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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098926/relevance-of-osteoclast-specific-enzyme-activities-in-cell-based-in-vitro-resorption-assays
#1
A Bernhardt, K Koperski, M Schumacher, M Gelinsky
Cell-based in vitro resorption assays are an important tool to simulate the in vivo biodegradation of resorbable bone graft materials and to predict their clinical performance. The present study analyses the activity of osteoclast-specific enzymes as potential surrogate measures for classical pit assay, which is not applicable on irregular structured materials. Osteoclasts derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultivated on different surfaces: calcium phosphate bone cements (CPC), dentin discs, osteoblast-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) and tissue culture polystyrene as control...
January 18, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098913/diets-link-metabolic-syndrome-and-colorectal-cancer-development-review
#2
Jirakrit Saetang, Surasak Sangkhathat
Diets have been believed to be an important factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and colorectal cancer (CRC). In recent years, many studies have shown an intimate relationship between mucosal immunity, metabolism and diets, which has led to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and CRC development. Although the precise effects of diets on oncogenesis have not been compl-etely elucidated, microbiota changes and inflammation are believed to be important factors that influence the development of CRC...
January 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098908/protective-effects-of-ethyl-pyruvate-on-lipopolysaccharide%C3%A2-induced-acute-lung-injury-through-inhibition-of-autophagy-in-neutrophils
#3
Qingteng Zhu, Hui Wang, Hairong Wang, Yong Luo, Yang Yu, Qirong Du, Aihua Fei, Shuming Pan
Among a number of clinical factors, bacterial infection is one of the most common causes of acute lung injury (ALI), a serious complication that carries a high risk of mortality (~40%). During the process of ALI, intense local and systemic inflammation is elicited, which exacerbates the injury. Neutrophil infiltration into airspace is observed in early stage of ALI, and is required for the full development of ALI through an array of mechanisms, including the release of granule contents and the production of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, due to the overactivation of complement and cytokines...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098903/vitexin-alleviates-lipopolysaccharide%C3%A2-induced-islet-cell-injury-by-inhibiting-hmgb1-release
#4
Feifei Wang, Jiajing Yin, Yujin Ma, Hongwei Jiang, Yanbo Li
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease, where the predominant pathogenesis is pancreatic β‑cells dysfunction or injury. It has been well established that inflammation leads to a gradual exhaustion of pancreatic β‑cell function with decreased β‑cell mass likely resulting from pancreatic β‑cells apoptosis or death. Vitexin, a major bioactive flavonoid compound in plants has numerous pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory and antimyeloperoxidase. Whether vitexin can protect pancreatic β‑cells against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced pro‑inflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis has received little attention...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098900/endothelial-microparticles-activate-endothelial-cells-to-facilitate-the-inflammatory-response
#5
Yiyun Liu, Ruyuan Zhang, Hongping Qu, Jun Wu, Lei Li, Yaoqing Tang
Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and endothelial cells (ECs) are involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of sepsis and septic shock. EMPs are small vesicles released by ECs and are considered biomarkers for endothelial cell function and mediators for intercellular information exchange. However, the effect of EMPs on their parental ECs remains unknown. The present study collected tumor necrosis factor‑α‑derived EMPs and detected the proinflammatory cytokines released from unstimulated and EMP‑stimulated ECs by proteome profiler array...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098876/bdnf-regulates-the-expression-and-secretion-of-vegf-from-osteoblasts-via-the-trkb-erk1-2-signaling-pathway-during-fracture-healing
#6
Zitao Zhang, Yan Zhang, Zhengnan Zhou, Hongfei Shi, Xusheng Qiu, Jin Xiong, Yixin Chen
Brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotropic family, is expressed in osteoblast‑like cells of a fracture callus, however, its role in fracture healing remains to be fully elucidated. Osteoblasts isolated from Sprague Dawley rats were stimulated by BDNF in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence was used to detect the expression and distribution of targeted proteins. The concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) released in medium was determined using an ELISA...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098806/antibacterial-activities-and-possible-modes-of-action-of-acacia-nilotica-l-del-against-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella
#7
Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Joel Tarning, Tay Zar Aye Cho, Anil Kumar Anal
Medicinal plants are frequently used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and mode of action of Acacia nilotica and the antibiogram patterns of foodborne and clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The mechanism of action of acacia extracts against E. coli and Salmonella was elucidated by observing morphological damages including cell integrity and cell membrane permeability, as well as changes in cell structures and growth patterns in kill-time experiments...
January 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098805/chemical-constituents-from-the-roots-and-rhizomes-of-asarum-heterotropoides-var-mandshuricum-and-the-in-vitro-anti-inflammatory-activity
#8
Yu Jing, Yi-Fan Zhang, Ming-Ying Shang, Guang-Xue Liu, Yao-Li Li, Xuan Wang, Shao-Qing Cai
Anti-inflammatory compounds were investigated from the ethanol extract of the roots and rhizomes of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum, a traditional Chinese medicine called Xixin and used for pain and inflammatory. Nine new compounds were isolated, including six new lignans, neoasarinin A-C (1-3), neoasarininoside A and B (4 and 5), and asarinin B (7), and one new monoterpene, asarincin A (8), two new amides, asaramid II and III (10 and 11), and one new natural monoterpene, asaricin B (9), along with 37 known compounds (6, 12-47)...
January 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098760/autocrine-and-paracrine-mechanisms-promoting-chemoresistance-in-cholangiocarcinoma
#9
REVIEW
Massimiliano Cadamuro, Simone Brivio, Carlo Spirli, Ruth E Joplin, Mario Strazzabosco, Luca Fabris
Resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, a typical feature of cholangiocarcinoma, prevents the efficacy of the therapeutic arsenal usually used to combat malignancy in humans. Mechanisms of chemoresistance by neoplastic cholangiocytes include evasion of drug-induced apoptosis mediated by autocrine and paracrine cues released in the tumor microenvironment. Here, recent evidence regarding molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance is reviewed, as well as associations between well-developed chemoresistance and activation of the cancer stem cell compartment...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098598/science-of-intracrinology-in-postmenopausal-women
#10
Fernand Labrie, Alain Bélanger, Georges Pelletier, Céline Martel, David F Archer, Wulf H Utian
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the marked differences between classical endocrinology that distributes hormones to all tissues of the body through the bloodstream and the science of intracrinology, whereby each cell of each peripheral tissue makes a small and appropriate amount of estrogens and androgens from the inactive precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA being mainly of adrenal origin. Because only the inactivated sex steroids are released in the blood, influence in the other tissues is avoided...
January 16, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098409/trpv4-contributes-to-resting-membrane-potential-in-retinal-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-implications-in-cell-volume-regulation
#11
Vanina Netti, Juan Fernández, Maia Kalstein, Alejandro Pizzoni, Gisela Di Giusto, Valeria Rivarola, Paula Ford, Claudia Capurro
Neural activity alters osmotic gradients favoring cell swelling in retinal Müller cells. This swelling is followed by a regulatory volume decrease (RVD), partially mediated by an efflux of KCl and water. The transient receptor potential channel 4 (TRPV4), a nonselective calcium channel, has been proposed as a candidate for mediating intracellular Ca(2+) elevation induced by swelling. We previously demonstrated in a human Müller cell line (MIO-M1) that RVD strongly depends on ion channel activation and, consequently, on membrane potential (Vm )...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097883/is-angiotensin-3-4-val-tyr-the-shortest-angiotensin-ii-derived-peptide-opening-new-vistas-on-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#12
Juliana Dias, Flavia Axelband, Lucienne S Lara, Humberto Muzi-Filho, Adalberto Vieyra
Angiotensin-(3-4) (Ang-(3-4) or Val-Tyr) is the shorter angiotensin (Ang) II-derived peptide, formed through successive hydrolysis that culminates with the release of Val-Tyr as a dipeptide. It is formed both in plasma and in kidney from Ang II and Ang III, and can be considered a component of the systemic and organ-based renin-angiotensin system. It is potently antihypertensive in humans and rats, and its concerted actions on proximal tubule cells culminate in the inhibition of fluid reabsorption, hyperosmotic urinary excretion of Na(+)...
January 2017: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097612/wip1-phosphatase-plays-a-critical-neuroprotective-role-in-brain-injury-induced-by-high-altitude-hypoxic-inflammation
#13
Dahu Li, Lijun Zhang, Xin Huang, Lili Liu, Yunling He, Lun Xu, Yiyao Zhang, Tong Zhao, Liying Wu, Yongqi Zhao, Kuiwu Wu, Yan Wu, Ming Fan, Lingling Zhu
The hypobaric hypoxic environment in high-altitude areas often aggravates the severity of inflammation and induces brain injury as a consequence. However, the critical genes regulating this process remain largely unknown. The phosphatase wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (WIP1) plays important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, including the regulation of inflammation in normoxia, but its functions in hypoxic inflammation-induced brain injury remain unclear. Here, we established a mouse model of this type of injury and found that WIP1 deficiency augmented the release of inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral circulation and brain tissue, increased the numbers of activated microglia/macrophages in the brain, aggravated cerebral histological lesions, and exacerbated the impairment of motor and cognitive abilities...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097605/elevated-carbon-dioxide-concentration-reduces-alarm-signaling-in-aphids
#14
Antoine Boullis, Bérénice Fassotte, Landry Sarles, Georges Lognay, Stéphanie Heuskin, Maryse Vanderplanck, Stefan Bartram, Eric Haubruge, Frédéric Francis, François J Verheggen
Insects often rely on olfaction to communicate with conspecifics. While the chemical language of insects has been deciphered in recent decades, few studies have assessed how changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations might impact pheromonal communication in insects. Here, we hypothesize that changes in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide affect the whole dynamics of alarm signaling in aphids, including: (1) the production of the active compound (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf), (2) emission behavior when under attack, (3) perception by the olfactory apparatus, and (4) the escape response...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097538/the-role-of-glutamine-synthetase-in-energy-production-and-glutamine-metabolism-during-oxidative-stress
#15
Nohaiah Aldarini, Azhar A Alhasawi, Sean C Thomas, Vasu D Appanna
Oxidative stress is known to severely impede aerobic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. However, the metabolically-versatile Pseudomonas fluorescens survives this challenge by invoking alternative ATP-generating networks. When grown in a medium with glutamine as the sole organic nutrient in the presence of H2O2, the microbe utilizes glutamine synthetase (GS) to modulate its energy budget. The activity of this enzyme that mediates the release of energy stored in glutamine was sharply increased in the stressed cells compared to the controls...
January 17, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097508/preparation-and-evaluation-of-biopolymeric-nanoparticles-as-drug-delivery-system-in-effective-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
Vijay Kumar, Ankita Leekha, Aakriti Tyagi, Ankur Kaul, Anil Kumar Mishra, Anita Kamra Verma
PURPOSE: The study purposes to evaluate nanocrystalline biopolymeric nanoparticles encapsulating methotrexate and dexamethasone with high biocompatibility, enhanced therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxicity. METHODS: Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation, and Methotrexate (MTX) and Dexamethasone (DEX) were loaded during the preparation and screened for their in vitro efficacy in HEK and RAW264.7 cells, ex vivo and in vivo efficacy. RESULTS: FTIR confirmed the involvement of phosphoric group of sTPP with amine groups of chitosan and also role of hydrogen bonding involved in the preparation of MTXCHNP and DEXCHNP...
January 17, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097474/igf-1r-regulates-the-extracellular-level-of-active-mmp-2-pathological-neovascularization-and-functionality-in-retinas-of-oir-mouse-model
#17
Valeria E Lorenc, Paula V Subirada Caldarone, María C Paz, Darío G Ferrer, José D Luna, Gustavo A Chiabrando, María C Sánchez
In ischemic proliferative diseases such as retinopathies, persistent hypoxia leads to the release of numerous neovascular factors that participate in the formation of abnormal vessels and eventually cause blindness. The upregulation and activation of metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) represent a final common pathway in this process. Although many regulators of the neovascular process have been identified, the complete role of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) appears to be significantly more complex...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097237/oxidized-camkii-promotes-asthma-through-the-activation-of-mast-cells
#18
Jingjing Qu, Danh C Do, Yufeng Zhou, Elizabeth Luczak, Wayne Mitzner, Mark E Anderson, Peisong Gao
Oxidation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (ox-CaMKII) by ROS has been associated with asthma. However, the contribution of ox-CaMKII to the development of asthma remains to be fully characterized. Here, we tested the effect of ox-CaMKII on IgE-mediated mast cell activation in an allergen-induced mouse model of asthma using oxidant-resistant CaMKII MMVVδ knockin (MMVVδ) mice. Compared with WT mice, the allergen-challenged MMVVδ mice displayed less airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation...
January 12, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097219/key-role-of-the-dopamine-d4-receptor-in-the-modulation-of-corticostriatal-glutamatergic-neurotransmission
#19
Jordi Bonaventura, César Quiroz, Ning-Sheng Cai, Marcelo Rubinstein, Gianluigi Tanda, Sergi Ferré
Polymorphic variants of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) have been repeatedly associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet, the functional role of the D4 receptor and the functional differences of the products of DRD4 polymorphic variants remained enigmatic. Immunohistochemical and optogenetic-microdialysis experiments were performed in knock-in mice expressing a D4 receptor with the long intracellular domain of a human DRD4 polymorphic variant associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
January 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097203/staged-anticonvulsant-screening-for-chronic-epilepsy
#20
Yevgeny Berdichevsky, Yero Saponjian, Kyung-Il Park, Bonnie Roach, Wendy Pouliot, Kimberly Lu, Waldemar Swiercz, F Edward Dudek, Kevin J Staley
OBJECTIVE: Current anticonvulsant screening programs are based on seizures evoked in normal animals. One-third of epileptic patients do not respond to the anticonvulsants discovered with these models. We evaluated a tiered program based on chronic epilepsy and spontaneous seizures, with compounds advancing from high-throughput in vitro models to low-throughput in vivo models. METHODS: Epileptogenesis in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures was quantified by lactate production and lactate dehydrogenase release into culture media as rapid assays for seizure-like activity and cell death, respectively...
December 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
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