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Yu Zhu, Yingxin Gu, Shichong Qiao, Linyi Zhou, Junyu Shi, Hongchang Lai
Microorganisms are frequently introduced to dental implants during surgery and start the race for the surface with host cells before osseointegration occurs. The aim of the study was to endow implant surfaces with biological functions that reliably select cells over microbes. Nano-structured tantalum (Ta) has exhibited excellent compatibility. Thus, nano-structured Ta films were deposited on the sand-blasted, large grit and acid-etched (SLA) titanium by the magnetron sputtering method, thus forming hierarchical micro/nanostructured surfaces...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Patrizia Ferroni, Francesca Santilli, Francesco Cavaliere, Paola Simeone, Leopoldo Costarelli, Rossella Liani, Romina Tripaldi, Silvia Riondino, Mario Roselli, Giovanni Davi, Fiorella Guadagni
The hypothesis that increased oxidative stress in breast cancer (BC) patients could induce enhanced lipid peroxidation, which, in turn, would contribute to platelet activation and poor clinical outcome is attractive. To address this issue, we investigated pre-surgical urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F2α (marker of in vivo oxidative stress) and 11-dehydro-thromboxane (TX)B2 (marker of in vivo platelet activation) levels in patients with primary BC (n=115) compared with control women paired for co-morbidities and their association with patients' metabolic profile and clinical prognostic factors...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Dror Alishekevitz, Svetlana Gingis-Velitski, Orit Kaidar-Person, Lilach Gutter-Kapon, Sandra D Scherer, Ziv Raviv, Emmanuelle Merquiol, Yael Ben-Nun, Valeria Miller, Chen Rachman-Tzemah, Michael Timaner, Yelena Mumblat, Neta Ilan, David Loven, Dov Hershkovitz, Ronit Satchi-Fainaro, Galia Blum, Jonathan P Sleeman, Israel Vlodavsky, Yuval Shaked
While chemotherapy strongly restricts or reverses tumor growth, the response of host tissue to therapy can counteract its anti-tumor activity by promoting tumor re-growth and/or metastases, thus limiting therapeutic efficacy. Here, we show that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3)-expressing macrophages infiltrating chemotherapy-treated tumors play a significant role in metastasis. They do so in part by inducing lymphangiogenesis as a result of cathepsin release, leading to VEGF-C upregulation by heparanase...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Carlos Fernandez-Patron, Zamaneh Kassiri, Dickson Leung
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a 72-kDa zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidase with intracellular and extracellular functions ranging from the modulation of extracellular matrix remodeling to cell growth and migration, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metabolism. An upregulation of MMP-2 activity has the potential to deregulate lipid metabolism through the cleavage of numerous metabolic mediators including plasma lipoproteins and cell surface receptors of lipoproteins. Paradoxically, MMP-2 deficiency induces inflammation and deregulates metabolism...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Hiroshi Kaji
Adipose tissue has recently been reevaluated as an endocrine organ, and adipose-tissue-derived endocrine factors are termed adipokines. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of PAs, which convert plasminogen into plasmin, a critical protease involved in fibrinolysis. PAI-1 induces fibrinogenesis by suppressing intravascular and tissue fibrinolysis. Moreover, PAI-1 exerts various cellular effects independently of fibrinolysis. Although PAI-1 is expressed in various tissues, its expression is regulated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in a paracrine and endocrine manner...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
W Michael Dismuke, Mikael Klingeborn, W Daniel Stamer
Exosomes are emerging as important mediators of cell-matrix interactions by means of specific adhesion proteins. Changes in the tissue-specific exosomal protein expression may underlie pathological conditions whereby extracellular matrix turnover and homeostasis is disrupted. Ocular hypertension due to extracellular matrix accumulation in the trabecular meshwork is a hallmark of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma. In the trabecular meshwork, exosomal fibronectin mediates cell matrix interactions at cellular structures called "invadosomes"...
2016: PloS One
Ines Rama, Ines Llaudó, Pere Fontova, Gema Cerezo, Carlos Soto, Casimiro Javierre, Miguel Hueso, Nuria Montero, Alberto Martínez-Castelao, Juan Torras, Josep M Grinyó, Josep M Cruzado, Nuria Lloberas
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis (C-HD) present a greater immuno-inflammatory state probably related to uremia, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and /or membrane bioincompatibility, which could improve with a technique-switching to online hemodiafiltration (OL-HD). The antigen-independent pathway activation of this modified immunologic state turns dendritic cells (DC) into an accurate cell model to study these patients. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the immune-inflammatory state of patients in C-HD assessed by DC maturation...
2016: PloS One
Peter Olsén, Jenny Undin, Karin Odelius, Helmut Keul, Ann-Christine Albertsson
Full control over the ceiling temperature (Tc) enables a selective transition between the monomeric and polymeric state. This is exemplified by the conversion of the monomer 2-allyloxymethyl-2-ethyl-trimethylene carbonate (AOMEC) to poly(AOMEC) and back to AOMEC within 10 h by controlling the reaction from conditions that favor ring-opening polymerization (Tc > T0) (where T0 is the reaction temperature) to conditions that favor ring-closing depolymerization (Tc < T0). The ring-closing depolymerization (RCDP) mirrors the polymerization behavior, with a clear relation between the monomer concentration and the molecular weight of the polymer, indicating that RCDP occurs at the chain end...
October 26, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Ge Dang, Yuefan Yang, Gang Wu, Ya Hua, Richard F Keep, Guohua Xi
Erythrolysis occurs in the clot after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and the release of hemoglobin causes brain injury, but it is unclear when such lysis occurs. The present study examined early erythrolysis in rats. ICH rats had an intracaudate injection of 100 μl autologous blood, and sham rats had a needle insertion. All rats had T2 and T2* magnetic response imaging (MRI) scanning, and brains were used for histology and CD163 (a hemoglobin scavenger receptor) and DARPP-32 (a neuronal marker) immunohistochemistry...
October 25, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Bozena Karbowska
Thallium is released into the biosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources. It is generally present in the environment at low levels; however, human activity has greatly increased its content. Atmospheric emission and deposition from industrial sources have resulted in increased concentrations of thallium in the vicinity of mineral smelters and coal-burning facilities. Increased levels of thallium are found in vegetables, fruit and farm animals. Thallium is toxic even at very low concentrations and tends to accumulate in the environment once it enters the food chain...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Rui Li, Yanan Liu, Ruiwen Mu, Wenyan Cheng, Stéphanie Ognier
Petroleum hydrocarbons released to the environment caused by leakage or illegal dumping pose a threat to human health and the natural environment. In this study, the potential of a pulsed corona discharge plasma system for treating petroleum-polluted soils was evaluated. This system removed 76.93 % of the petroleum from the soil in 60 min with an energy efficiency of 0.20 mg/kJ. Furthermore, the energy and degradation efficiencies for the remediation of soil contaminated by single polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as phenanthrene and pyrene, were also compared, and the results showed that this technology had potential in organic-polluted soil remediation...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bartosz Kazimierz Słowikowski, Margarita Lianeri, Paweł Piotr Jagodziński
It is well known that a connection between xenobiotics inhalation, especially tobacco combustion and Lung Cancer development is strongly significant and indisputable. However, recent studies provide evidence indicating that another factors such as, estrogens are also involved in lung carcinoma biology and metabolism. Although the status of estrogen receptors (ER), in both cancerous and healthy lung tissue has been well documented, there is still inconclusive data with respect of which isoform of the receptor is present in the lungs...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Yang Chen, Lei Wang, Ashley L Pitzer, Xiang Li, Pin-Lan Li, Yang Zhang
: Recent studies indicate that inflammasomes serve as intracellular machinery to initiate classical cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses and play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. However, whether or not the activation of endothelial inflammasomes directly causes cell dysfunction or tissue injury without recruitment of inflammatory cells is unknown. We explored the role of endothelial cell inflammasome activation in mediating tight junction disruption, a hallmark event of endothelial barrier dysfunction leading to endothelial hyperpermeability in diabetes...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Chao Zhang, Chendan Wang, Jianbo Ren, Xiangjie Guo, Keming Yun
Glutamate is not only a neurotransmitter but also an important neurotoxin in central nervous system (CNS). Chronic elevation of glutamate induces both neuronal and glial cell apoptosis. However, its effect on astrocytes is complex and still remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether morphine, a common opioid ligand, could affect glutamate-induced apoptosis in astrocytes. Primary cultured astrocytes were incubated with glutamate in the presence/absence of morphine. It was found that morphine could reduce glutamate-induced apoptosis of astrocytes...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lawrence Cai, Vinita Puri, Mohan Krishna Dangol, Iftekhar Ibne Mannan, Shafquat Hussain Khundkar, Trung-Hau Le Thua, Godfrey Muguti, Shankar Man Rai, Yvonne Karanas, James Chang
BACKGROUND: Burn contractures can cause significant disability, particularly in patients in resource-limited settings. However, a gap exists in our ability to measure outcomes in patients with burn contractures of the neck. The objective of this study was to develop and validate the Stanford-ReSurge Burn Scar Contracture Scale-Neck to longitudinally assess functional status and measure functional improvement following contracture release of the neck. METHODS: A literature review was performed to identify scales used in neck assessment and burn assessment...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Seika Takayanagi-Kiya, Keming Zhou, Yishi Jin
Presynaptic ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) have long been proposed to affect neurotransmitter release and to tune neural circuit activity. However, the understanding of their in vivo physiological action remains limited, partly due to the complexity in channel types and scarcity of genetic models. Here we report that C. elegans LGC-46, a member of the Cys-loop acetylcholine (ACh)-gated chloride (ACC) channel family, localizes to presynaptic terminals of cholinergic motor neurons and regulates synaptic vesicle (SV) release kinetics upon evoked release of acetylcholine...
October 26, 2016: ELife
Soodabeh Iranpour, Vahid Nejati, Nowruz Delirezh, Pouria Biparva, Sadegh Shirian
BACKGROUND: Developing safe and effective cancer vaccine formulations is a primary focus in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Dendritic cells (DC) are currently employed as cellular vaccine in clinical trials of tumor immunotherapy. Recognizing the critical role of DCs in initiating anti-tumor immunity has resulted in the development of several strategies that target vaccine antigens to DCs to trigger anti-tumor T cell responses. To increase the efficiency of antigen delivery systems for anti-tumor vaccines, encapsulation of tumor-associated antigens in polymer nanoparticles (NPs) has been established...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
György Szláma, Viktor Vásárhelyi, Mária Trexler, László Patthy
The NTR domain of WFIKKN1 protein has been shown to have significant affinity for the prodomain regions of promyostatin and latent myostatin but the biological significance of these interactions remained unclear. In view of its role as a myostatin antagonist we tested the assumption that WFIKKN1 inhibits the release of myostatin from promyostatin and/or latent myostatin. WFIKKN1 was found to have no effect on processing of promyostatin by furin, the rate of cleavage of latent myostatin by BMP1, however, was significantly enhanced in the presence of WFIKKN1 and this enhancer activity was superstimulated by heparin...
October 26, 2016: FEBS Journal
Peter Garred, Ninette Genster, Katrine Pilely, Rafael Bayarri-Olmos, Anne Rosbjerg, Ying Jie Ma, Mikkel-Ole Skjoedt
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), collectin-10, collectin-11, and the ficolins (ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3) are soluble pattern recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. These proteins act as mediators of host defense and participate in maintenance of tissue homeostasis. They bind to conserved pathogen-specific structures and altered self-antigens and form complexes with the pentraxins to modulate innate immune functions. All molecules exhibit distinct expression in different tissue compartments, but all are found to a varying degree in the circulation...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
Bailiang Wang, Zi Ye, Qingwen Xu, Huihua Liu, Quankui Lin, Hao Chen, Kaihui Nan
Once a biomedical implant is implanted into a human body, proteins and bacteria can easily colonize the implant, and subsequently, a biofilm can grow on the surface. A biofilm can protect the inhabiting bacteria against macrophages and neutrophil cell attack from the host immune system. The most important issue for artificial antibacterial surfaces is the accumulation of the bacteria corpse after they are killed by contact, which promotes further adhesion of bacteria and biofilm formation. Therefore, we constructed a novel multifunctional bactericidal and fouling release antibacterial surface through the combination of temperature-responsive N-vinylcaprolactam (VCL), hydrophilic 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and a bactericidal quaternary ammonium salt (2-(dimethylamino)-ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA(+)))...
October 26, 2016: Biomaterials Science
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