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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791464/the-influence-of-increased-distal-loading-on-metabolic-cost-efficiency-and-kinematics-of-roller-ski-skating
#1
Conor M Bolger, Veronica Bessone, Peter Federolf, Gertjan Ettema, Øyvind Sandbakk
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of increased loading of the roller ski on metabolic cost, gross efficiency, and kinematics of roller ski skating in steep and moderate terrain, while employing two incline-specific techniques. Ten nationally ranked male cross-country skiers were subjected to four 7-minute submaximal intervals, with 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg added beneath the roller-ski in a randomized order. This was done on two separate days, with the G2 skating at 12% incline and 7 km/h speed and G3 skating at 5% incline and 14 km/h speed, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780846/epidemiology-of-hip-and-groin-injuries-in-collegiate-athletes-in-the-united-states
#2
Yehuda E Kerbel, Christopher M Smith, John P Prodromo, Michael I Nzeogu, Mary K Mulcahey
Background: Hip and groin pain is a common complaint among athletes. Few studies have examined the epidemiology of hip and groin injuries in collegiate athletes across multiple sports. Purpose: To describe the rates, mechanisms, sex-based differences, and severity of hip/groin injuries across 25 collegiate sports. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Data from the 2009-2010 through 2013-2014 academic years were obtained from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA ISP)...
May 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756297/retinal-specializations-and-visual-ecology-in-an-animal-with-an-extremely-elaborate-pupil-shape-the-little-skate-leucoraja-raja-erinacea-mitchell-1825
#3
S Terrell Jinson, Jan Liebich, Stephen L Senft, Lydia M Mäthger
Investigating retinal specializations offers insights into eye functionality. Using retinal wholemount techniques, we investigated the distribution of retinal ganglion cells in the Little skate Leucoraja erinacea by (1) dye-backfilling into the optic nerve prior to retinal wholemounting; (2) Nissl-staining of retinal wholemounts. Retinas were examined for regional specializations (higher numbers) of ganglion cells that would indicate higher visual acuity in those areas. Total ganglion cell number were low compared to other elasmobranchs (backfilled: average 49,713 total ganglion cells, average peak cell density 1,315 ganglion cells mm-2 ; Nissl-stained: average 47,791 total ganglion cells, average peak cell density 1,319 ganglion cells mm-2 )...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746387/updating-the-skating-multistage-aerobic-test-and-correction-for-v-combining-dot-above-o2max-prediction-using-a-new-skating-economy-index-in-elite-youth-ice-hockey-players
#4
Maxime Allisse, Hung Tien Bui, Luc Léger, Alain-Steve Comtois, Mario Leone
Allisse, M, Bui, HT, Léger, L, Comtois, A-S, and Leone, M. Updating the skating multistage aerobic test and correction for V[Combining Dot Above]O2max prediction using a new skating economy index in elite youth ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-A number of field tests, including the skating multistage aerobic test (SMAT), have been developed to predict V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in ice hockey players. The SMAT, like most field tests, assumes that participants who reach a given stage have the same oxygen uptake, which is not usually true...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745787/time-trial-performance-in-world-class-speed-skaters-after-chronic-nitrate-ingestion
#5
Philippe Richard, Lymperis P Koziris, Mathieu Charbonneau, Catherine Naulleau, Jonathan Tremblay, François Billaut
PURPOSE: Nitrate supplementation can increase tolerance to high-intensity work rates, however limited data exist on the recovery of performance. We tested whether 5 days of nitrate supplementation could improve repeated time-trial performance in speed skating. METHODS: Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 9 international-level short-track speed skaters ingested one high (juice blend, ~6.5mmol nitrate; HI) or low dose (juice blend, ~1mmol nitrate; LO) per day on days 1-4...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745735/time-trial-performance-in-elite-speed-skaters-after-remote-ischemic-preconditioning
#6
Philippe Richard, François Billaut
PURPOSE: Speed skating leads to blood-flow restriction and deoxygenation in the lower limbs (especially the right leg) that may affect performance. Although the acute influence of such deoxygenation is not clearly understood, we tested whether remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) could modify muscular oxygenation and improve time-trial performance in that sport. METHODS: Using a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 9 elite speed skaters performed 1000-m on-ice time-trials preceded by either RIPC of the upper limbs (3x5-min compression/5-min reperfusion cycles at 30 mmHg > arterial systolic pressure) or SHAM (10 mmHg)...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741089/molecular-insight-into-the-slipperiness-of-ice
#7
Bart Weber, Yuki Nagata, Stefania Ketzetzi, Fujie Tang, Wilbert J Smit, Huib J Bakker, Ellen H G Backus, Mischa Bonn, Daniel Bonn
Measurements of the friction coefficient of steel on ice over a large temperature range reveal very high friction at low temperatures (-100'C) and a steep decrease in the friction coefficient with increasing temperature. Very low friction is only found over the limited temperature range typical for ice skating. The strong decrease in the friction coefficient with increasing temperature exhibits Arrhenius behavior with an activation energy Ea ~ 11.5 kJ/mol. Remarkably, molecular dynamics simulations of the ice-air interface reveal a very similar activation energy for the mobility of surface molecules...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738281/epidemiology-of-figure-skating-injuries-a-review-of-the-literature
#8
Julie S Han, Ellen T Geminiani, Lyle J Micheli
CONTEXT: As the popularity and technical demands of figure skating increase, so will the number of athletes presenting with sport-related problems. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Searches were performed across PubMed from 1980 to 2017. The keywords searched were skating, skaters, incidence, and injuries. The search was limited to English-language articles and human participants. Relevant articles were cross-referenced. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical review...
May 1, 2018: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708722/structural-and-functional-components-of-the-skate-sensory-organ-ampullae-of-lorenzini
#9
Xing Zhang, Ke Xia, Lei Lin, Fuming Zhang, Yanlei Yu, Kalib St Ange, Xiaorui Han, Eric Edsinger, Joel Sohn, Robert J Linhardt
The skate, a cartilaginous fish related to sharks and rays, possesses a unique electrosensitive sensory organ known as the ampullae of Lorenzini (AoL). This organ is responsible for the detection of weak electric field changes caused by the muscle contractions of their prey. While keratan sulfate (KS) is believed to be a component of a jelly that fills this sensory organ and has been credited with its high proton conductivity, modern analytical methods have not been applied to its characterization. Surprisingly, total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analysis demonstrates that the KS from skate jelly is extraordinarily pure, containing no other GAGs...
May 9, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697774/on-the-hydrodynamics-of-anomalocaris-tail-fins
#10
K A Sheppard, D E Rival, J-B Caron
Anomalocaris canadensis, a soft-bodied stem-group arthropod from the Burgess Shale, is considered the largest predator of the Cambrian period. Thanks to a series of lateral flexible lobes along its dorso-ventrally compressed body, it is generally regarded as an efficient swimmer, well-adapted to its predatory lifestyle. Previous theoretical hydrodynamic simulations have suggested a possible optimum in swimming performance when the lateral lobes performed as a single undulatory lateral fin, comparable to the pectoral fins in skates and rays...
April 25, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677704/morphology-of-a-hidden-tube-resin-injection-and-ct-scanning-reveal-the-three-dimensional-structure-of-the-spiracle-in-the-japanese-bullhead-shark-heterodontus-japonicus-chondrichthyes-heterodontiformes-heterodontidae
#11
Taketeru Tomita, Minoru Toda, Kei Miyamoto, Keiichi Ueda, Kazuhiro Nakaya
The spiracle of elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) is a gill-slit-derived tube located behind the eye. Its inner structure was well studied in the late nineteenth to early twentieth century, but its entire morphology has rarely been characterized and is poorly understood. The present study shows the three-dimensional morphology of the spiracular tube for the first time, using resin injection and CT scanning, in the Japanese bullhead shark. The spiracular tube is characterized by the presence of two caeca (dorsal and ventral spiracular caeca) on the medial wall of the spiracular tube and the presence of a pseudobranch on the anterior wall...
April 20, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675895/at-vessel-mortality-of-skates-rajidae-taken-in-coastal-fisheries-and-evidence-of-longer-term-survival
#12
J R Ellis, G J Burt, G Grilli, S R McCully Phillips, T L Catchpole, D L Maxwell
Data on the vigour and at-vessel mortality (AVM) of 6798 skates (comprising Raja clavata n = 6295; R. brachyura n = 208; R. undulata n = 185, R. montagui n = 98 and R. microocellata n = 12) captured by commercial fishing vessels in the inshore waters of the southern North Sea and English Channel were recorded. AVM in longline fisheries averaged 0·44% across five vessels (0-1·47%), although skates were usually unhooked manually and did not usually pass through a bait-stripper. AVM in otter trawls averaged 0·76% (0-2·35%), from four vessels fishing with tow durations of <1·5 h (southern North Sea) or 1-4 h (English Channel)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675749/evaluation-of-severe-and-fatal-injuries-in-extreme-and-contact-sports-an-international-multicenter-analysis
#13
Christian D Weber, Klemens Horst, Anthony R Nguyen, Rolf Lefering, Hans-Christoph Pape, Frank Hildebrand
PURPOSE: The participation in extreme and contact sports has grown internationally, despite the significant risk for major and multiple injuries. We conducted this multicenter study to evaluate sport-specific injury patterns and mechanisms, to characterize individuals at risk and to identify possible approaches for prevention. METHODS: We compared demographic data, severity and patterns of injuries; and the pre- and in-hospital management from an international population-based prospective trauma database (TraumaRegister DGU®)...
April 19, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623809/participation-in-active-play-of-children-who-use-lower-extremity-prostheses-an-exploratory-questionnaire
#14
Cheryl Kerfeld, Tracy Jirikowic, Katheryn J Allyn, Murray E Maitland
BACKGROUND: Through play, children develop motor, cognitive, social, and other life skills. Play barriers can impede physical and psychosocial benefits. OBJECTIVES: We describe participation in active play, fundamental movement skills, play environment characteristics, and potential play barriers for school-aged children (6-12 years) who use lower extremity prostheses. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire study. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed and administered online to parents of children 6-12 years who use lower extremity prostheses...
April 1, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577616/skating-on-thin-ice-stimulant-use-and-sub-optimal-adherence-to-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#15
J Carlo Hojilla, David Vlahov, David V Glidden, K Rivet Amico, Megha Mehrotra, Robert Hance, Robert M Grant, Adam W Carrico
INTRODUCTION: Stimulant and heavy alcohol use are prevalent and associated with elevated risk for HIV seroconversion among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. In addition, each can pose difficulties for antiretroviral adherence among people living with HIV. Scant research has examined the associations of stimulant and heavy alcohol use with adherence to daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM and transgender women. To address this gap in the literature, we evaluated the hypothesis that stimulant use and binge drinking are prospectively associated with sub-optimal PrEP adherence...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571456/a-rapid-real-time-pcr-method-to-differentiate-between-mottled-skate-beringraja-pulchra-and-other-skate-and-ray-species
#16
Mi-Ra Kim, Kisung Kwon, Yoo-Kyung Jung, Tae Sun Kang
Skates and rays are commercially important fish in South Korea, and among them, Beringraja pulchra has the highest economic value. However, the similar morphological traits among skates and rays are often exploited for seafood fraud. Here, we designed both Beringraja pulchra-specific and skate-universal primer sets, capable of detecting short sequences in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene, and developed highly sensitive and reliable quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays to differentiate between Beringraja pulchra and other skate and ray species...
July 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563884/symptoms-of-anxiety-and-depression-in-young-athletes-using-the-hospital-anxiety-and-depression-scale
#17
Stephanie Weber, Christian Puta, Melanie Lesinski, Brunhild Gabriel, Thomas Steidten, Karl-Jürgen Bär, Marco Herbsleb, Urs Granacher, Holger H W Gabriel
Elite young athletes have to cope with multiple psychological demands such as training volume, mental and physical fatigue, spatial separation of family and friends or time management problems may lead to reduced mental and physical recovery. While normative data regarding symptoms of anxiety and depression for the general population is available (Hinz and Brähler, 2011), hardly any information exists for adolescents in general and young athletes in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess overall symptoms of anxiety and depression in young athletes as well as possible sex differences...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466379/activation-of-retinal-glial-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-by-extracellular-atp-induces-pronounced-increases-in-extracellular-h-flux
#18
Boriana K Tchernookova, Chad Heer, Marin Young, David Swygart, Ryan Kaufman, Michael Gongwer, Lexi Shepherd, Hannah Caringal, Jason Jacoby, Matthew A Kreitzer, Robert Paul Malchow
Small alterations in extracellular acidity are potentially important modulators of neuronal signaling within the vertebrate retina. Here we report a novel extracellular acidification mechanism mediated by glial cells in the retina. Using self-referencing H+-selective microelectrodes to measure extracellular H+ fluxes, we show that activation of retinal Müller (glial) cells of the tiger salamander by micromolar concentrations of extracellular ATP induces a pronounced extracellular H+ flux independent of bicarbonate transport...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425489/the-ancient-origins-of-neural-substrates-for-land-walking
#19
Heekyung Jung, Myungin Baek, Kristen P D'Elia, Catherine Boisvert, Peter D Currie, Boon-Hui Tay, Byrappa Venkatesh, Stuart M Brown, Adriana Heguy, David Schoppik, Jeremy S Dasen
Walking is the predominant locomotor behavior expressed by land-dwelling vertebrates, but it is unknown when the neural circuits that are essential for limb control first appeared. Certain fish species display walking-like behaviors, raising the possibility that the underlying circuitry originated in primitive marine vertebrates. We show that the neural substrates of bipedalism are present in the little skate Leucoraja erinacea, whose common ancestor with tetrapods existed ∼420 million years ago. Leucoraja exhibits core features of tetrapod locomotor gaits, including left-right alternation and reciprocal extension-flexion of the pelvic fins...
February 8, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422624/deep-sea-hydrothermal-vents-as-natural-egg-case-incubators-at-the-galapagos-rift
#20
Pelayo Salinas-de-León, Brennan Phillips, David Ebert, Mahmood Shivji, Florencia Cerutti-Pereyra, Cassandra Ruck, Charles R Fisher, Leigh Marsh
The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 challenged our views of ecosystem functioning and yet, the research conducted at these extreme and logistically challenging environments still continues to reveal unique biological processes. Here, we report for the first time, a unique behavior where the deep-sea skate, Bathyraja spinosissima, appears to be actively using the elevated temperature of a hydrothermal vent environment to naturally "incubate" developing egg-cases. We hypothesize that this behavior is directly targeted to accelerate embryo development time given that deep-sea skates have some of the longest egg incubation times reported for the animal kingdom...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
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