tumor growth-promoting effects of Gln are associated with its phosphate-activated glutaminase (GA) (specifically KGA)-mediated degradation to glutamate (Glu) and/or with its entry to the energy- and intermediate metabolite-generating pathways related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884378/purinergic-signaling-in-schistosomal-infection
#10
REVIEW
Claudia Lucia Martins Silva
Human schistosomiasis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by blood fluke worms belonging to the genus Schistosoma. Health metrics indicate that the disease is related to an elevated number of years lost-to-disability and years lost-to-life. Schistosomiasis is an intravascular disease that is related to a Th1 and Th2 immune response polarization, and the degree of polarization affects the outcome of the disease. The purinergic system is composed of adenosine and nucleotides acting as key messenger molecules...
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878303/neuroprotective-effects-of-vitexin-against-isoflurane-induced-neurotoxicity-by-targeting-the-trpv1-and-nr2b-signaling-pathways
#11
Linlin Chen, Bin Zhang, Shiqiang Shan, Xin Zhao
Vitexin is a bioactive compound extracted from hawthorn leaves, which reduces blood pressure and has anti‑inflammatory and potential anticancer effects. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of vitexin against isoflurane‑induced neurotoxicity remain elusive. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate these mechanisms further. Sprague Dawley rats received 1.4% isoflurane in a 100% oxygen environment for 2 h. Human PC12 pheochromocytoma neurosecretory cells were exposed to 2% isoflurane for 12 h before they were treated with 1, 10 or 100 µM vitexin for a further 24 h...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872582/separate-ionotropic-and-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-functions-in-depotentiation-vs-ltp-a-distinct-role-for-group1-mglur-subtypes-and-nmdars
#12
Amira Latif-Hernandez, Enrico Faldini, Tariq Ahmed, Detlef Balschun
Depotentiation (DP) is a mechanism by which synapses that have recently undergone long-term potentiation (LTP) can reverse their synaptic strengthening within a short time-window after LTP induction. Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) were shown to be involved in different forms of LTP and long-term depression (LTD), but little is known about their roles in DP. Here, we generated DP by applying low-frequency stimulation (LFS) at 5 Hz after LTP had been induced by a single train of theta-burst-stimulation (TBS)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872019/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Fabiola M Ribeiro, Luciene B Vieira, Rita G W Pires, Roenick P Olmo, Stephen S G Ferguson
Glutamate is the most important excitatory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), playing an important role in memory, synaptic plasticity and neuronal development. However, glutamate overstimulation is also implicated in neuronal cell death. There are two major types of glutamate receptors: ionotropic and metabotropic. Thus far, eight metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) subtypes have been characterized and are divided into three subgroups based on sequence homology and cell signaling activation...
November 19, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870780/the-activation-of-metabotropic-glutamate-5-receptors-in-the-rat-ventral-tegmental-area-increases-dopamine-extracellular-levels
#14
Carla Ferrada, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate, Jorge Abarca, Katia Gysling
The mesocorticolimbic circuit projects to the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, among others, and it originates in the dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA receives glutamatergic inputs from the prefrontal cortex and several subcortical regions. The glutamate released activates dopaminergic neurons and its action depends on the activation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. VTA dopaminergic neurons release dopamine (DA) from axon terminals in the innervated regions and somatodendritically in the VTA itself...
January 1, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856358/p2x7rs-are-involved-in-cell-death-growth-and-cellular-signaling-in-primary-human-osteoblasts
#15
Ankita Agrawal, Zanne Henriksen, Susanne Syberg, Solveig Petersen, Derya Aslan, Marie Solgaard, Nis Nissen, Tommy Korsgaard Larsen, Peter Schwarz, Thomas H Steinberg, Niklas Rye Jørgensen
The ionotropic ATP-gated P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is involved in the regulation of many physiological functions including bone metabolism. Several studies on osteoblasts from rodents and human osteoblast-like cell lines have addressed the expression and function of P2X7R on these bone-forming cells however; its role in human primary osteoblasts has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of the P2X7R in bone marrow-derived stromal cells and in primary human trabecular osteoblasts and to determine the function in bone formation and cell signaling...
November 14, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855891/modulation-of-chemical-stability-and-in-vitro-bioaccessibility-of-beta-carotene-loaded-in-kappa-carrageenan-oil-in-gel-emulsions
#16
Christos Soukoulis, Maria Tsevdou, Christelle M Andre, Sébastien Cambier, Lina Yonekura, Petros S Taoukis, Lucien Hoffmann
In the present paper, ionotropically structured κ-carrageenan based oil-in-gel (o/g) emulsions were tested as potential carrier systems for the delivery of β-carotene. In situ ionic gelation was induced by Na(+), K(+) or Ca(2+) added at the level of 0.2-0.6% (w/w). All o/g emulsions exerted a true gel like behaviour with storage modulus (G') being reduced according to the order: K(+)>Ca(2+)>Na(+). Ionic gelation induced a moderate increase in the microscopically assessed lipid droplets radii. O/g emulsions containing monovalent ions exerted the highest β-carotene retention throughout isothermal storage particularly at high (37 and 55°C) temperatures...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855736/glutamate-is-a-wake-active-neurotransmitter-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
John E Zimmerman, May T Chan, Olivia T Lenz, Brendan T Keenan, Greg Maislin, Allan I Pack
STUDY OBJECTIVES: In mammals, there is evidence that glutamate has a role as a wake active neurotransmitter. So using video-based analysis of Drosophila behavior we undertook a study to examine if glutamate, which has been previously shown to have an excitatory role in neuromuscular junctions in Drosophila, may have a conserved wake-active role in the adult brain. METHODS: Using 6-9 day old female flies we examined the effect of perturbations of the glutamatergic signaling on total wakefulness and wake bout architecture...
October 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833531/muscarinic-long-term-enhancement-of-tonic-and-phasic-gabaa-inhibition-in-rat-ca1-pyramidal-neurons
#18
Soledad Domínguez, David Fernández de Sevilla, Washington Buño
Acetylcholine (ACh) regulates network operation in the hippocampus by controlling excitation and inhibition in rat CA1 pyramidal neurons (PCs), the latter through gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A receptors (GABA A Rs). Although, the enhancing effects of ACh on GABA A Rs have been reported (Dominguez et al., 2014, 2015), its role in regulating tonic GABAA inhibition has not been explored in depth. Therefore, we aimed at determining the effects of the activation of ACh receptors on responses mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAARs...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829053/no-evidence-for-ionotropic-pheromone-transduction-in-the-hawkmoth-manduca-sexta
#19
Andreas Nolte, Petra Gawalek, Sarah Koerte, HongYing Wei, Robin Schumann, Achim Werckenthin, Jürgen Krieger, Monika Stengl
Insect odorant receptors (ORs) are 7-transmembrane receptors with inverse membrane topology. They associate with the conserved ion channel Orco. As chaperon, Orco maintains ORs in cilia and, as pacemaker channel, Orco controls spontaneous activity in olfactory receptor neurons. Odorant binding to ORs opens OR-Orco receptor ion channel complexes in heterologous expression systems. It is unknown, whether this also occurs in vivo. As an alternative to this ionotropic transduction, experimental evidence is accumulating for metabotropic odor transduction, implicating that insect ORs couple to G-proteins...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826230/ampa-receptors-are-involved-in-store-operated-calcium-entry-and-interact-with-stim-proteins-in-rat-primary-cortical-neurons
#20
Joanna Gruszczynska-Biegala, Maria Sladowska, Jacek Kuznicki
The process of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) leads to refilling the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with calcium ions (Ca(2+)) after their release into the cytoplasm. Interactions between (ER)-located Ca(2+) sensors (stromal interaction molecule 1 [STIM1] and STIM2) and plasma membrane-located Ca(2+) channel-forming protein (Orai1) underlie SOCE and are well described in non-excitable cells. In neurons, however, SOCE appears to be more complex because of the importance of Ca(2+) influx via voltage-gated or ionotropic receptor-operated Ca(2+) channels...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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