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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101730/concepts-for-studying-urban-environmental-justice
#1
REVIEW
Jason Corburn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper offers research frameworks for understanding and acting to address urban environmental justice. Urban neighborhoods tend to concentrate and colocate vulnerable people and toxic environments. Cities are also where the poor and people of color tend to be disproportionately exposed to environmental hazards, such as air pollution, lead in paint and water, and polluting industries. RECENT FINDINGS: Researchers and government agencies are increasingly recognizing the need to document cumulative exposures that the urban poor and people of color experience in addition to environmental hazards...
January 18, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100067/race-based-experiences-of-ethnic-minority-health-professionals-arab-physicians-and-nurses-in-israeli-public-healthcare-organizations
#2
Yael Keshet, Ariela Popper-Giveon
: Increasing workforce diversity was found to contribute to the narrowing of disparities in health. However, racism toward ethnic minority health professionals has not been adequately researched. In Israel, public healthcare organizations that serve a mixed Jewish-Arab population employ Arab minority healthcare professionals. Instances of prejudice and manifestations of racism toward them, which frequently surface in public discussion and the media, have unfortunately gained little scholarly attention...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090398/life-expectancies-in-hawai-i-a-multi-ethnic-analysis-of-2010-life-tables
#3
Yanyan Wu, Kathryn Braun, Alvin T Onaka, Brian Y Horiuchi, Caryn J Tottori, Lynne Wilkens
The objective of this study is to examine longevity disparities in Hawai'i by race/ethnicity and gender based on age-specific death rates in 2010. Abridged life tables for Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawai'i are presented for the age groups: <1, 1-4, every 5-year interval from 5-84, and 85+ years for the year of 2010. Death data were provided by the Hawai'i Department of Health Office of Health Status Monitoring, and population data were based on 2010 Census modified based on ethnicity estimates from the Hawai'i Health Survey...
January 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079417/the-experiences-of-black-and-minority-ethnic-nurses-working-in-the-uk
#4
John Pendleton
Evidence suggests that black and minority ethnic (BME) midwives are more likely to face fitness to practise hearings than white registrants and BME NHS staff are less likely to be in senior positions. This literature review critically evaluates the literature published since a systematic review on the topic was conducted in 2005. It found that BME nurses and midwives, especially those who registered abroad and subsequently came to live and work in the UK are 'underemployed' and consequently expressed feelings of loss of self-confidence...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078658/the-past-does-matter-a-nursing-perspective-on-post-traumatic-slave-syndrome-ptss
#5
Ejim Sule, Ryan M Sutton, Debbie Jones, Ramel Moore, Imaculata Igbo, Lovell A Jones
Few have reviewed the impact of post traumatic slave syndrome (PTSS) on the issues of inequities, especially as it pertains to mental and physical health. Furthermore, the impact of PTSS on the social determinants of health is an area that has been researched by few investigators. The possibilities that the impact of slavery and/or major stress events in the life of a population can become trans-generational are lost to history. Think about what is taking place in cities around the country and then think about racist socialization (internalized racism) and its impact on our society...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068132/east-asian-adolescents-ethnic-identity-development-and-cultural-integration-a-qualitative-investigation
#6
Eunju Yoon, Kristen Adams, Angela Clawson, Hanna Chang, Shruti Surya, Gihane Jérémie-Brink
Drawing on the current conceptualization of acculturation/enculturation as bilinear, multidimensional processes proceeding in interaction with surrounding contexts, this study examined ethnic identity development and cultural integration of 13 adolescents from East Asian immigrant families. Five domains emerged via the Consensual Qualitative Research method: ethnic/cultural identity and socialization; bicultural living; racial context-racism and stereotypes; family context-parental expectation; and peer context-friendship/dating...
January 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068131/development-and-evaluation-of-the-internalized-racism-in-asian-americans-scale-iraas
#7
Andrew Young Choi, Tania Israel, Hotaka Maeda
This article presents the development and psychometric evaluation of the Internalized Racism in Asian Americans Scale (IRAAS), which was designed to measure the degree to which Asian Americans internalized hostile attitudes and negative messages targeted toward their racial identity. Items were developed on basis of prior literature, vetted through expert feedback and cognitive interviews, and administered to 655 Asian American participants through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Exploratory factor analysis with a random subsample (n = 324) yielded a psychometrically robust preliminary measurement model consisting of 3 factors: Self-Negativity, Weakness Stereotypes, and Appearance Bias...
January 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063978/attitudes-about-race-predict-individual-differences-in-face-adaptation-aftereffects
#8
Sarah L Elliott, Kelly Chu, Jill Coleman
This study examined whether category boundaries between Black and White faces relate to individual attitudes about race. Fifty-seven (20 Black, 37 White) participants completed measures of explicit racism, implicit racism, collective self-esteem (CSE), and racial centrality. Category boundaries between Black and White faces were measured in three separate conditions: following adaptation to (1) a neutral gray background, a sequence of (2) Black or (3) White faces. Two additional conditions measured category boundaries for facial distortion to investigate whether attitudes relate to mechanisms of racial identity alone, or to more global mechanisms of face perception...
January 4, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054417/aboriginal-prisoners-and-cognitive-impairment-the-impact-of-dual-disadvantage-on-social-and-emotional-wellbeing
#9
S M Shepherd, J R P Ogloff, D Shea, J E Pfeifer, Y Paradies
BACKGROUND: Negligible information is available regarding the Social and Emotional Wellbeing (SEWB) needs of Aboriginal Australian individuals in custody with cognitive impairment. This is problematic given that Aboriginal people with cognitive impairment often experience dual disadvantage in the context of the justice system. This study sought to ascertain the relationship between cognitive impairment and mental health/cultural needs (SEWB) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in custody...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030421/the-political-future-of-social-medicine-reflections-on-physicians-as-activists
#10
H Jack Geiger
The academic discipline of social medicine has always had a political and policy advocacy component, in addition to its core functions of research and teaching. Its origins lie in the 18th and 19th centuries, in the work of Johann Peter Frank and Rudolph Virchow, among others. Virchow's dictum that "politics is nothing else but medicine on a large scale" highlights that most social determinants of health are politically determined and shape population health. Yet despite intense epidemiological and sociological research on the social determinants of health, less attention has been paid to this political and policy dimension...
December 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026704/moving-toward-holistic-wellness-empowerment-and-self-determination-for-indigenous-peoples-in-canada-can-traditional-indigenous-health-care-practices-increase-ownership-over-health-and-health-care-decisions
#11
Monique Auger, Teresa Howell, Tonya Gomes
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to understand the role that traditional Indigenous health care practices can play in increasing individual-level self-determination over health care and improving health outcomes for urban Indigenous peoples in Canada. METHODS: This project took place in Vancouver, British Columbia and included the creation and delivery of holistic workshops to engage community members (n = 35) in learning about aspects of traditional health care practices...
December 27, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002770/neutrality-in-medicine-and-health-professionals-from-ethnic-minority-groups-the-case-of-arab-health-professionals-in-israel
#12
Yael Keshet, Ariela Popper-Giveon
The ethos of neutrality dominates biomedicine. It has, however, been criticized for leading to a disregard for diversity in medicine. In this article we employ the 'inclusion and difference' approach to gain an understanding of why the ethos of neutrality, on the one hand, and tensions associated with race/ethnicity, on the other, are relevant to the work of ethnic minority health professionals. We sought to explore tensions associated with neutrality in medicine from the point of view of ethnic minority professionals who work in a context of political conflict...
December 13, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997937/describing-meningococcal-disease-understanding-perceptions-and-feelings-of-people-in-a-regional-area-of-nsw-australia
#13
Julie Kohlhagen, Peter D Massey, Kylie A Taylor, Maggi Osbourn, Myfanwy Maple
OBJECTIVES: To explore understanding, perceptions and feelings about meningococcal disease in members of higher risk groups. To explore what people say are the most important health messages and communication preferences about invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). METHODS: Three focus groups and two semistructured interviews were conducted with people at higher risk of IMD in Hunter New England Local Health District in New South Wales. RESULTS: Participants generally had a low understanding of IMD, but described intense feelings about the disease and empathy for those who had experienced the disease...
December 14, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938418/growing-up-in-portugal-cape-verdean-ancestry-children-exhibit-low-overweight-and-obesity-compared-with-portuguese-in-urban-lisbon
#14
A L André, C Padez, V Rosado-Marques, P L Griffiths, M I Varela-Silva
Portugal has one of the highest rates of childhood overweight and obesity in Europe. However, little is known about the health of ethnic minorities living in its capital city, Lisbon. The Cape Verdean community in Lisbon tend to have low educational levels, material deprivation and struggle with discrimination and racism, factors that would probably be associated with a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity. Data for the Cape Verdean population were collected in three different time periods by three different research teams in 1993, 2009 and 2013 and included children aged 6-12 years living in the Cova da Moura neighbourhood of the Greater Lisbon Metro Area...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938389/hot-topics-urgent-priorities-and-ensuring-success-for-racial-ethnic-minority-young-investigators-in-academic-pediatrics
#15
REVIEW
Glenn Flores, Fernando S Mendoza, Elena Fuentes-Afflick, Jason A Mendoza, Lee Pachter, Juan Espinoza, Cristina R Fernandez, Danielle D P Arnold, Nicole M Brown, Kymberly M Gonzalez, Cynthia Lopez, Mikah C Owen, Kenya M Parks, Kimberly L Reynolds, Christopher J Russell
BACKGROUND: The number of racial/ethnic minority children will exceed the number of white children in the USA by 2018. Although 38% of Americans are minorities, only 12% of pediatricians, 5% of medical-school faculty, and 3% of medical-school professors are minorities. Furthermore, only 5% of all R01 applications for National Institutes of Health grants are from African-American, Latino, and American Indian investigators. Prompted by the persistent lack of diversity in the pediatric and biomedical research workforces, the Academic Pediatric Association Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity (RAPID) was initiated in 2012...
December 9, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938376/results-of-a-participatory-needs-assessment-demonstrate-an-opportunity-to-involve-people-who-use-alcohol-in-drug-user-activism-and-harm-reduction
#16
Alexis Crabtree, Nicole Latham, Lorna Bird, Jane Buxton
BACKGROUND: Drug users' organizations have made progress in recent years in advocating for the health and human rights of people who use illicit drugs but have historically not emphasized the needs of people who drink alcohol. METHODS: This paper reports on a qualitative participatory needs assessment with people who use illicit substances in British Columbia, Canada. We held workshops in 17 communities; these were facilitated by people who use illicit drugs, recorded with ethnographic fieldnotes, and analyzed using critical theory...
December 9, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928771/healthcare-providers-formative-experiences-with-race-and-black-male-patients-in-urban-hospital-environments
#17
Marie V Plaisime, David J Malebranche, Andrea L Davis, Jennifer A Taylor
OBJECTIVE: We explored health providers' formative personal and professional experiences with race and Black men as a way to assess their potential influence on interactions with Black male patients. METHODS: Utilizing convenience sampling with snowballing techniques, we identified healthcare providers in two urban university hospitals. We compared Black and White providers' experiences based on race and level of training. We used the Gardener's Tale to conceptualize how racism may lead to racial health disparities...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926804/the-impact-of-racism-and-midwifery-s-lack-of-racial-diversity-a-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Jyesha Wren Serbin, Elizabeth Donnelly
INTRODUCTION: The United States is increasingly racially diverse. Racial disparities in maternal-child health persist. Despite national calls for workforce diversification, more than 90% of certified nurse-midwives are white. This systematic review examines how racism and midwifery's lack of racial diversity impact both midwives and their patients. METHODS: Databases were searched in January 2016 for studies that explored 1) racially concordant or racially discordant maternity care provided, at least in part, by midwives; 2) women of color's experience of race and discrimination in maternity care provided, at least in part, by midwives; and 3) midwives of color's experience of race and discrimination in clinical, educational, and/or professional settings...
November 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914479/race-trouble-experiences-of-black-medical-specialist-trainees-in-south-africa
#19
Nicola Thackwell, Leslie Swartz, Sipho Dlamini, Lebogang Phahladira, Rudzani Muloiwa, Bonginkosi Chiliza
BACKGROUND: This research aimed to identify and explore the experiences of Black registrars in their training in the Western Cape's academic hospitals in order to identify structures, practices, attitudes and ideologies that may promote or impede the advancement of Black doctors into specialist medicine. This is justified by the requirement for universities to work towards monitoring and evaluating efforts to create non-discriminatory and inclusive training environments. METHODS: This study employed qualitative research methods...
December 3, 2016: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912859/alienation-and-alterity-age-in-the-existentialist-discourse-on-others
#20
Harm-Peer Zimmermann
Aging Studies and Postcolonial Studies belong together in a rather fundamental way, given that they share profound theoretical roots and far-reaching critical perspectives. These derive not only from the more recent poststructuralist discourse on others but also, further back, from the existentialist discourse on others - particularly in issues relating to "The Look" as elaborated by Jean-Paul Sartre in his major philosophical treatise Being and Nothingness and in his reflections on racism, colonialism and humanism...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
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