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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820771/sexual-violence-among-college-students-an-examination-of-individual-and-institutional-level-factors-associated-with-perpetration
#1
Carolyn M Porta, Michelle A Mathiason, Katherine Lust, Marla E Eisenberg
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence incidents involving college students have received media attention and increased awareness of this public health problem in the United States; prevention efforts are needed that target potential perpetrators. We examined characteristics of self-reported perpetrators of sexual violence on campuses. METHODS: This study used a secondary data analysis of the 2015 College Student Health Survey, an annual survey, which was completed by students attending 17 colleges/universities in Minnesota...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820523/ethical-considerations-in-conducting-pragmatic-trials-in-oncology
#2
Marilyn J Hammer
Pragmatic trials evaluate interventions in real-life scenarios, which differ from explanatory trials that control for numerous factors and variables to best determine causal associations. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages. Conducting pragmatic research trials while maintaining the tenets of the ethical conduct of research can sometimes be challenging, particularly regarding informed consent. In this column, distinctions between pragmatic and explanatory trials are discussed from an ethical view...
September 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820404/responding-professionally-to-requests-for-cesarean-delivery
#3
F Chervenak, L McCullough
Patients' requests for non-indicated cesarean delivery challenge the professionalism of obstetricians. This is because physicians should not provide clinical management in the absence of an evidence-based indication for it. The ethics of responding professionally to requests for non-indicated cesarean delivery would appear to be simple: just say "No." This paper presents an ethically and clinically more nuanced approach, on the basis of the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics, emphasizinga preventive ethics approach...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820363/incidence-of-perioperative-medical-complications-and-mortality-among-elderly-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-spinal-deformity-analysis-of-3519-patients
#4
Amit Jain, Hamid Hassanzadeh, Varun Puvanesarajah, Eric O Klineberg, Daniel M Sciubba, Michael P Kelly, D Kojo Hamilton, Virginie Lafage, Aaron J Buckland, Peter G Passias, Themistocles S Protopsaltis, Renaud Lafage, Justin S Smith, Christopher I Shaffrey, Khaled M Kebaish
OBJECTIVE Using 2 complication-reporting methods, the authors investigated the incidence of major medical complications and mortality in elderly patients after surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD) during a 2-year follow-up period. METHODS The authors queried a multicenter, prospective, surgeon-maintained database (SMD) to identify patients 65 years or older who underwent surgical correction of ASD from 2008 through 2014 and had a minimum 2 years of follow-up (n = 153). They also queried a Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services claims database (MCD) for patients 65 years or older who underwent fusion of 8 or more vertebral levels from 2005 through 2012 (n = 3366)...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819477/evaluation-of-the-adverse-drug-reaction-surveillance-system-kadoma-city-zimbabwe-2015
#5
Caroline Muringazuva, Daniel Chirundu, More Mungati, Gerald Shambira, Notion Gombe, Donewell Bangure, Tsitsi Juru, Mufuta Tshimanga
INTRODUCTION: Medicines have the potential to cause adverse drug reactions and because of this Zimbabwe monitor reactions to medicines through the Adverse Drug Reaction Surveillance System. The Medicines Control Authority of Zimbabwe monitors reactions to medicines through the Adverse Drugs Reactions Surveillance System. The system relies on health professionals to report adverse drug reactions to maximize patient safety. We report results of an evaluation of the Adverse Drugs Reactions Surveillance System in Kadoma District...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819468/paediatric-fractures-in-a-sub-saharan-tertiary-care-center-a-cohort-analysis-of-demographic-characteristics-clinical-presentation-therapeutic-patterns-and-outcomes
#6
Marc Leroy Guifo, Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Blondel Nana Oumarou, Jean Roger Moulion Tapouh, Aristide Guy Bang, Aurelien Ndoumbe, Bonaventure Jemea, Maurice Aurelien Sosso
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric fractures are often of good prognosis due to auto-correction of insufficient fracture reduction by bone remodeling. In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional healers are renowned for managing fractures and there is a neglect for specialized pediatric fracture care. We aimed to determine the demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, treatment patterns and outcomes of paediatric fractures in a tertiary health care centre in Yaoundé. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of all consenting consecutive cases of fractures in patients younger than 16 years managed between January 2011 and June 2015 at the University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818850/improved-pregnant-women-s-understanding-of-research-information-by-an-enhanced-informed-consent-form-a-randomised-controlled-study-nested-in-neonatal-research
#7
Nut Koonrungsesomboon, Chanchai Traivaree, Sangkae Chamnanvanakij, Pimchitr Rungtragoolchai, Yawana Thanapat, Juntra Karbwang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test the applicability and effectiveness of the enhanced informed consent form (ICF) methodology, proposed by the Strategic Initiative for Developing Capacity in Ethical Review (SIDCER), in neonatal research requiring maternal consent. DESIGN: A single-centre open-label randomised controlled study. SETTING: Antenatal care clinics at Phramongkutklao Hospital, Thailand. PATIENTS: 234 pregnant women who were at risk of preterm labour were enrolled; 232 individuals completed the study...
August 17, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818742/citrus-cervical-cancer-screening-trial-by-randomization-of-hpv-testing-intervention-for-upcoming-screening-design-methods-and-baseline-data-of-18-471-women
#8
Tohru Morisada, Katsuhiro Teramoto, Hirokuni Takano, Ikuko Sakamoto, Hiroshi Nishio, Takashi Iwata, Akihiko Hashi, Ryohei Katoh, Aikou Okamoto, Hiroshi Sasaki, Eiji Nakatani, Satoshi Teramukai, Daisuke Aoki
BACKGROUND: To assess the efficacy of screening with concurrent liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for primary cervical cancer screening, we initiated a randomized trial entitled CervIcal cancer screening Trial by Randomization of HPV testing intervention for Upcoming Screening (CITRUS). METHODS: Between June 2013 and March 2015, women aged 30-64 years of age who participated in a regular cervical cancer screening program (every 2 years) were invited to enrollment of our study...
August 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818568/reasons-for-non-vaccination-parental-vaccine-hesitancy-and-the-childhood-influenza-vaccination-school-pilot-programme-in-england
#9
Pauline Paterson, Tracey Chantler, Heidi J Larson
INTRODUCTION: In 2013, the annual influenza immunisation programme in England was extended to children to reduce the burden of influenza, but uptake was sub-optimal at 53.2%. AIM: To explore the reasons some parents decided not to vaccinate their child against influenza as part of the pilot programme offered in schools. METHODS: Cross-sectional qualitative study conducted between February and July 2015. 913 parents whose children were not vaccinated against influenza in the school pilots in West Yorkshire and Greater Manchester, England, were asked to comment on their reasons for non-vaccination and invited to take part in a semi-structured interview...
August 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818324/the-treatment-of-segmental-tibial-fractures-does-patient-preference-differ-from-surgeon-choice
#10
Z Little, T O Smith, S E McMahon, C Cooper, A Trompeter, M Pearse, S Britten, B Rogers, H Sharma, B Narayan, M Costa, D J Beard, C B Hing
INTRODUCTION: Segmental tibial fractures are complex injuries with a prolonged recovery time. Current definitive treatment options include intramedullary fixation or a circular external fixator. However, there is uncertainty as to which surgical option is preferable and there are no sufficiently rigorous multi-centre trials that have answered this question. The objective of this study was to determine whether patient and surgeon opinion was permissive for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing intramedullary nailing to the application of a circular external fixator...
August 9, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817507/comparison-of-consent-models-in-a-randomized-trial-of-corticosteroids-in-pediatric-septic-shock
#11
Kusum Menon, Katharine O'Hearn, James Dayre McNally, Anand Acharya, Hector R Wong, Margaret Lawson, Tim Ramsay, Lauralyn McIntyre, Elaine Gilfoyle, Marisa Tucci, David Wensley, Ronald Gottesman, Gavin Morrison, Karen Choong
OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of deferred and prior informed consent models in the context of a low additional risk to standard of care, placebo-controlled randomized controlled trial of corticosteroids in pediatric septic shock. DESIGN: An observational substudy of consent processes in a randomized controlled trial of hydrocortisone versus placebo. SETTING: Seven tertiary level PICUs in Canada. PATIENTS: Children newborn to 17 years inclusive admitted to PICU with suspected septic shock between July 2014 and March 2016...
August 16, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817501/nurses-perceptions-of-a-novel-protocol-addressing-uniform-periods-of-minimum-assessment-times
#12
Annamma Steaphen, DaiWai M Olson, Sonja E Stutzman
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This quality improvement project aimed to understand the impact of a quiet time protocol on nurses and patients in the neurocritical care unit (NCCU) by comparing pretest and posttest outcomes, taking decibel readings, and abstracting chart information. BACKGROUND: Sleep is essential for maintaining a healthy life. Patients in the NCCU often do not get adequate amounts of sleep. Quiet time studies have focused on implementing periods of reduced noise levels to improve patient sleep...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817182/centralized-patient-reported-outcome-data-collection-in-transplantation-is-feasible-and-clinically-meaningful
#13
Bronwen E Shaw, Ruta Brazauskas, Heather R Millard, Rachel Fonstad, Kathryn E Flynn, Amy Abernethy, Jenny Vogel, Charney Petroske, Deborah Mattila, Rebecca Drexler, Stephanie J Lee, Mary M Horowitz, J Douglas Rizzo
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) cures many patients, but often with the risk of late effects and impaired quality of life. The value of quantifying patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is increasingly being recognized, but the routine collection of PROs is uncommon. This study evaluated the feasibility of prospective PRO collection by an outcome registry at multiple time points from unselected HCT patients undergoing transplantation at centers contributing clinical data to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR), and then it correlated the PRO data with clinical and demographic data...
August 17, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817111/prospective-cohort-study-for-identification-of-underlying-genetic-causes-in-neonatal-encephalopathy-using-whole-exome-sequencing
#14
Theodora U J Bruun, Caro-Lyne DesRoches, Diane Wilson, Vann Chau, Tadashi Nakagawa, Masahiro Yamasaki, Shinya Hasegawa, Toshiyuki Fukao, Christian Marshall, Saadet Mercimek-Andrews
PurposeNeonatal encephalopathy, which is characterized by a decreased level of consciousness, occurs in 1-7/1,000 live-term births. In more than half of term newborns, there is no identifiable etiological factor. To identify underlying genetic defects, we applied whole-exome sequencing (WES) in term newborns with neonatal encephalopathy as a prospective cohort study.MethodsTerm newborns with neonatal encephalopathy and no history of perinatal asphyxia were included. WES was performed using patient and both parents' DNA...
August 17, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816987/analysis-of-background-parenchymal-echogenicity-on-breast-ultrasound-correlation-with-mammographic-breast-density-and-background-parenchymal-enhancement-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Kyung Hee Ko, Hae Kyoung Jung, Inwha Kim
The purpose of this study was to analyze the background parenchymal echotexture (BP echo) on breast ultrasound in detail and to evaluate the relation BP echo with menopausal status. In addition, we correlated BP echo with mammographic breast density (MGD) and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).The institutional review board of our hospital approved this retrospective study, and the requirement of informed consent was waived. We studied 138 women (mean age 51.6 years, range from 26 to 79 years) with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer, who had performed preoperative mammography, ultrasound, and MR from June 2013 to June 2015...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816913/influence-of-written-informed-consent-for-methylphenidate-on-medicine-persistence-rates-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#16
Kristian Naenen-Hernani, Antonio Palazón-Bru, Francisco Colomina-Climent, Vicente F Gil-Guillén
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of written informed consent on nonpersistence with methylphenidate treatment in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We undertook a cohort study including 141 children with ADHD who started treatment with methylphenidate, with a follow-up of 6 months. The main outcome variable was nonpersistence, defined as discontinuation of treatment by the patient. Two groups were analyzed with and without written informed consent...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816843/better-late-than-never-deferred-consent-for-minimal-risk-research-in-the-icu
#17
Melody G Duvall, Jeffrey P Burns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816293/-effects-of-bioactive-glass-on-reducing-the-hypersensitivity-after-full-crown-preparation
#18
H Li, Y H Liu, Z Q Luo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the 45S5 bioactive glass on the reduction of hypersensitivity of teeth prepared for full coverage crowns. METHODS: In the study, 31 prepared abutment teeth with vital pulp from 18 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. The patients were informed consent and recruited into the study. This was a before and after self-control, single blind clinical trial. The severity of tooth hypersensitivity at baseline was evaluated, after application of the placebo, which was the powder of zinc oxide, and after application of the 45S5 bioactive glass on the same tooth...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816196/denture-hygiene-knowledge-and-practices-among-complete-denture-wearers-attending-a-postgraduate-dental-institute
#19
Thatapudi Shankar, Snigdha Gowd, Vinay Suresan, Sneha Mantri, Sudhanshu Saxena, Prateek Mishra, Pragya Panday
AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the denture hygiene knowledge and practices among patients using complete dentures attending a postgraduate dental hospital in Jabalpur city. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between hygiene knowledge and practices to the denture wearer's gender, education, and income. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire involving the complete denture patients attending the Department of Prosthodontics...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816023/community-sensitization-and-decision-making-for-trial-participation-a-mixed-methods-study-from-the-gambia
#20
Susan Dierickx, Sarah O'Neill, Charlotte Gryseels, Edna Immaculate Anyango, Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Joseph Okebe, Julia Mwesigwa, Fatou Jaiteh, René Gerrets, Raffaella Ravinetto, Umberto D'Alessandro, Koen Peeters Grietens
BACKGROUND: Ensuring individual free and informed decision-making for research participation is challenging. It is thought that preliminarily informing communities through 'community sensitization' procedures may improve individual decision-making. This study set out to assess the relevance of community sensitization for individual decision-making in research participation in rural Gambia. METHODS: This anthropological mixed-methods study triangulated qualitative methods and quantitative survey methods in the context of an observational study and a clinical trial on malaria carried out by the Medical Research Council Unit Gambia...
August 16, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
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