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Robert G Hahn, Nina Grankvist, Camilla Krizhanovskii
OBJECTIVE: Renal conservation (retention) of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population. METHODS: Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI), where 4...
2016: PloS One
Sandro M Krieg, Raimund Trabold, Nikolaus Plesnila
Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) V1 receptors are known to mediate brain edema formation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). So far, however, AVP V1 receptors were only inhibited by genetic deletion or prior to trauma. Therefore the current study aimed to determine the therapeutic window of AVP V1 receptors anatomization after TBI. Male C57BL/6 mice (n=7 per group) were subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) and 500 ng of a selective peptide V1 receptor antagonist (V1880) were applied by intracerebroventricular injection 5 min, 1, 3, and 6 hours thereafter...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Hyun Jun Jung, Tae-Hwan Kwon
Kidney collecting duct is an important renal tubular segment for regulation of body water homeostasis and urine concentration. Water reabsorption in the collecting duct principal cells is controlled by vasopressin, a peptide hormone which induces the osmotic water transport across the collecting duct epithelia through regulation of water channel proteins aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and aquaporin-3 (AQP3). In particular, vasopressin induces both intracellular translocation of AQP2-bearing vesicles to the apical plasma membrane and transcription of Aqp2 gene to increase AQP2 protein abundance...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Fahmy A Mamuya, Jose Luis Cano-Peñalver, Wei U Li, Diego Rodriguez-Puyol, Manuel Rodríguez-Puyol, Dennis Brown, Sergio de Frutos, Hua Jenny Lu
Within the past decade tremendous efforts have been made to understand the mechanism behind aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel trafficking and recycling, in order to open a path towards effective diabetes insipidus therapeutics. A recent study has shown that Integrin-Linked Kinase (ILK) conditional-knockdown mice developed polyuria along with decreased expression of AQP2. To understand whether ILK also regulates AQP2 trafficking in kidney tubular cells, we performed in vitro analysis using LLCPK1 cells stably expressing rat AQP2 (LLC-AQP2 cells)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Alexander Kiss, Zuzana Majercikova
Effect of repeated asenapine (ASE) treatment on FosB/ΔFosB expression was studied in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of male rats exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) for 21days. Our intention was to find out whether repeated ASE treatment for 14days may: 1) induce FosB/ΔFosB expression in the PVN; 2) activate selected PVN neuronal phenotypes, synthesizing oxytocin (OXY), vasopressin (AVP), corticoliberin (CRH) or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH); and 3) interfere with the impact of CMS. Control, ASE, CMS, and CMS+ASE treated groups were used...
October 15, 2016: Neuropeptides
Margarida Mendes, Julie Dubourg, Anne Blanchard, Damien Bergerot, Pierre-Yves Courand, Valentina Forni, Michael Frank, Guillaume Bobrie, Joel Menard, Michel Azizi
OBJECTIVES: The participation of vasopressin in the mechanisms of resistant hypertension is unclear. We compared plasma copeptin concentration, a surrogate marker for vasopressin secretion, between patients with resistant hypertension and those with controlled blood pressure (CBP), in a post hoc analysis of the Prise en charge de l'Hypertension Artérielle RESistante au traitement trial. METHODS: After 4-week treatment with irbesartan 300 mg/day, hydrochlorothiazide 12...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mi-Na Kim, Young-Beom Kim, Seong-Mi Park, Yang In Kim, Wan-Joo Shim
OBJECTIVE: Estrogen has cardio-protective effect via several peripheral mechanism. But its action on central nervous system has not been fully investigated. Estrogen receptors are expressed in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurons, secreting vasopressin. In the male-rat models of DOCA-salt, GABA functions as an excitatory, rather than inhibitory neurotransmitter in vasopressin neurons. It might contribute to the development and maintenance of hypertension. In the current study, the effect of estrogen on central GABA action was investigated in the female rat models...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
M Gálfi, M Radács, Zs Molnár, I Budai, G Tóth, A Pósa, K Kupai, Z Szalai, R Szabó, H A Molnár, J Gardi, Ferenc A László, Cs Varga
The effects of ghrelin on vasopressin and oxytocin secretion were studied in 13-14-day cell cultures of isolated rat neurohypophyseal tissue. The vasopressin and oxytocin contents of the supernatant were determined by radioimmunoassay after a 1- or 2-h incubation. Significantly increased levels of vasopressin and oxytocin production were detected in the cell culture media following ghrelin administration, depending on the ghrelin doses. The oxytocin level proved to be more elevated than that of vasopressin...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Jean-Louis Vincent, Emiel H Post
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
N H Sperna Weiland, D Breevoord, D A Jöbsis, E M F H de Beaumont, V Evers, B Preckel, M W Hollmann, S van Dieren, B A J M de Mol, R V Immink
Despite a rise in blood pressure, cerebral oxygenation decreases following phenylephrine administration, and we hypothesised that phenylephrine reduces cerebral oxygenation by activating cerebral α1 receptors. We studied patients on cardiopulmonary bypass during constant flow. Phenylephrine raised mean arterial pressure (α1 -mediated) from mean (SD) 69 (8) mmHg to 79 (8) mmHg; p = 0.001, and vasopressin raised mean arterial pressure (V1 mediated) from 69 (8) mmHg to 83 (6) mmHg; p = 0.001. Both drugs elicited a comparable decrease in cerebral oxygenation from 61 (7)% to 60 (7)%; p = 0...
October 17, 2016: Anaesthesia
Chetna Shamshery, Ashish Kannaujia, Rajashree Madabushi, Dinesh Singh, Divya Srivastava, Shobhana Jafa
BACKGROUND: Central neuraxial blockade (CNB) is an established technique of providing anesthesia for surgeries of the lower limb and abdomen. Hypotension is the most common side effect of CNB. It was hypothesized that by supplementing the initial burst of vasopressin following hypovolemia, hypotension following combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA) could be avoided. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 122 patients undergoing lower limb and abdomen surgeries were included in the study, with 61 patients randomized into two groups - I and II...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Takuya Iwamoto, Masaki Maeda, Takuro Hisanaga, Issei Saeki, Koichi Fujisawa, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Isao Hidaka, Tsuyoshi Ishikawa, Taro Takami, Isao Sakaida
Objective Tolvaptan was first approved for use for cirrhosis in Japan in September 2013. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, on the prognosis of cirrhosis. Methods The effect of tolvaptan was evaluated in 26 patients with cirrhosis treated at our hospital from September 2013 to April 2015. Results The primary disease was hepatitis C in 20 patients, hepatitis B in 2, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in 2 and others in 2; and 12 had hepatocellular carcinoma...
2016: Internal Medicine
Elisa Pose, Elsa Solà, Salvatore Piano, Elisabetta Gola, Isabel Graupera, Mónica Guevara, Andrés Cárdenas, Paolo Angeli, Pere Ginès
BACKGROUND: Vaptans, vasopressin selective V2-receptor antagonist, represent the first pharmacological approach to the treatment of hypervolemic hyponatremia in cirrhosis. However, information on the use of vaptans for patients with cirrhosis and hyponatremia in a real-life scenario is very limited. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of tolvaptan on serum sodium in patients with cirrhosis and severe hypervolemic hyponatremia. METHODS: Nine patients with cirrhosis and serum sodium <125mEq/L were included...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
János Varga, Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, Ágnes Csáno, Barbora Prokopova, Daniela Jezova, Dóra Zelena
AIMS: In vasopressin-deficient rat pups stressor-induced adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone elevations markedly dissociate. We have shown recently that during the postnatal period mineralocorticoid secretion is more sensitive to stressor exposure than that of glucocorticoids. We have therefore hypothesized that in vasopressin-deficient pups during hypoglycemia, a stressor triggering aldosterone release mainly via ACTH, aldosterone release will change in parallel with ACTH. An additional aim was to reveal at which stage of the development occurs the shift from aldosterone to corticosterone as primarily stressor-induced adrenocortical hormone...
October 12, 2016: Life Sciences
Shota Nishitani, Kazuya Ikematsu, Tsunehiko Takamura, Sumihisa Honda, Koh-Ichiro Yoshiura, Kazuyuki Shinohara
There is extensive evidence in animal studies, particularly in vole species (Microtus), that oxytocin (OT) receptor and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) receptor 1a is critical for the regulation of maternal and paternal behavior, respectively. Human studies have gained insight into the relationship between both hormone receptor gene variants and behavior, but not between the variants and the underlying brain activity. To study this, we investigated the association between neural activation of the anterior prefrontal cortex (APFC) in mothers and fathers in response to their child smiling video stimuli to induce the positive affect related to attachment with their child, and genetic variants of OT receptor (OXTR) and AVP receptor 1A (AVPR1A)...
October 12, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Jin Li, Han-Xia Li, Xiao-Jing Shou, Xin-Jie Xu, Tian-Jia Song, Song-Ping Han, Rong Zhang, Ji-Sheng Han
Oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) are considered to be related to mammalian social behavior and the regulation of stress responses. The present study investigated the effects of chronic homotypic restraint stress (CHRS) on social behaviors and anxiety, as well as its repercussions on OXT- and AVP-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) nuclei in rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving CHRS were exposed to repeated restraint stress of 30min per day for 10days. Changes in social approach behaviors were evaluated with the three-chambered social approach task...
September 30, 2016: Neuropeptides
Michael A Bohl, James Forseth, Peter Nakaji
BACKGROUND: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a common second-line or third-line vasopressor used in critically ill neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgical indications include hyperdynamic therapy for vasospasm, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with intracranial hypertension, and prevention of hypotension in patients with sepsis. CASE DESCRIPTION: A series of six neurosurgical patients receiving AVP infusions developed severe but transient diabetes insipidus (tDI) after cessation of AVP...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Seiji Takeuchi, Shintaro Iwama, Hiroshi Takagi, Atsushi Kiyota, Kohtaro Nakashima, Hisakazu Izumida, Haruki Fujisawa, Naoko Iwata, Hidetaka Suga, Takashi Watanabe, Kozo Kaibuchi, Yutaka Oiso, Hiroshi Arima, Yoshihisa Sugimura
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is secreted via exocytosis; however, the precise molecular mechanism underlying the exocytosis of AVP remains to be elucidated. To better understand the mechanisms of AVP secretion, in our study we have identified proteins that bind with a 25 kDa synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP25). SNAP25 plays a crucial role in exocytosis, in the posterior pituitary. Embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived AVP neurons were established to investigate the functions of the identified proteins. Using glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pulldown assays and proteomic analyses, we identified tomosyn-1 (syntaxin-binding protein 5) as a SNAP25-binding protein in the posterior pituitary...
2016: PloS One
Hyunsuk Kim, Young-Hwan Hwang
In light of the advances in the understanding of cystogenesis in clinical syndromes, potential therapeutic targets have been proposed. Among ciliopathies, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary disease, and is characterized by the progressive enlargement of bilateral renal cysts, resulting in end-stage kidney failure. Progress in genetics and molecular pathobiology has enabled the development of therapeutic agents that can modulate aberrant molecular pathways. Recently, clinical trials using somatostatin analogs and vasopressin receptor antagonists were conducted, and resulted in the approval of tolvaptan in managing kidney disease in some countries...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Gilberto Velho, Ray El Boustany, Guillaume Lefèvre, Kamel Mohammedi, Frédéric Fumeron, Louis Potier, Lise Bankir, Nadine Bouby, Samy Hadjadj, Michel Marre, Ronan Roussel
OBJECTIVE: Plasma copeptin, a surrogate for vasopressin, has been associated with a decline in renal function and albuminuria in population-based studies as well as with progression of diabetic nephropathy in people with type 2 diabetes. We assessed the risk of kidney and coronary events and all-cause mortality associated with plasma copeptin in people with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma copeptin was measured in baseline samples of the GENEDIAB (n = 398; 56% male; mean ± SD age 45 ± 12 years and diabetes duration 28 ± 10 years) and GENESIS (n = 588; 52% male; age 42 ± 11 years; diabetes duration 27 ± 9 years) cohorts...
October 11, 2016: Diabetes Care
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