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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633980/the-genes-that-make-a-good-parent
#1
Reinmar Hager
What is the genetic basis of differences in parental care between promiscuous and monogamous mammal species? A team led by Hopi Hoekstra studied an intercross between deer mice and old-field mice that differ in their mating systems and parental behaviours. The authors discovered 12 genomic regions contributing to those differences and identified vasopressin as a regulator of nestbuilding behaviour.
June 17, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630289/green-mamba-peptide-targets-type-2-vasopressin-receptor-against-polycystic-kidney-disease
#2
Justyna Ciolek, Helen Reinfrank, Loïc Quinton, Say Viengchareun, Enrico A Stura, Laura Vera, Sabrina Sigismeau, Bernard Mouillac, Hélène Orcel, Steve Peigneur, Jan Tytgat, Laura Droctové, Fabrice Beau, Jerome Nevoux, Marc Lombès, Gilles Mourier, Edwin De Pauw, Denis Servent, Christiane Mendre, Ralph Witzgall, Nicolas Gilles
Polycystic kidney diseases (PKDs) are genetic disorders that can cause renal failure and death in children and adults. Lowering cAMP in cystic tissues through the inhibition of the type-2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) constitutes a validated strategy to reduce disease progression. We identified a peptide from green mamba venom that exhibits nanomolar affinity for the V2R without any activity on 155 other G-protein-coupled receptors or on 15 ionic channels. Mambaquaretin-1 is a full antagonist of the V2R activation pathways studied: cAMP production, beta-arrestin interaction, and MAP kinase activity...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627381/mechanosensing-in-hypothalamic-osmosensory-neurons
#3
REVIEW
Masha Prager-Khoutorsky
Osmosensory neurons are specialized cells activated by increases in blood osmolality to trigger thirst, secretion of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin, and elevated sympathetic tone during dehydration. In addition to multiple extrinsic factors modulating their activity, osmosensory neurons are intrinsically osmosensitive, as they are activated by increased osmolality in the absence of neighboring cells or synaptic contacts. This intrinsic osmosensitivity is a mechanical process associated with osmolality-induced changes in cell volume...
June 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626112/experience-with-long-term-administration-of-tolvaptan-to-patients-with-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#4
Shunsuke Kiuchi, Takahiro Fujii, Shinji Hisatake, Takayuki Kabuki, Oka Takashi, Shintaro Dobashi, Takanori Ikeda
Tolvaptan (TLV) is an oral selective vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist. Long-term use of TLV is not recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) if fluid retention disappears and/or body weight is within the target range. However, some patients require long-term use of TLV. The current study investigated the efficacy and safety of long-term use of TLV. Subjects were 258 consecutive patients with HF who received TLV during hospitalization from January 2011 to March 2015. The rate of continuing administration of TLV was evaluated...
June 19, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626074/a-type-potassium-channels-contribute-to-prorenin-increase-of-firing-activity-in-hypothalamic-vasopressin-neurosecretory-neurons
#5
Soledad Pitra, Javier E Stern
Recent studies support an important contribution of prorenin (PR) and its receptor (PRR) to the regulation of hypothalamic sympathetic and neurosecretory outflows to the cardiovascular system, including systemic release of vasopressin (VP), both under physiological and cardiovascular disease conditions. Still, the identification of precise cellular mechanisms and neuronal/molecular targets remain unknown. We recently showed that PRR is expressed in VP neurons, and that their activation increases neuronal activity...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625907/long-standing-isolated-autoimmune-hypothalamitis-diagnosed-with-endoscopic-transventricular-biopsy-a-case-report
#6
Lorenzo Bertulli, Giulio Andrea Bertani, Umberto Gianelli, Giovanna Mantovani, Paolo Maria Rampini, Marco Locatelli
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hypothalamitis, which is among the causes of acquired central diabetes insipidus, has been described very rarely in the literature. This condition is probably provoked by the production of anti-vasopressin secreting cells antibodies and anti-hypothalamus antibodies, and is often associated with pituitary or polyendocrine autoimmunity. Correct diagnosis and immediate treatment are essential in order to avoid the progression of the pathological process. CASE DESCRIPTION: A woman diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus 12 year ago, suffering from panhypopituitarism and mild memory deficit came to our attention...
June 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625450/vasoplegic-syndrome-an-update-on-perioperative-considerations
#7
REVIEW
Henry Liu, Ling Yu, Longqiu Yang, Michael S Green
Vasoplegic syndrome (VS) is increasingly recognized as an important clinical entity in perioperative medicine. VS is characterized by significant arterial hypotension, normal or high cardiac output, low systemic vascular resistance, and increased requirements for intravenous volume and vasopressors. Tremendous variations exist regarding incidence reported in the literature and management at different institutions; and the incidence of VS is likely significantly higher than many anesthesiologists believe. Thus the aims of this article are to review the pertinent aspects related to VS and alert clinical anesthesiologists to this under-recognized yet very challenging clinical condition...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623226/entraining-to-the-polar-day-circadian-rhythms-in-arctic-ground-squirrels
#8
Cory T Williams, Brian M Barnes, Lily Yan, C Loren Buck
Circadian systems are principally entrained to 24h light/dark cycles, but this cue is seasonally absent in polar environments. Although some resident polar vertebrates have weak circadian clocks and are seasonally arrhythmic, the arctic ground squirrel (AGS) maintains daily rhythms of physiology and behavior throughout the summer, which includes six weeks of constant daylight. Here, we show that persistent daily rhythms in AGS are maintained through a circadian system that readily entrains to the polar day yet remains insensitive to entrainment by rapid light-dark transitions, which AGS generate naturally due to their semi-fossorial behavior...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622690/exploiting-cancer-s-phenotypic-guise-against-itself-targeting-ectopically-expressed-peptide-g-protein-coupled-receptors-for-lung-cancer-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Mahjabin Khan, Tao Huang, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Jiang Wu, Bao-Min Fan, Zhao-Xiang Bian
Lung cancer, claiming millions of lives annually, has the highest mortality rate worldwide. This advocates the development of novel cancer therapies that are highly toxic for cancer cells but negligibly toxic for healthy cells. One of the effective treatments is targeting overexpressed surface receptors of cancer cells with receptor-specific drugs. The receptors-in-focus in the current review are the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are often overexpressed in various types of tumors. The peptide subfamily of GPCRs is the pivot of the current article owing to the high affinity and specificity to and of their cognate peptide ligands, and the proven efficacy of peptide-based therapeutics...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620355/role-of-the-vasopressin-apelin-balance-and-potential-use-of-metabolically-stable-apelin-analogs-in-water-metabolism-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Adrien Flahault, Pierre Couvineau, Rodrigo Alvear-Perez, Xavier Iturrioz, Catherine Llorens-Cortes
Apelin, a (neuro)vasoactive peptide, plays a prominent role in controlling body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular functions. In animal models, experimental data demonstrate that intracerebroventricular injection of apelin into lactating rats inhibits the phasic electrical activity of arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons, reduces plasma AVP levels, and increases aqueous diuresis. In the kidney, apelin increases diuresis by increasing the renal microcirculation and by counteracting the antidiuretic effect of AVP at the tubular level...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619276/arginine-vasopressin-relates-with-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#11
Hong-Bo Jiang, Ai-Lin Du, Hai-Yang Luo, Jun Yang, Xiao-Qiu Luo, Rui-Qing Ma, Chang-He Shi, Yu-Ming Xu
Spinocerebellar ataxia is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that the most prevalent type is type 3 (SCA3). Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is released within the lateral septum for controlling the learning and memory. This communication studied the effect of AVP on the spatial learning and memory of SCA3 mice. The spatial learning and memory were analyzed by Morris water maze test (MWM), and AVP concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that (Alves et al., 2010) the swimming velocity, distance traveled and latency to the platform of MWM in SCA3 mice were reduced slower than those in WT mice over 4 training days (p<0...
June 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618919/discontinuation-of-vasopressin-before-norepinephrine-in-the-recovery-phase-of-septic-shock
#12
Drayton A Hammond, Kelsey McCain, Jacob T Painter, Oktawia A Clem, Julia Cullen, Amy L Brotherton, Divyan Chopra, Nikhil Meena
BACKGROUND: Guidance for the discontinuation of vasopressors in the recovery phase of septic shock is limited. Norepinephrine is more easily titrated; however, septic shock is a vasopressin deficient state, which exogenous vasopressin endeavors to resolve. Discontinuation of vasopressin before norepinephrine may result in clinically significant hypotension. METHODS: This retrospective, cohort study compared discontinuation of norepinephrine and vasopressin in medically, critically ill patients in the recovery phase of septic shock from May 2014 to June 2016...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618757/the-effect-of-acetylsalicylic-acid-on-vasopressin-serum-insulin-levels-insulin-resistance-and-biochemical-parameters-in-rats-induced-with-experimental-diabetes-type-2
#13
Serkan Şen, Sefa Çelik
BACKGROUND/AIM: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment in diabetic patients is very important owing to the increasing hyperactivity of thrombocytes and atherosclerosis. In several investigations, it was reported that diabetes caused increased coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and death. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of ASA on osmoregulation, glycemic control, and some biochemical parameters in rats induced with experimental diabetes type 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four rats were randomly divided in four groups: control (I), ASA control (II), diabetic (III), and ASA diabetic (IV)...
June 12, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617958/alcohol-consumption-decreases-oxytocin-neurons-in-the-anterior-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-in-prairie-voles
#14
J R Stevenson, K A Young, A E Bohidar, L M Francomacaro, T R Fasold, J M Buirkle, J R Ndem, S C Christian
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are associated with dysfunctional social relationships and stress responses. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are known to orchestrate or mediate many aspects of social behavior, stress responses, and ingestive behaviors. Because of the overlap between the effects of alcohol and the roles of oxytocin and vasopressin, we sought to determine if alcohol consumption altered expression of OT and AVP in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), one of the key sites for OT and AVP synthesis...
June 15, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616208/patient-survey-of-current-water-intake-practices-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-the-sips-survey
#15
Ragada El-Damanawi, Tess Harris, Richard N Sandford, Fiona E Karet Frankl, Thomas F Hiemstra
Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects 12.5 million worldwide. Vasopressin drives cysts growth and in animal models can be suppressed through high water intake. A randomized controlled trial of 'high' versus 'standard' water intake in ADPKD is essential to determine if this intervention is beneficial. We conducted an ADPKD patient survey to gain an understanding of current fluid intake practices and the design challenges of a randomized water intake trial. Methods: In collaboration with the PKD Charity, we developed and distributed an online survey to ADPKD patients over age 16 years and not on renal replacement therapy...
June 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615247/lithium-induced-ndi-acetazolamide-reduces-polyuria-but-does-not-improve-urine-concentrating-ability
#16
Theun de Groot, Joan Doornebal, Birgitte M Christensen, Simone C Cockx, Anne P Sinke, Ruben Baumgarten, Jennifer J Bedford, Robert J Walker, Jack F Wetzels, Peter M T Deen
Lithium is the mainstay treatment for patients with bipolar disorder, but generally causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a disorder in which the renal urine concentrating ability has become vasopressin-insensitive. Li-NDI is caused by lithium uptake by collecting duct principal cells and downregulation of AQP2 water channels, which are essential for water uptake from pro-urine. Recently, we found that the prophylactic administration of acetazolamide to mice effectively attenuated Li-NDI. To evaluate whether acetazolamide might benefit lithium-treated patients, we administered acetazolamide to mice with established Li-NDI and six patients with a lithium-induced urinary concentrating defect...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614817/shifting-focus-from-hydration-for-performance-to-hydration-for-health
#17
Erica T Perrier
Over the past 10 years, literature on hydration biomarkers has evolved considerably - from (de)hydration assessment towards a more global definition of biomarkers of hydration in daily life. This shift in thinking about hydration markers was largely driven by investigating the differences that existed between otherwise healthy individuals whose habitual, ad-libitum drinking habits differ, and by identifying physiological changes in low-volume drinkers who subsequently increase their water intake. Aside from obvious differences in urinary volume and concentration, a growing body of evidence is emerging that links differences in fluid intake with small, but biologically significant, differences in vasopressin (copeptin), glomerular filtration rate, and markers of metabolic dysfunction or disease...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614813/polycystic-kidney-disease-and-the-vasopressin-pathway
#18
Maatje D A van Gastel, Vicente E Torres
Vasopressin, also known as arginine vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone, plays a pivotal role in maintaining body homeostasis. Increased vasopressin concentrations, measured by its surrogate copeptin, have been associated with disease severity as well as disease progression in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), and in experimental studies vasopressin has been shown to directly regulate cyst growth. Blocking vasopressin effects on the kidney via the vasopressin V2-receptor and lower circulating vasopressin concentration are potential treatment opportunities that have been the subject of study in PKD in recent years...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614115/trafficking-and-regulation-of-the-nkcc2-cotransporter-in-the-thick-ascending-limb
#19
Kerim Mutig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The kidney Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) is essential for urinary concentration and renal electrolyte handling. Loss of function mutations in the NKCC2 gene cause urinary salt and potassium wasting, whereas excessive NKCC2 function has been linked to high blood pressure. Loop diuretics, targeting the transporter, are instrumental for relieving edema or hypertension. This review focuses on intrinsic mechanisms regulating NKCC2 activity at the posttranslational level, namely its trafficking and phosphorylation...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612323/risk-assessment-and-outcomes-of-vasoplegia-after-cardiac-surgery
#20
Athanasios Tsiouris, Lynn Wilson, Ala S Haddadin, James J Yun, Abeel A Mangi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors and outcomes of vasoplegia after cardiac surgery based on our experience with almost 2000 cardiac operations performed at our institution. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) between 2011 and 2013. Data were available for a total of 1992 patients. We defined vasoplegia as hypotension with persistently low systemic vascular resistance (<800 dyn/s/cm) and preserved Cardiac Index (>2...
June 13, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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