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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913649/identification-and-function-of-fibrocytes-in-skeletal-muscle-injury-repair-and-muscular-dystrophy
#1
Xingyu Wang, Wanming Zhao, Richard M Ransohoff, Lan Zhou
We identified and characterized the function of CD45(+)/collagen I(+) fibrocytes in acutely injured skeletal muscle of wild-type (WT) and Ccr2(-/-) mice, and in quadriceps and diaphragm muscles of mdx(5cv) mice, a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Fibrocytes were not detected in peripheral blood of WT mice after acute muscle injury or mdx(5cv) mice. Fibrocytes were detected in acutely injured muscles and in mdx(5cv) quadriceps and diaphragm muscles. These cells expressed F4/80 and CCR2, and they were mostly Ly6C(lo) They expressed a low level of collagens but a high level of profibrotic growth factors as compared with i...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891095/differential-rna-expression-profile-of-skeletal-muscle-induced-by-experimental-autoimmune-myasthenia-gravis-in-rats
#2
Henry J Kaminski, Keiichi Himuro, Jumana Alshaikh, Bendi Gong, Georgiana Cheng, Linda L Kusner
The differential susceptibility of skeletal muscle by myasthenia gravis (MG) is not well understood. We utilized RNA expression profiling of extraocular muscle (EOM), diaphragm (DIA), and extensor digitorum (EDL) of rats with experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG) to evaluate the hypothesis that muscles respond differentially to injury produced by EAMG. EAMG was induced in female Lewis rats by immunization with acetylcholine receptor purified from the electric organ of the Torpedo. Six weeks later after rats had developed weakness and serum antibodies directed against the AChR, animals underwent euthanasia and RNA profiling performed on DIA, EDL, and EOM...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888814/diaphragmatic-dysfunction-after-thoracic-operations
#3
Henning Gaissert, Susan R Wilcox
The perioperative management of diaphragmatic weakness and phrenic nerve dysfunction is complex, due to varied etiologies and clinical presentations. The factors leading to diaphragmatic weakness may culminate after the operation with transient or persistent respiratory failure. This review discusses diaphragmatic disorders and postoperative respiratory failure caused by unilateral or bilateral diaphragmatic impairment. The origins of neuromuscular weakness involving the diaphragm are diverse, and often lie within the domains of different medical specialties, with only a portion of the condition related to surgical intervention...
November 26, 2016: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881723/intraspinal-microstimulation-and-diaphragm-activation-following-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Lynne M Mercier, Elisa J Gonzalez-Rothi, Kristi A Streeter, Savannah S Posgai, Alexander S Poirier, David D Fuller, Paul J Reier, David M Baekey
Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS), using implanted electrodes, can evoke locomotor movements after spinal cord injury (SCI), but has not been explored in the context of respiratory motor output. An advantage over epidural and direct muscle stimulation is the potential of ISMS to selectively stimulate components of the spinal respiratory network. The present study tested the hypothesis that medullary respiratory activity could be used to trigger mid-cervical ISMS and diaphragm motor unit activation in rats with cervical SCI...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879614/getting-a-better-look-outcomes-of-laparoscopic-versus-transdiaphragmatic-pericardial-window-for-penetrating-thoracoabdominal-trauma-at-a-level-i-trauma-center
#5
Jamie E Anderson, Edgardo S Salcedo, Kacie M Rounds, Joseph M Galante
BACKGROUND: In penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma, it is necessary to evaluate both the pericardial fluid and the diaphragm directly. Transdiaphragmatic pericardial windows (TDWs) provide direct access to the pericardium and diaphragm but expose the patient to the risks of laparotomy. We hypothesize that transabdominal laparoscopic pericardial windows (LPWs) are a safe and effective alternative to TDWs in stable patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of stable patients with thoracoabdominal penetrating trauma at a level I trauma center between January 2007 and June 2015, comparing outcomes after TDW versus LPW...
December 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878130/an-unusual-case-of-transorificial-abdomino-thoracic-impalement-injury-in-a-child
#6
Hemanshi Shah, Charu Tiwari, Shalika Jayaswal, Keshav Murthy
Impalement injuries are rare in the paediatric age group. Still rarer are injuries which traverse multiple body cavities. Such injuries require multispecialty management at a tertiary care centre. We describe a case of an accidental impalement injury in a 12-year-old boy after a fall from height. The rod was seen passing through the right lung in the paracardiac region, piercing the diaphragm and segment IV of the liver and then coursing anterior to the inferior vena cava in the midline. It was seen passing through the small bowel at multiple places and then coursing behind the bladder, entering the rectum and anal canal...
October 2016: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867441/the-role-of-computed-tomography-in-the-diagnostics-of-diaphragmatic-injury-after-blunt-thoraco-abdominal-trauma
#7
Agata Gmachowska, Ryszard Pacho, Agnieszka Anysz-Grodzicka, Leopold Bakoń, Maria Gorycka, Wawrzyniec Jakuczun, Waldemar Patkowski
BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic injuries occur in 0.8-8% of patients with blunt trauma. The clinical diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture is difficult and may be overshadowed by associated injuries. Diaphragmatic rupture does not resolve spontaneously and may cause life-threatening complications. The aim of this study was to present radiological findings in patients with diaphragmatic injury. MATERIAL/METHODS: The analysis of computed tomography examinations performed between 2007 and 2012 revealed 200 patients after blunt thoraco-abdominal trauma...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832610/diaphragm-electromyographic-activity-following-unilateral-mid-cervical-contusion-injury-in-rats
#8
Sabhya Rana, Gary C Sieck, Carlos B Mantilla
Contusion type injuries to the spinal cord are characterized by tissue loss and disruption of spinal pathways. Mid-cervical spinal cord injuries impair the function of respiratory muscles and may contribute to significant respiratory complications. This study systematically assessed the impact of a 100-kDy unilateral C4 contusion injury on diaphragm muscle activity across a range of motor behaviors in rats. Chronic diaphragm EMG was recorded prior to injury, and at 1 and 7 days post injury. Histological analyses assessed the extent of perineuronal net formation, white matter sparing and phrenic motoneuron loss...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832605/bdnf-effects-on-functional-recovery-across-motor-behaviors-after-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Vivian Hernandez-Torres, Heather M Gransee, Carlos B Mantilla, Yao Wang, Wen-Zhi Zhan, Gary C Sieck
Unilateral C2 cervical spinal cord hemisection (SH) disrupts descending excitatory drive to phrenic motor neurons, thereby paralyzing the ipsilateral diaphragm muscle (DIAm) during ventilatory behaviors. Recovery of rhythmic DIAm activity ipsilateral to injury occurs over time, consistent with neuroplasticity and strengthening of spared synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons. Localized intrathecal delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to phrenic motor neurons after SH enhances recovery of eupneic DIAm activity...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786562/spontaneous-breathing-during-mechanical-ventilation-risks-mechanisms-management
#10
Takeshi Yoshida, Yuji Fujino, Marcelo B P Amato, Brian P Kavanagh
Spontaneous respiratory effort during mechanical ventilation has long been recognized to improve oxygenation (1, 2) and because oxygenation is a key management target, such effort may seem beneficial. Also, disuse and loss of peripheral muscle and diaphragm function is increasingly recognized (3), and thus spontaneous breathing may confer additional advantage. Of course, all patients will need to transition to spontaneous effort if they are to become independent of the ventilator. Finally, epidemiologic data suggest that the use of partial (vs...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770153/traumatic-diaphragmatic-rupture-in-pediatric-age-review-of-the-literature
#11
F Marzona, N Parri, A Nocerino, M Giacalone, E Valentini, S Masi, L Bussolin
PURPOSE: Traumatic diaphragm rupture (TDR) is a rare complication of trauma in pediatric age and may be easily missed by the severity of associated injuries so that delayed emergent presentation can occur with increased rate of morbidity and mortality. No review has been available to guide clinicians through the pitfalls and the initial diagnostic approach to pediatric TDR. METHODS: A Medline thorough search on TDR was conducted using different queries. English language citations were identified during the period of January 2000 through December 2014 limiting the search to pediatric age (0-18 years)...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761886/comparison-between-effects-of-pressure-support-and-pressure-controlled-ventilation-on-lung-and-diaphragmatic-damage-in-experimental-emphysema
#12
Gisele de A Padilha, Lucas F B Horta, Lillian Moraes, Cassia L Braga, Milena V Oliveira, Cíntia L Santos, Isalira P Ramos, Marcelo M Morales, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Regina C S Goldenberg, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Paolo Pelosi, Pedro L Silva, Patricia R M Rocco
BACKGROUND: In patients with emphysema, invasive mechanical ventilation settings should be adjusted to minimize hyperinflation while reducing respiratory effort and providing adequate gas exchange. We evaluated the impact of pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and pressure support ventilation (PSV) on pulmonary and diaphragmatic damage, as well as cardiac function, in experimental emphysema. METHODS: Emphysema was induced by intratracheal instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase in Wistar rats, once weekly for 4 weeks...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756029/dual-mesh-repair-for-a-large-diaphragmatic-hernia-defect-an-unusual-case-report
#13
Metin Ercan, Mehmet Aziret, Kerem Karaman, Birol Bostancı, Musa Akoğlu
INTRODUCTION: Diaphragmatic hernia secondary to traumatic rupture is a rare entity which can occur after stab wound injuries or blunt abdominal traumas. We aimed to report successfully management of dual mesh repair for a large diaphragmatic defect. CASE REPORT: A 66-year-old male was admitted with a right sided diaphragmatic hernia which occurred ten years ago due to a traffic accident. He had abdominal pain with worsened breath. Chest X-ray showed an elevated right diaphragm...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751822/positive-vitreous-pressure-pathophysiology-complications-prevention-and-management
#14
Argyrios Chronopoulos, Gabriele Thumann, James Schutz
Positive vitreous pressure (PVP) occurs during anterior segment intraocular surgery associated with acute hypotony and is characterized by forward displacement of the lens-iris diaphragm with shallowing of the anterior chamber resistant to reformation, repeated iris prolapse, and, in severe cases, zonular rupture and vitreous or lens prolapse that can lead to a cascade of intraoperative complications. PVP is particularly common during penetrating keratoplasty (PK), conventional nuclear expression cataract extraction, and repair of anterior open globe injury...
October 14, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748627/partial-neuromuscular-blockade-during-partial-ventilatory-support-in-sedated-patients-with-high-tidal-volumes
#15
Jonne Doorduin, Joeke L Nollet, Lisanne H Roesthuis, Hieronymus W H van Hees, Laurent J Brochard, Christer A Sinderby, Johannes G van der Hoeven, Leo M A Heunks
RATIONALE: Controlled mechanical ventilation is used to deliver lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite recognized benefits, such as preserved diaphragm activity, partial support ventilation modes may be incompatible with lung-protective ventilation due to high tidal volume and high transpulmonary pressure. As an alternative to high dose sedatives and controlled mechanical ventilation, pharmacologically induced neuromechanical uncoupling of the diaphragm should facilitate lung-protective ventilation under partial support modes...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747335/2-3-5-4-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-exerted-protective-effects-on-diabetic-nephropathy-in-mice-with-hyperglycemia-induced-by-streptozotocin
#16
Guang-Tong Chen, Min Yang, Bing-Bing Chen, Yan Song, Wei Zhang, Yan Zhang
2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside (TSG), an active component from the functional and medicinal herb Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, has the capacity of blocking angiotensin II (ANG II) signaling, a pathway within the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which plays a critical role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN), and blockade of the RAS is currently used for the treatment of DN. Here we investigated the beneficial effect of TSG therapy on renal damage in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model...
October 17, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744657/pathogenesis-of-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Beom Jin Lim, Jae Won Yang, Woo Sung Do, Agnes B Fogo
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is characterized by focal and segmental obliteration of glomerular capillary tufts with increased matrix. FSGS is classified as collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar and not otherwise specified variants according to the location and character of the sclerotic lesion. Primary or idiopathic FSGS is considered to be related to podocyte injury, and the pathogenesis of podocyte injury has been actively investigated. Several circulating factors affecting podocyte permeability barrier have been proposed, but not proven to cause FSGS...
November 2016: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680535/safety-and-pain-in-electrodiagnostic-studies
#18
REVIEW
Zachary N London
Discomfort is an unavoidable part of electrodiagnostic (EDX) studies. The most readily modifiable mediator of electromyography (EMG)-associated pain is muscle selection. Interventions that may reduce pain include vapocoolant spray, ibuprofen, and techniques such as slapping or stretching the skin. Needlestick injuries to health care workers carry the risk of transmitting bloodborne illnesses, but other infectious complications of EDX studies are very rare. EMG probably contributes to asymptomatic hemorrhage in approximately 1% of patients, but clinically significant bleeding has only been reported a few times...
September 28, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652187/traumatic-diaphragmatic-injuries-epidemiological-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-aspects
#19
Ousmane Thiam, Ibrahima Konate, Mohamadou Lamine Gueye, Alpha Omar Toure, Mamadou Seck, Mamadou Cisse, Balla Diop, Elias Said Dirie, Ousmane Ka, Mbaye Thiam, Madieng Dieng, Abdarahmane Dia, Cheikh Tidiane Toure
INTRODUCTION: Diaphragmatic injuries include wounds and diaphragm ruptures, due to a thoracoabdominal blunt or penetrating traumas. Their incidence ranges between 0.8 and 15 %. The diagnosis is often delayed, despite several medical imaging techniques. The surgical management remains controversal, particularly for the choice of the surgical approach and technique. The mortality is mainly related to associated injuries. The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence of diaphragmatic injuries occuring in thoraco-abdominal traumas, and to discuss their epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641159/traumatic-injuries-of-the-diaphragm-overview-of-imaging-findings-and-diagnosis
#20
Mark M Hammer, Demetrios A Raptis, Vincent M Mellnick, Sanjeev Bhalla, Constantine A Raptis
Injuries to the diaphragm muscle occur in penetrating and severe blunt trauma and can lead to delayed hernia formation. Computed tomography is the mainstay in the diagnosis of these injuries, which may be subtle at presentation. Imaging findings differ between blunt and penetrating trauma. Key features in blunt trauma include diaphragm fragment distraction and organ herniation because of increased intra-abdominal pressure. In penetrating trauma, herniation is uncommon, and the trajectory of the object is critical in making the diagnosis of diaphragm injury in these patients...
September 19, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
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