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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093310/effects-of-glucose-and-insulin-administration-on-glucose-transporter-expression-in-the-north-pacific-spiny-dogfish-squalus-suckleyi
#1
Courtney A Deck, W Gary Anderson, Patrick J Walsh
Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) are a primarily carnivorous group of fish, consuming few carbohydrates. Further, they tend to exhibit delayed responses to glucose and insulin administration in vivo relative to mammals, leading to a presumption of glucose-intolerance. To investigate the glucoregulatory capabilities of the spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi), plasma glucose concentration, muscle and liver glycogen content, and glucose transporter (glut1 and 4) mRNA levels were measured following intra-arterial administration of bovine insulin (10 ng kg(-1)) or an approximate doubling of fasting plasma glucose concentration...
January 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087234/interference-from-related-actions-in-spoken-word-production-behavioural-and-fmri-evidence
#2
Greig de Zubicaray, Douglas Fraser, Kori Ramajoo, Katie McMahon
Few investigations of lexical access in spoken word production have investigated the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in action naming. These are likely to be more complex than the mechanisms involved in object naming, due to the ways in which conceptual features of action words are represented. The present study employed a blocked cyclic naming paradigm to examine whether related action contexts elicit a semantic interference effect akin to that observed with categorically related objects. Participants named pictures of intransitive actions to avoid a confound with object processing...
January 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080120/a-goal-bias-in-action-the-boundaries-adults-perceive-in-events-align-with-sites-of-actor-intent
#3
Dani Levine, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Amy Pace, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff
We live in a dynamic world comprised of continuous events. Remembering our past and predicting future events, however, requires that we segment these ongoing streams of information in a consistent manner. How is this segmentation achieved? This research examines whether the boundaries adults perceive in events, such as the Olympic figure skating routine used in these studies, align with the beginnings (sources) and endings (goals) of human goal-directed actions. Study 1 showed that a group of experts, given an explicit task with unlimited time to rewatch the event, identified the same subevents as one another, but with greater agreement as to the timing of goals than sources...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077388/the-na-taurocholate-cotransporting-polypeptide-ntcp-slc10a1-ortholog-in-the-marine-skate-leucoraja-erinacea-is-not-a-physiological-bile-salt-transporter
#4
Dongke Yu, Han Zhang, Daniel A Lionarons, James L Boyer, Shi-Ying Cai
The Na(+)-dependent taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1) is a hepatocyte specific solute carrier, which plays an important role in maintaining bile salt homeostasis in mammals. The absence of an hepatic Na(+)-dependent bile salt transport system in marine skate and rainbow trout raises a question regarding the function of the Slc10a1 gene in these species. Here we have characterized the Slc10a1 gene in the marine skate, Leucoraja erinacea. The transcript of skate Slc10a1 (skSlc10a1) encodes 319 amino acids and shares 46% identity to human NTCP (hNTCP) with similar topology to mammalian NTCP...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075521/association-between-adolescent-sport-activities-and-lumbar-disc-degeneration-among-young-adults
#5
Jani Takatalo, Jaro Karppinen, Simo Näyhä, Simo Taimela, Jaakko Niinimäki, Roberto Blanco Sequeiros, Tuija Tammelin, Juha Auvinen, Osmo Tervonen
The relationship between different sport activities and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (DD) is largely unknown. We evaluated whether adolescent participation in different sports is associated with lumbar DD in a population-based birth cohort of young adults. A total of 558 young adults (325 females and 233 males) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 1.5-T scanner). A DD sum score, based on the Pfirrmann grading, was calculated for all lumbar levels. The sum score was categorized into no DD, 1, 2, or at least 3...
January 11, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069513/structure-and-mechanical-implications-of-the-pectoral-fin-skeleton-in-the-longnose-skate-chondrichthyes-batoidea
#6
Wei Huang, Watcharapong Hongjamrassilp, Jae-Young Jung, Philip A Hastings, Vlado A Lubarda, Joanna McKittrick
Animal propulsion systems are believed to show high energy and mechanical efficiency in assisting movement compared to artificial designs. As an example, batoid fishes have very light cartilaginous skeletons that facilitate their elegant swimming via enlarged wing-like pectoral fins. The aim of this work is to illustrate the hierarchical structure of the pectoral fin of a representative batoid, the Longnose Skate (Raja rhina), and explain the mechanical implications of its structural design. At the macro level, the pectoral fins are comprised of radially oriented fin rays, formed by staggered mineralized skeletal elements stacked end-to-end...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026018/a-preliminary-investigation-into-the-morphology-of-oral-papillae-and-denticles-of-blue-sharks-prionace-glauca-with-inferences-about-its-functional-significance-across-life-stages
#7
Bianca de S Rangel, Natascha Wosnick, Neil Hammerschlag, Adriano P Ciena, José Roberto Kfoury Junior, Rose E G Rici
Sensory organs in elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, rays) detect and respond to a different set of biotic and/or abiotic stimuli, through sight, smell, taste, hearing, mechanoreception and electroreception. Although gustation is crucial for survival and essential for growth, mobility, and maintenance of neural activity and the proper functioning of the immune system, comparatively little is known about this sensory system in elasmobranchs. Here we present a preliminary investigation into the structural and dimensional characteristics of the oral papillae and denticles found in the oropharyngeal cavity of the blue shark (Prionace glauca) during embryonic development through adulthood...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018244/differences-in-muscle-oxygenation-perceived-fatigue-and-recovery-between-long-track-and-short-track-speed-skating
#8
Florentina J Hettinga, Marco J Konings, Chris E Cooper
Due to the technical nature of speed skating, that is affecting physiological mechanisms such as oxygenation and blood flow, this sport provides a unique setting allowing us to uncover novel mechanistic insights of the physiological response to exercise in elite middle-distance and endurance sports. The present study aimed to examine the influence of skating mode (short-track vs. long-track) on muscle oxygenation, perceived fatigue, and recovery in elite speed skating. Muscle oxygenation of 12 talented short-track speed skaters was continuously monitored during a long-track (LT) and a short-track (ST) skating time-trial of maximal effort using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on the m...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988737/a-new-deepwater-legskate-i-sinobatis-i-i-kotlyari-i-n-sp-rajiformes-anacanthobatidae-from-the-southeastern-indian-ocean-on-broken-ridge
#9
Matthias F W Stehmann, Simon Weigmann
Sinobatis kotlyari n. sp. is described, based on the nearly adult 331 mm TL holotype male from 1400 m depth in the southeastern Indian Ocean at Broken Ridge. The new species is assigned to Sinobatis due to mainly characters of its clasper and cranium fontanelle distinguishing it from congeners and other anacanthobatid skates with clasper features known. It further differs from its morphologically closest congener, S. borneensis, which is only known from the northwestern Pacific Ocean, e.g. in larger maturing size, longer snout and head, the absence of a snout filament and skin fold on tail, a longer caudal fin, and in colouration...
November 10, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986765/skating-to-where-the-puck-is-going-to-be
#10
EDITORIAL
Robert T Schooley, Ferric C Fang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986753/nipple-reconstruction-after-autologous-or-expander-breast-reconstruction-a-multimodal-and-3-dimensional-analysis
#11
Mathias Tremp, Pietro G di Summa, Dominique Schaakxs, Carlo M Oranges, Reto Wettstein, Daniel F Kalbermatten
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the influence of the underlying tissue as donor for nipple-areola complex (NAC) reconstruction. Also, there is a complete lack of knowledge about the fate of nipple volume. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this retrospective, single-institution study was to analyze a case series after nipple reconstruction using a multimodal evaluation including 3-dimensional (3D) laser scanner analyses. METHODS: Unilateral mastectomy patients after either expander-based or autologous breast reconstruction using the skate flap were included...
February 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965272/batoid-fish-locomotion-effects-of-speed-on-pectoral-fin-deformation-in-the-little-skate-leucoraja-erinacea
#12
Valentina Di Santo, Erin L Blevins, George V Lauder
Most batoid fishes have a unique swimming mode in which thrust is generated by either oscillating or undulating expanded pectoral fins that form a disc. Only one previous study of the freshwater stingray has quantified three-dimensional motions of the wing, and no comparable data are available for marine batoid species that may differ considerably in their mode of locomotion. Here we investigate three-dimensional kinematics of the pectoral wing of the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea, swimming steadily at two speeds (1 and 2 body lengths per second, BL×s(-1))...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918670/combined-plyometric-strength-training-improves-ice-hockey-players-on-ice-sprint
#13
Torstein E Dæhlin, Ole C Haugen, Simen Haugerud, Ivana Hollan, Truls Raastad, Bent R Rønnestad
: Combined plyometric and strength training have previously been suggested as a strategy to improve skating performance in ice hockey players. However, the effects of combined plyometric and strength training has not been previously been compared to the effects of strength training only. PURPOSE: To compare the effects of combined plyometric and strength training on ice hockey players' skating sprint performance with strength training only. METHODS: Eighteen participants were randomly assigned to two groups that completed 5 strength-training sessions per week for 8 weeks...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873321/life-history-traits-of-the-long-nosed-skate-dipturus-oxyrinchus
#14
A Bellodi, C Porcu, R Cannas, Al Cau, M F Marongiu, A Mulas, S Vittori, M C Follesa
This work investigates life-history traits of the long-nosed skate Dipturus oxyrinchus, which is a common by-catch in Sardinian waters. The reproductive variables were analysed from 979 specimens sampled during scientific and commercial hauls. Females (10·4-117·5 cm total length, LT ) attained larger sizes than males (14·5-99·5 cm LT ). To evaluate age and growth, a sub-sample of 130 individuals (76 females and 54 males) were used. The age was estimated by annuli counts of sectioned vertebral centra...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862638/thorns-and-dermal-denticles-of-skates-atlantoraja-cyclophora-and-a-castelnaui-microscopic-features-and-functional-implications
#15
Bianca de Sousa Rangel, Natascha Wosnick, Rafael Magdanelo Leandro, Alberto Ferreira de Amorim, José Roberto Kfoury Junior, Rose Eli Grassi Rici
Some batoid species are covered with dermal denticles (or placoid scales) that occasionally develop into thorns. In sexually mature males, sharp teeth and alar thorns found on the apex of the lateral disc are used to hold the female during copulation. This study set out to analyze microscopic features of modified dermal denticles and thorns and to investigate sexual dimorphism in Atlantoraja cyclophora and A. castelnaui species. Skin samples collected from areas covered with thorns were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, processed and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy...
December 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853546/adaptive-phenotypic-response-to-climate-enabled-by-epigenetics-in-a-k-strategy-species-the-fish-leucoraja-ocellata-rajidae
#16
Jackie Lighten, Danny Incarnato, Ben J Ward, Cock van Oosterhout, Ian Bradbury, Mark Hanson, Paul Bentzen
The relative importance of genetic versus epigenetic changes in adaptive evolution is a hotly debated topic, with studies showing that some species appear to be able to adapt rapidly without significant genetic change. Epigenetic mechanisms may be particularly important for the evolutionary potential of species with long maturation times and low reproductive potential ('K-strategists'), particularly when faced with rapidly changing environmental conditions. Here we study the transcriptome of two populations of the winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata), a typical 'K-strategist', in Atlantic Canada; an endemic population in the southern Gulf of St Lawrence and a large population on the Scotian Shelf...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811793/parasitic-copepods-infesting-the-olfactory-sacs-of-skates-from-the-southwestern-atlantic-with-the-description-of-a-new-species-of-kroeyerina-wilson-1932
#17
Manuel M Irigoitia, Delfina M P Cantatore, Inés S Incorvaia, Juan T Timi
The olfactory sacs of 488 specimens belonging to 18 species of rajid and arhynchobatid skates from the Argentine Sea were sampled for parasites. No parasitic copepods were found in 11 host species, but siphonostomatoid specimens referable to Kroeyerina Wilson, 1932 (Kroyeriidae) and Brianella corniger Wilson, 1915 (Lernaeopodidae) were found on the spotback skate Atlantoraja castelnaui (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907), the smallnose fanskate Sympterygia bonapartii Müller & Henle, 1841, the bignose fanskate Sympterygia acuta Garman, 1877 and the zipper sand skate Psammobatis extenta (Garman, 1913) (Rajiformes: Arhynchobatidae)...
October 11, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811653/a-new-skate-genus-orbiraja-rajiformes-rajidae-from-the-indo-west-pacific
#18
Peter R Last, Simon Weigmann, Don Dumale
Molecular analyses and information gleaned from an examination of the newly available adult male of the North-West Pacific skate, Okamejei jensenae Last & Lim, supported earlier concerns that the species might be mis-assigned. Morphological data based on this specimen supported its placement in a new genus Orbiraja that is assigned to the recently named Rostrorajini based on molecular evidence. This subgroup of the family Rajidae also includes Malacoraja, Neoraja, Rostroraja and an unresolved 'amphi-American Assemblage' (sensu McEachran & Dunn, 1998)...
November 2, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803616/reliability-and-validity-of-the-inline-skating-skill-test
#19
Ivan Radman, Lana Ruzic, Viktoria Padovan, Vjekoslav Cigrovski, Hrvoje Podnar
This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the inline skating skill test. Based on previous skating experience forty-two skaters (26 female and 16 male) were randomized into two groups (competitive level vs. recreational level). They performed the test four times, with a recovery time of 45 minutes between sessions. Prior to testing, the participants rated their skating skill using a scale from 1 to 10. The protocol included performance time measurement through a course, combining different skating techniques...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781275/follicle-cell-processes-a-shark-thing
#20
M Dunbar, C Onuora, S Morgan, F E Stone, T M Huckaba, I R Davenport
Follicle cell processes (FCP) are identified in two species of carcharhinid shark (Selachii) but are absent in the little skate Leucoraja erinacea (Batoidea). This suggests that FCPs are either a unique structure that evolved in selachians or were lost by the batoids after their divergence, some 280 mya. The presence of FCPs in the selachians would be consistent with the evolution of large oocytes in this group of animals.
October 25, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
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