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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214985/melatonin-alleviates-the-epilepsy-associated-impairments-in-hippocampal-ltp-and-spatial-learning-through-rescue-of-surface-glur2-expression-at-hippocampal-ca1-synapses
#1
Yue Ma, Xiaolong Sun, Juan Li, Ruihua Jia, Fang Yuan, Dong Wei, Wen Jiang
Epilepsy-associated cognitive impairment is common, and negatively impacts patients' quality of life. However, most antiepileptic drugs focus on the suppression of seizures, and fewer emphasize treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Melatonin, an indolamine synthesized primarily in the pineal grand, is reported to be neuroprotective against several central nervous system disorders. In this study, we investigated whether melatonin could reverse cognitive dysfunction in lithium-pilocarpine treated rats. Chronic treatment with melatonin (8 mg/kg daily for 15 days) after induction of status epilepticus significantly alleviated seizure severity, reduced neuronal death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, improved spatial learning (as measured by the Morris water maze test), and reversed LTP impairments, compared to vehicle treatment...
February 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214973/a-multifunctional-alanine-rich-anti-inflammatory-peptide-bcp61-showed-potent-inhibitory-effects-by-inhibiting-both-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-expression
#2
Yun Hee Choi, Yoon Seok Choi, Young Kyun Kim, Md Saifur Rahman, G C Pradeep, Jin Cheol Yoo, Joo-Won Suh
The purified BCP61 was reported to be a unique low-molecular-weight (MW) anti-microbial peptide because of its non-identical alanine-rich N-terminal sequence. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of BCP61 on induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. The treatment with BCP61, with varying concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/mL, inhibited levels of expression of LPS-induced NF-κB and MAPKs (extracellular signal-related kinases (ERKs), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and mitogen-activated protein (p38)) as well as production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
February 18, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214843/metabolites-of-hypoxic-cardiomyocytes-induce-the-migration-of-cardiac-fibroblasts
#3
Huairui Shi, Xuehong Zhang, Zekun He, Zhiyong Wu, Liya Rao, Yushu Li
BACKGROUND: The migration of cardiac fibroblasts to the infarct region plays a major role in the repair process after myocardial necrosis or damage. However, few studies investigated whether early hypoxia in cardiomyocytes induces the migration of cardiac fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of metabolites of early hypoxic cardiomyocytes in the induction of cardiac fibroblast migration. METHODS: Neonatal rat heart tissue was digested with a mixture of trypsin and collagenase at an appropriate ratio...
January 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214826/emodin-increases-expression-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-1-through-activation-of-mek-erk-ampk%C3%AE-and-interaction-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-sp1-in-lung-cancer
#4
Qing Tang, JingJing Wu, Fang Zheng, Swei Sunny Hann, YuQing Chen
BACKGROUND: Emodin has anti-neoplastic activities on multiple tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect still remain to be fully understood. METHODS: Cell viability and cell cycle distribution were measured using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and flow cytometry, respectively. Cell invasion and migration were examined by transwell invasion and wound healing assays. Western blot analysis was performed to examine the phosphorylation and protein expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα), extracellular signaling-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and the transcription factor Sp1...
January 26, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214706/influence-of-oxygen-partial-pressure-on-the-characteristics-of-human-hepatocarcinoma-cells
#5
Jenifer Trepiana, Susana Meijide, Rosaura Navarro, M Luisa Hernández, José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz, M Begoña Ruiz-Larrea
Most of the in vitro studies using liver cell lines have been performed under atmospheric oxygen partial pressure (21% O2). However, the oxygen concentrations in the liver and cancer cells are far from this value. In the present study, we have evaluated the influence of oxygen on 1) the tumor cell lines features (growth, steady-state ROS levels, GSH content, activities of antioxidant enzymes, p66 Shc and SOD expressions, metalloproteinases secretion, migration, invasion, and adhesion) of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, and b) the response of the cells to an oxidant stimulus (aqueous leaf extract of the V...
February 13, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214561/on-the-development-of-the-hepatopancreatic-ductal-system
#6
REVIEW
Alethia Villasenor, Didier Y R Stainier
The hepatopancreatic ductal system is the collection of ducts that connect the liver and pancreas to the digestive tract. The formation of this system is necessary for the transport of exocrine secretions, for the correct assembly of the pancreatobiliary ductal system, and for the overall function of the digestive system. Studies on endoderm organ formation have significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern organ induction, organ specification and morphogenesis of the major foregut-derived organs...
February 15, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214558/small-heterodimer-partner-shp-contributes-to-insulin-resistance-in-cardiomyocytes
#7
Ricardo Rodríguez-Calvo, Dipanjan Chanda, Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Marie Miglianico, Will A Coumans, Emma Barroso, Marta Tajes, Joost Jfp Luiken, Jan Fc Glatz, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera, Dietbert Neumann
Small heterodimer partner (SHP) is an atypical nuclear receptor expressed in heart that has been shown to inhibit the hypertrophic response. Here, we assessed the role of SHP in cardiac metabolism and inflammation. Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) displayed glucose intolerance accompanied by increased cardiac mRNA levels of Shp. In HL-1 cardiomyocytes, SHP overexpression inhibited both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and impaired the insulin signalling pathway (evidenced by reduced AKT and AS160 phosphorylation), similar to insulin resistant cells generated by high palmitate/high insulin treatment (HP/HI; 500μM/100nM)...
February 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214538/contemporary-animal-models-of-cardiac-arrest-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Mikael Vognsen, Bjørn K Fabian-Jessing, Niels Secher, Bo Løfgren, Cameron Dezfulian, Lars W Andersen, Asger Granfeldt
AIM OF THE STUDY: Animal models are widely used in cardiac arrest research. This systematic review aimed to provide an overview of contemporary animal models of cardiac arrest. METHODS: Using a comprehensive research strategy, we searched PubMed and EMBASE from March 8, 2011 to March 8, 2016 for cardiac arrest animal models. Two investigators reviewed titles and abstracts for full text inclusions from which data were extracted according to pre-defined definitions...
February 15, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214231/mechanisms-of-action-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-cytotoxic-flavokawain-derivatives
#9
Charlotte Thieury, Nicolas Lebouvier, Rémy Le Guével, Yann Barguil, Gaëtan Herbette, Cyril Antheaume, Edouard Hnawia, Yoshinori Asakawa, Mohammed Nour, Thierry Guillaudeux
22 Flavokawain derivatives (FKd) were obtained by one step syntheses in order to conduct a SAR study to understand the structural requirements for optimum and selective cytotoxicity. FKd and natural flavokawains A and B found into kava, a South Pacific traditional beverage, were evaluated against nine cancer and one healthy cell lines. The targeted cell cycle phases as well as the effects on the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle protein levels were investigated. Therapeutic improvements (more activity and selectivity) were achieved with FKd compared to natural flavokawains and notably with the 2',3,4',6'-tetramethoxychalcone (FKd 19)...
February 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214216/cancer-stem-cell-cytokeratins-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-markers-expression-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-derived-from-ortothopic-xenoimplantation-of-cd44-high-cells
#10
Nathália Paiva de Andrade, Maria Fernanda Setúbal Destro Rodrigues, Camila Oliveira Rodini, Fabio Daumas Nunes
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent neoplasia of oral cavity worldwide and prognosis remains unchanged in decades. Recently, different authors reported that head and neck squamous cell carcinomas have a subpopulation of tumor initiating cells that apparently correspond to cancer stem cells (CSC) and are also responsible for tumor growth and metastasis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the microscopic and phenotypic characteristics of OSCC tumors induced after orthotopic xenoimplantation of SCC9(WT) cell line and CSC-enriched subpopulation isolated from SCC9 cell line based on high expression of the putative CSC marker CD44...
December 23, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214206/involvement-of-prolyl-isomerase-pin1-in-the-cell-cycle-progression-and-proliferation-of-hepatic-oval-cells
#11
Prabodh Risal, Nirajan Shrestha, Lokendra Chand, Karl G Sylvester, Yeon Jun Jeong
Liver regenerates remarkably after toxic injury or surgical resection. In the case of failure of resident hepatocytes to restore loss, repopulation is carried out by induction, proliferation, and differentiation of the progenitor cell. Although, some signaling pathways have been verified to contribute oval cell-mediated liver regeneration, role of Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1(Pin1) in the oval cells proliferation is unknown. In the present study, we evaluate the role of Pin1 in oval cells proliferation...
January 18, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214097/impact-of-an-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-programme-in-radical-cystectomy-a-cohort-comparative-study
#12
R Casans-Francés, A T Roberto-Alcácer, A C García-Lecina, M L Ferrer-Ferrer, J Subirá-Ríos, J Guillén-Antón
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of the implementation of an enhanced recovery program (ERAS) for open approach radical cystectomy compared to the historical cohort of the same hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 138 consecutive patients who underwent radical cystectomy with Bricker or Studer ileal derivation (97 historical vs. 41 ERAS). Overall complication rate, Clavien-Dindo stage>2 complications, mortality, hospital and critical care length of stay and readmission rates, as well as need for reoperation, nasogastric intubation, transfusion or parenteral nutrition were compared...
February 14, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214095/whether-preventive-low-dose-magnesium-sulphate-infusion-has-an-influence-on-postoperative-pain-perception-and-the-level-of-serum-beta-endorphin-throughout-the-total-abdominal-hysterectomy
#13
K Haryalchi, M Abedinzade, K Khanaki, M M Ghanaie, F M Zadeh
OBJECTIVE: Due to the known role of preventive low dose magnesium sulphate on postoperative pain management, in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we tried to investigate the possible relationship between low dose intra-operative magnesium sulphate infusion, postoperative analgesia and the level of serum beta-endorphin during total abdominal hysterectomy under general anesthesia. METHODS: Forty women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy were randomly allocated into 2 groups (20 in each arm)...
February 14, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214071/lipocalin-2-a-master-mediator-of-intestinal-and-metabolic-inflammation
#14
REVIEW
Alexander R Moschen, Timon E Adolph, Romana R Gerner, Verena Wieser, Herbert Tilg
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), also known as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), is released by various cell types and is an attractive biomarker of inflammation, ischemia, infection, and kidney damage. Both intestinal and metabolic inflammation, as observed in obesity and related disorders, are associated with increased LCN2 synthesis. While LCN2 in the intestinal tract regulates the composition of the gut microbiota and shows anti-inflammatory activities, it also exhibits proinflammatory activities in other experimental settings...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213961/chrysin-induces-death-of-prostate-cancer-cells-by-inducing-ros-and-er-stress
#15
Soomin Ryu, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Chrysin is a natural flavone found in numerous plant extracts, honey and propolis that has multiple biological activities including anti-cancer effects. Understanding of biological mechanisms mediated in response to chrysin in cancerous cells may provide novel insight into chemotherapeutic approaches with reduced side effects in cancers. In the present study, we investigated functional roles of chrysin in progression of prostate cancer cells using DU145 and PC-3 cell lines. The results showed that chrysin induced apoptosis of cells evidenced by DNA fragmentation and increasing the population of both DU145 and PC-3 cells in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213945/optimization-of-initial-propofol-bolus-dose-for-eeg-narcotrend-index-guided-transition-from-sevoflurane-induction-to-intravenous-anesthesia-in-children
#16
Nils Dennhardt, Dietmar Boethig, Christiane Beck, Sebastian Heiderich, Martin Boehne, Andreas Leffler, Barbara Schultz, Robert Sümpelmann
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane induction followed by intravenous anesthesia is a widely used technique to combine the benefits of an easier and less traumatic venipuncture after sevoflurane inhalation with a recovery with less agitation, nausea, and vomiting after total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). Combination of two different anesthetics may lead to unwanted burst suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG) during the transition phase. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this prospective clinical observational study was to identify the optimal initial propofol bolus dose for a smooth transition from sevoflurane induction to TIVA using the EEG Narcotrend Index (NI)...
February 18, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213942/pge2-ep4-attenuated-mucosal-injury-via-%C3%AE-arr1-src-egfr-mediated-proliferation-in-portal-hypertensive-gastropathy
#17
Siwei Tan, Xiaoliang Chen, Minyi Xu, Xiaoli Huang, Huiling Liu, Jie Jiang, Yu Lu, Xiaojie Peng, Bin Wu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) is a serious complication of liver cirrhosis and a potential cause of bleeding in patients associated with cirrhosis. Suppressed mucosal epithelial proliferation is a crucial pathological characteristic of PHG. Our studies demonstrated an important role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and its E-type prostanoid 4 (EP4 ) receptor in the promotion of mucosal proliferation. However, whether β-arrestin1 (β-arr1), a well-established mediator of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), is involved in the PGE2 /EP4 -mediated mucosal proliferation complex in PHG remains unclear...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213818/acceptability-of-an-internet-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-program-for-people-with-early-stage-cancer-and-cancer-survivors-with-depression-and-or-anxiety-thematic-findings-from-focus-groups
#18
A Karageorge, M J Murphy, J M Newby, L Kirsten, G Andrews, K Allison, S Loughnan, M Price, J Shaw, H Shepherd, J Smith, P Butow
PURPOSE: We developed an eight-lesson internet-delivered CBT (iCBT) program targeting anxiety and depression in early-stage cancer and cancer survivors. To explore the acceptability of the program, we showed volunteers the first two lessons and asked for their views. METHODS: Focus groups (n = 3) and individual interviews (n = 5) were undertaken with 15 participants (11 survivors) with mainly breast (11 of the 15) cancer, who had reviewed intervention materials...
February 18, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213794/selected-cytokine-pathways-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
REVIEW
Mélissa Noack, Pierre Miossec
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease leading to joint destruction. Cytokines play a key role in its pathogenesis. They contribute to the induction and maintenance of inflammation and thus provide therapeutic targets. Many cytokines are involved in RA, and this review focuses on a few critical ones: tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, IL-17, and GM-CSF. TNF and IL-6 are both well-established targets in RA treatment, and new biologic agents are reaching the market. IL-1 represents a more complex cytokine as results in humans do not reach those in animal models...
February 17, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213766/microelectrophoretic-study-of-environmentally-induced-dna-damage-in-fish-and-its-use-for-early-toxicity-screening-of-freshwater-bodies
#20
Bilal Hussain, Tayyaba Sultana, Salma Sultana, K A Al-Ghanim, Shahreef Masood, Muhammad Ali, Shahid Mahboob
This study investigates the potential of the comet and micronucleus assays of fish DNA as a means of screening the toxicity of aquatic environments. Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala collected from the River Chenab in Pakistan were used as a case study for the application of comet and micronucleus techniques. Comet and micronucleus assays were used to compare DNA damage in C. catla and C. mrigala collected from polluted areas of the River Chenab and farmed fish. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry showed an acute level of toxicity from Cd, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cr, Sn, and Hg in river water...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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