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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087806/splenectomy-does-not-improve-long-term-outcome-after-stroke
#1
Dannielle Zierath, Angela Shen, Astiana Stults, Theresa Olmstead, Kyra J Becker
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Immune responses to brain antigens after stroke contribute to poor outcome. We hypothesized that splenectomy would lessen the development of such responses and improve outcome. METHODS: Male Lewis rats (275-350 g) underwent 2-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion immediately after splenectomy or sham splenectomy. Animals were survived to 4 weeks (672 hrs), and immune responses to myelin basic protein determined at euthanasia. Infarct volume was determined in a subset of animals euthanized at 72 hours...
January 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087473/salvianolic-acids-for-injection-safi-suppresses-inflammatory-responses-in-activated-microglia-to-attenuate-brain-damage-in-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#2
Pengwei Zhuang, Yanjun Wan, Shihan Geng, Ying He, Bo Feng, Zhengliang Ye, Dazheng Zhou, Dekun Li, Hongjun Wei, Hongyan Li, Yanjun Zhang, Aichun Ju
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory reactions induced by microglia in the brain play crucial roles in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) cerebral injuries. Microglia activation has been shown to be closely related to TLR4/NF-κB signal pathways. Salvianolic acids for injection (SAFI) have been used in clinical practice to treat ischemic stroke with reported neuroprotective effects; however, the underlying mechanisms are still uncertain. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: First, we studied the effect of SAFI on inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086779/the-effect-of-electrical-conductivity-of-myocardium-on-cardiac-pumping-efficacy-a-computational-study
#3
Ana Rahma Yuniarti, Ki Moo Lim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The existence of non-excitable cells in the myocardium leads to the increasing conduction non-uniformity and decreasing myocardial electrical conductivity. Slowed myocardial conduction velocity (MCV) believed to enhance the probability of cardiac arryhthmia and alter the cardiac mechanical pumping efficacy, even in sinus rhythm. Though several studies on the correlation between MCV and cardiac electrical instabilities exist, there has been no study concerning correlation or causality between MCV and cardiac mechanical pumping efficacy, due to the limitation in clinical methods to document and evaluate cardiac mechanical responses directly...
January 10, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081200/fitter-women-did-not-have-attenuated-hemodynamic-responses-to-psychological-stress-compared-with-age-matched-women-with-lower-levels-of-fitness
#4
Sisitha U Jayasinghe, Susan J Torres, Mais Hussein, Steve F Fraser, Gavin W Lambert, Anne I Turner
According to the 'cross stressor adaptation hypothesis', regular exercise acts as a buffer against the detrimental effects of stress. Nevertheless, evidence that higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness moderate hemodynamic responses to acute psychological stress is inconclusive, especially in women. Women aged 30-50 years (in the mid-follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) with higher (n = 17) and lower (n = 17) levels of fitness were subjected to a Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Continuous, non-invasive measurements were made of beat-to-beat, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), left ventricular ejection time (LVET), maximum slope, pulse interval (PI) and total peripheral resistance (TPR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079876/cardiac-output-decreases-and-systemic-vascular-resistance-increases-in-newborns-placed-in-the-left-lateral-position
#5
G Paviotti, S Todero, S Demarini
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to study the effect of short-term left-lateral position on cardiovascular parameters in hemodynamically stable newborns. STUDY DESIGN: Cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) and heart rate (HR) were measured by electric velocimetry in hemodynamically stable newborns without respiratory support in the supine, left-lateral and back-to-supine positions, each kept for 10 min. RESULTS: Thirty-two newborns were enrolled, birth weight 2134 (1818 to 2460) g, gestational age 34...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079628/interleukin-6-is-increased-in-plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-community-dwelling-domestic-dogs-with-acute-ischaemic-stroke
#6
Hanne Gredal, Barbara B Thomsen, Antonio Boza-Serrano, Laurent Garosi, Clare Rusbridge, Daniel Anthony, Arne Møller, Bente Finsen, Tomas Deierborg, Kate L Lambertsen, Mette Berendt
Inflammatory cytokines are potential modulators of infarct progression in acute ischaemic stroke, and are therefore possible targets for future treatment strategies. Cytokine studies in animal models of surgically induced stroke may, however, be influenced by the fact that the surgical intervention itself contributes towards the cytokine response. Community-dwelling domestic dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke, and therefore, offer the opportunity to study the cytokine response in a noninvasive set-up...
January 10, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078626/time-course-investigation-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-and-tight-junction-protein-changes-in-a-rat-model-of-permanent-focal-ischemia
#7
Peng Liu, Rui Zhang, Danyang Liu, Jinling Wang, Chunling Yuan, Xuemei Zhao, Yinjie Li, Xuefei Ji, Tianyan Chi, Libo Zou
Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) is an animal model that is widely used to simulate human ischemic stroke. However, the timing of the changes in the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and synaptic proteins associated with pMCAO remain incompletely understood. Therefore, to further explore the characteristics and mechanisms of blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage during cerebral ischemic stroke, we used a pMCAO rat model to define dynamic changes in BBB permeability within 120 h after ischemia in order to examine the expression levels of the TJ proteins claudin-5 and occludin and the synaptic proteins synaptophysin (SYP) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075503/correlation-between-cardiac-rhythm-left-atrial-appendage-flow-velocity-and-cha2-ds2-vasc-score-study-based-on-transesophageal-echocardiography-and-2-dimensional-speckle-tracking
#8
Kun Zuo, Lanlan Sun, Xinchun Yang, Xiuzhang Lyu, Kuibao Li
BACKGROUND: The CHA2 DS2 -VASc score is a classic predictor of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Decreased left atrial appendage flow velocity (LAA-FV) reflects the blood stasis, and left atrial (LA) strain is a manifestation of atrial remodeling. This study aimed to explore the effects of AF rhythm and CHA2 DS2 -VASc score in the development of thrombogenesis and their potential correlation with LAA-FV and LA strain. HYPOTHESIS: AF rhythm and high CHA2 DS2 -VASc score correlate independently with decreased LAA-FV, which can be predicted by LA strain...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075037/gauging-the-response-to-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-the-important-interplay-between-predictor-variables-and-definition-of-a-favorable-outcome
#9
Milan Petrovic, Marija Petrovic, Goran Milasinovic, Bosiljka Vujisic Tesic, Danijela Trifunovic, Olga Petrovic, Ivana Nedeljkovic, Ivana Petrovic, Marko Banovic, Marija Boricic-Kostic, Jelena Petrovic, Ross Arena, Dejana Popovic
AIMS: Selection of patients who are viable candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), prediction of the response to CRT as well as an optimal definition of a favorable response, all require further exploration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interplay between the prediction of the response to CRT and the definition of a favorable outcome. METHODS: Seventy patients who received CRT were included. All patients met current guideline criteria for CRT...
January 11, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074802/goal-directed-therapy-improves-the-outcome-of-high-risk-cardiac-patients-undergoing-off-pump-coronary-artery-bypass
#10
Poonam Malhotra Kapoor, Rohan Magoon, Rajinder Singh Rawat, Yatin Mehta, Sameer Taneja, R Ravi, Milind P Hote
BACKGROUND: There has been a constant emphasis on developing management strategies to improve the outcome of high-risk cardiac patients undergoing surgical revascularization. The performance of coronary artery bypass surgery on an off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) avoids the risks associated with extra-corporeal circulation. The preliminary results of goal-directed therapy (GDT) for hemodynamic management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients are encouraging. The present study was conducted to study the outcome benefits with the combined use of GDT with OPCAB as compared to the conventional hemodynamic management...
January 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073429/relation-of-the-myocardial-contraction-fraction-as-calculated-from-m-mode-echocardiography-with-incident-heart-failure-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-and-mortality-results-from-the-cardiovascular-health-study
#11
Mathew S Maurer, William J H Koh, Traci M Bartz, Sirish Vullaganti, Eddy Barasch, Julius M Gardin, John S Gottdiener, Bruce M Psaty, Jorge R Kizer
We evaluated the association between 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography (echo)-determined myocardial contraction fraction (MCF) and adverse cardiovascular outcomes including incident heart failure (HF), atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and mortality. The MCF, the ratio of left ventricular (LV) stroke volume (SV) to myocardial volume (MV), is a volumetric measure of myocardial shortening that can distinguish pathologic from physiological hypertrophy. Using 2D echo-guided M-mode data from the Cardiovascular Health Study, we calculated MCF in subjects with LV ejection fraction (EF) ≥55% and used Cox models to evaluate its association with incident HF, ASCVD, and all-cause mortality after adjusting for clinical and echo parameters...
December 18, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070330/the-approximated-cardiovascular-reserve-index-complies-with-haemorrhage-related-hemodynamic-deterioration-pattern-a-swine-exsanguination-model
#12
Roy Nadler, Elon Glassberg, Itay E Gabbay, Linn Wagnert-Avraham, Gal Yaniv, David Kushnir, Arik Eisenkraft, Ben-Zion Bobrovsky, Uri Gabbay
BACKGROUND: To estimate the cardiovascular reserve we formulated the Cardiovascular Reserve Index (CVRI) based on physiological measurements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of CVRI in haemorrhage-related haemodynamic deterioration in an animal model simulating combat injury. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from a research database of swine exsanguination model in which serial physiological measurements were made under anesthesia in 12 swine of haemorrhagic injury and 5 controls...
February 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069851/less-intense-postacute-care-better-outcomes-for-enrollees-in-medicare-advantage-than-those-in-fee-for-service
#13
Peter J Huckfeldt, José J Escarce, Brendan Rabideau, Pinar Karaca-Mandic, Neeraj Sood
Traditional fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare's prospective payment systems for postacute care provide little incentive to coordinate care or control costs. In contrast, Medicare Advantage plans pay for postacute care out of monthly capitated payments and thus have stronger incentives to use it efficiently. We compared the use of postacute care in skilled nursing and inpatient rehabilitation facilities by enrollees in Medicare Advantage and FFS Medicare after hospital discharge for three high-volume conditions: lower extremity joint replacement, stroke, and heart failure...
January 1, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069373/memantine-attenuates-cell-apoptosis-by-suppressing-the-calpain-caspase-3-pathway-in-an-experimental-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#14
Bin Chen, Guoxiang Wang, Weiwei Li, Weilin Liu, Ruhui Lin, Jing Tao, Min Jiang, Lidian Chen, Yun Wang
Ischemic stroke, the second leading cause of death worldwide, leads to excessive glutamate release, over-activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), and massive influx of calcium (Ca(2+)), which may activate calpain and caspase-3, resulting in cellular damage and death. Memantine is an uncompetitive NMDAR antagonist with low-affinity/fast off-rate. We investigated the potential mechanisms through which memantine protects against ischemic stroke in vitro and in vivo. Middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO) was performed to establish an experimental model of ischemic stroke...
January 6, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067203/long-term-prognostic-impact-of-left-atrial-volumes-and-emptying-fraction-in-a-community-based-cohort
#15
Pär Hedberg, Jonas Selmeryd, Jerzy Leppert, Egil Henriksen
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that left atrial emptying fraction (LAEF) would predict long-term cardiovascular outcome in the general population and better so than left atrial (LA) volumes. METHODS: A community-based sample (n=740) in sinus rhythm prospectively underwent clinical evaluation, echocardiography and blood analyses including N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP). The LA maximum (LAVmax) and minimum volumes (LAVmin) were indexed to body surface area (LAVImax and LAVImin, respectively)...
November 9, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066971/the-association-between-diffusion-mri-defined-infarct-volume-and-nihss-score-in-patients-with-minor-acute-stroke
#16
Shadi Yaghi, Charlotte Herber, Amelia K Boehme, Howard Andrews, Joshua Z Willey, Sara K Rostanski, Matthew Siket, Mahesh V Jayaraman, Ryan A McTaggart, Karen L Furie, Randolph S Marshall, Ronald M Lazar, Bernadette Boden-Albala
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown a correlation between the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and stroke volume on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI); data are more limited in patients with minor stroke. We sought to determine the association between DWI lesion(s) volume and the (1) total NIHSS score and (2) NIHSS component scores in patients with minor stroke. METHODS: We included all patients with minor stroke (NIHSS 0-5) enrolled in the Stroke Warning Information and Faster Treatment study...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065654/challenging-cardiac-function-post-spinal-cord-injury-with-dobutamine
#17
Kathryn M DeVeau, Emily K Martin, Nicholas T King, Alice Shum-Siu, Bradley B Keller, Christopher R West, David S K Magnuson
There is general consensus that spinal cord injuries (SCI) above T6 result in altered sympathetic control of the heart, which negatively influences cardiac structure and function. To by-pass disrupted circuitry and investigate cardiac responses under enhanced sympathetic activity we utilized dobutamine (DOB) stress echocardiography. Animals were divided into a T2, 25g-cm contusive SCI (SCI) or an uninjured control (CON) group. Echocardiography was performed pre-SCI and at 1, 2 and 6weeks post-SCI. Increasing doses of DOB (5, 10 & 20μg/min/kg) were infused intravenously pre-SCI and at 1 and 6weeks post-SCI...
December 23, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065382/energy-efficiency-and-pulmonary-artery-flow-after-balloon-pulmonary-angioplasty-for-inoperable-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension-analysis-by-phase-contrast-mri
#18
Michinobu Nagao, Yuzo Yamasaki, Kohtaro Abe, Kazuya Hosokawa, Satoshi Kawanami, Takeshi Kamitani, Torahiko Yamanouchi, Hidetake Yabuuchi, Kenji Fukushima, Hiroshi Honda
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to propose a new quantitative method for pulmonary artery (PA) flow energetics using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI), and to investigate how balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) impacts energetics in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: PC-MRI at 3-Teslar and with a flow sensitive gradient echo was used to examine energetics prior to and following BPA for 24 CTEPH patients...
February 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063459/cardiac-remodeling-following-reperfused-acute-myocardial-infarction-is-linked-to-the-concomitant-evolution-of-vascular-function-as-assessed-by-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance
#19
Olivier Huttin, Damien Mandry, Romain Eschalier, Lin Zhang, Emilien Micard, Freddy Odille, Marine Beaumont, Renaud Fay, Jacques Felblinger, Edoardo Camenzind, Faïez Zannad, Nicolas Girerd, Pierre Y Marie
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) remodeling following acute myocardial infarction (MI) is difficult to predict at an individual level although a possible interfering role of vascular function has yet to be considered to date. This study aimed to determine the extent to which this LV remodeling is influenced by the concomitant evolution of vascular function and LV loading conditions, as assessed by phase-contrast Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) of the ascending aorta. METHODS: CMR was performed in 121 patients, 2-4 days after reperfusion of a first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and 6 months thereafter...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063138/are-biventricular-systolic-functions-impaired-in-patient-with-coronoray-slow-flow-a-prospective-study-with-three-dimensional-speckle-tracking
#20
Tuğba Kemaloğlu Öz, Mehmet Eren, Işıl Atasoy, Tayfun Gürol, Özer Soylu, Bahadır Dağdeviren
The newly developed three dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) technology provides quick and comprehensive quantitative assessment of biventricular myocardial dynamics. The impact of coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) on biventricular functions has not been comprehensively evaluated using this new technology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CSFP on biventricular systolic functions using 3D-STE. Forty patients with CSFP and otherwise normal coronary arteries (NCAs) and 40 age- and sex-matched controls with normal coronary angiograms (CAGs) were prospectively enrolled...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
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