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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511029/conceptualizing-ethnicity-in-alcohol-and-drug-research-epidemiology-meets-social-theory
#1
Geoffrey Hunt, Torsten Kolind, Tamar Antin
Since the 1990s, social scientists have rejected notions of ethnicity as something static and discrete, instead highlighting the context-dependent and fluid nature of multiple identities. In spite of these developments, researchers within the substance use fields continue to assess ethnic group categories in ways that suggest little critical reflection in terms of the validity of the measurements themselves, nor the social, bureaucratic, and political decisions shaping standard measures of ethnicity. This paper highlights these considerations, while also acknowledging the role of socially-delineated ethnic categorizations in documenting health inequities and social injustices...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501223/health-care-barriers-racism-and-intersectionality-in-australia
#2
João L Bastos, Catherine E Harnois, Yin C Paradies
While racism has been shown to negatively affect health care quality, little is known about the extent to which racial discrimination works with and through gender, class, and sexuality to predict barriers to health care (e.g., perceived difficulty accessing health services). Additionally, most existing studies focus on racial disparities in the U.S. context, with few examining marginalized groups in other countries. To address these knowledge gaps, we analyze data from the 2014 Australian General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey of individuals aged 15 and older living in 12,932 private dwellings...
May 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494318/moving-beyond-description-closing-the-health-equity-gap-by-redressing-racism-impacting-indigenous-populations
#3
Annette J Browne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492706/confronting-racism-in-health-services
#4
Luis Eduardo Batista, Sônia Barros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484013/preferences-for-group-dominance-track-and-mediate-the-effects-of-macro-level-social-inequality-and-violence-across-societies
#5
Jonas R Kunst, Ronald Fischer, Jim Sidanius, Lotte Thomsen
Whether and how societal structures shape individual psychology is a foundational question of the social sciences. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, economy, and the political and psychological sciences, we identify a central psychological process that functions to sustain group-based hierarchies in human societies. In study 1, we demonstrate that macrolevel structural inequality, impaired population outcomes, socio-political instability, and the risk of violence are reflected in the endorsement of group hegemony at the aggregate population level across 27 countries (n = 41,824): The greater the national inequality, the greater is the endorsement of between-group hierarchy within the population...
May 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475404/anti-muslim-racism-and-women-s-health
#6
Dena Hassouneh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463037/identity-management-strategies-among-hiv-positive-colombian-gay-men-in-london
#7
Rusi Jaspal, Iain Williamson
This study set out to explore the social-psychological aspects of living with HIV among a group of HIV-positive Colombian gay men in London, and the strategies that they deployed to manage ensuing threats to their identities. Focus group and individual interview data were collected from 14 Colombian gay men living with HIV, and were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis and identity process theory. The following themes are discussed: (1) identity struggles and conflicts in Colombia, (2), managing multiple layers of social stigma in England, and (3) changing interpersonal and intergroup dynamics, which highlight the inter-connections between sexual prejudice, sexual risk-taking and HIV stigma...
May 2, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456418/transmitting-trauma-a-systematic-review-of-vicarious-racism-and-child-health
#8
N J Heard-Garris, M Cale, L Camaj, M C Hamati, T P Dominguez
Racism is a pervasive stressor. Although most research focuses on direct targets, racism can also have unintended victims. Because children's lives are inevitably linked to the experiences of other individuals, and they are in critical phases of development, they are especially vulnerable to such stressors. Despite the growing body of literature on children's direct exposure to racism, little is known about the relationship between vicarious racism (i.e. secondhand exposure to racism) and child health. To examine the state of this literature, we performed a systematic review and screened 1371 articles drawn from 7 databases, with 30 studies meeting inclusion criteria...
April 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454665/area-racism-and-birth-outcomes-among-blacks-in-the-united-states
#9
David H Chae, Sean Clouston, Connor D Martz, Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Hannah L F Cooper, Rodman Turpin, Seth Stephens-Davidowitz, Michael R Kramer
There is increasing evidence that racism is a cause of poor health outcomes in the United States, including adverse birth outcomes among Blacks. However, research on the health consequences of racism has faced measurement challenges due to the more subtle nature of contemporary racism, which is not necessarily amenable to assessment through traditionally used survey methods. In this study, we circumvent some of these limitations by examining a previously developed Internet query-based proxy of area racism (Stephens-Davidowitz, 2014) in relation to preterm birth and low birthweight among Blacks...
April 13, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453106/-psychometric-assessment-of-a-brief-modern-racism-scale
#10
Adalberto Campo-Arias, Edwin Herazo, Heidi C Oviedo
Objective To find the internal consistency of the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) among medical students in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods A total of 352 medical students, mean age=20.0 years (SD=1.9) reported their attitudes towards Afro-Colombians; 59.4 % were women. Students completed the 10-item version of MRS. Cronbach alpha and McDonald omega were calculated. Exploratory factor analyses were done to propose a brief version of the MRS. Results The 10-item version showed a Cronbach alpha of 0.48 and a McDonald omega of 0...
June 2016: Revista de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452611/at-zero-and-turning-in-circles-refugee-experiences-and-coping-in-durban-south-africa
#11
Charlotte A Labys, Chandré Dreyer, Jonathan K Burns
Millions of refugees are on the move globally, mostly settling in low- and middle-income (LMIC) "host" countries, where they often receive insufficient assistance and encounter a multitude of barriers. Despite a risk for developing mental illness, limited research exists on their struggles and coping strategies in these settings, especially outside of camps. Against this backdrop, our qualitative study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of refugee experiences in Durban, South Africa. We conducted semistructured individual interviews with 18 adult refugees from Zimbabwe and the Democratic Republic of Congo at a community-based support center in Durban...
January 1, 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445214/teaching-the-social-determinants-of-health-a-path-to-equity-or-a-road-to-nowhere
#12
Malika Sharma, Andrew D Pinto, Arno K Kumagai
Medical schools are increasingly called to include social responsibility in their mandates. As such, they are focusing their attention on the social determinants of health (SDOH) as key drivers in the health of the patients and communities they serve. However, underlying this emphasis on SDOH is the assumption that teaching medical students about SDOH will lead future physicians to take action to help achieve health equity. There is little evidence to support this belief. In many ways, the current approach to SDOH within medical education positions the SDOH as "facts to be known" rather than as "conditions to be challenged and changed...
April 25, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444629/stress-measured-by-allostatic-load-score-varies-by-reason-for-immigration-the-africans-in-america-study
#13
Jean N Utumatwishima, Rafeal L Baker, Brianna A Bingham, Stephanie T Chung, David Berrigan, Anne E Sumner
OBJECTIVE: Reason for immigration as a biological stress has not been studied in Africans. Our goal was to determine in African immigrants, if biological stress measured by allostatic load score (ALS) varies by reason for immigration. METHODS: Using an ALS which had been previously developed with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data to assess stress due to racism and nativity, ALS was calculated in 85 African immigrants (67% male, age 42 ± 10 years)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410759/state-level-immigration-and-immigrant-focused-policies-as-drivers-of-latino-health-disparities-in-the-united-states
#14
Morgan M Philbin, Morgan Flake, Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Jennifer S Hirsch
There has been a great deal of state-level legislative activity focused on immigration and immigrants over the past decade in the United States. Some policies aim to improve access to education, transportation, benefits, and additional services while others constrain such access. From a social determinants of health perspective, social and economic policies are intrinsically health policies, but research on the relationship between state-level immigration-related policies and Latino health remains scarce. This paper summarizes the existing evidence about the range of state-level immigration policies that affect Latino health, indicates conceptually plausible but under-explored relationships between policy domains and Latino health, traces the mechanisms through which immigration policies might shape Latino health, and points to key areas for future research...
April 7, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409478/reversing-racial-inequities-at-the-end-of-life-a-call-for-health-systems-to-create-culturally-competent-advance-care-planning-programs-within-african-american-communities
#15
Randi Belisomo
Racial and cultural barriers inherent in health systems have made the delivery of culturally relevant end of life care that aligns with patient preferences a particular challenge across African American patient populations. The end of life experience has been cited as a public health crisis by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and this crisis is one felt even more acutely by patients of this minority race. Structural racism has limited access to the planning mechanisms proven to result in quality end of life care; thus, health systems must initiate remedies in the face of dire need, as African Americans face a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality from many serious illnesses...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405176/discrimination-internalized-racism-and-depression-a-comparative-study-of-african-american-and-afro-caribbean-adults-in-the-us
#16
Kristine M Molina, Drexler James
Emerging research suggests that both perceptions of discrimination and internalized racism (i.e., endorsement of negative stereotypes of one's racial group) are associated with poor mental health. Yet, no studies to date have examined their effects on mental health with racial/ethnic minorities in the US in a single study. The present study examined: (a) the direct effects of everyday discrimination and internalized racism on risk of DSM-IV criteria of past-year major depressive disorder (MDD); (b) the interactive effects of everyday discrimination and internalized racism on risk of past-year MDD; and (c) the indirect effect of everyday discrimination on risk of past-year MDD via internalized racism...
July 2016: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations: GPIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403736/make-health-and-safety-a-part-of-global-struggles-against-imperialism-racism-and-other-oppressions
#17
Deborah Deeg Gold
Deborah "Deeg" Gold was presented in November 2016 with the Alice Hamilton Award of the Occupational Health and Safety Section of the American Public Health Association. Deeg worked for more than 20 years for the California Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) as a field compliance officer, senior industrial hygienist, and then became the agency's Deputy Chief for Health. Prior to joining Cal/OSHA, Deeg Gold was a rank-and-file worker health and safety activist in her union. She is also an activist on many social justice issues, including opposing the death penalty and is a queer activist...
May 2017: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402827/structural-racism-and-health-inequities-in-the-usa-evidence-and-interventions
#18
REVIEW
Zinzi D Bailey, Nancy Krieger, Madina Agénor, Jasmine Graves, Natalia Linos, Mary T Bassett
Despite growing interest in understanding how social factors drive poor health outcomes, many academics, policy makers, scientists, elected officials, journalists, and others responsible for defining and responding to the public discourse remain reluctant to identify racism as a root cause of racial health inequities. In this conceptual report, the third in a Series on equity and equality in health in the USA, we use a contemporary and historical perspective to discuss research and interventions that grapple with the implications of what is known as structural racism on population health and health inequities...
April 8, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402825/inequality-and-the-health-care-system-in-the-usa
#19
REVIEW
Samuel L Dickman, David U Himmelstein, Steffie Woolhandler
Widening economic inequality in the USA has been accompanied by increasing disparities in health outcomes. The life expectancy of the wealthiest Americans now exceeds that of the poorest by 10-15 years. This report, part of a Series on health and inequality in the USA, focuses on how the health-care system, which could reduce income-based disparities in health, instead often exacerbates them. Other articles in this Series address population health inequalities, and the health effects of racism, mass incarceration, and the Affordable Care Act (ACA)...
April 8, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402776/lessons-from-standing-rock-of-water-racism-and-solidarity
#20
David Goldberg
"I heard you were in Standing Rock." So began a visit with Mr. Y. and we leaned in toward one another. In the past, I’d felt off balance with Mr. Y. who often seemed to push me away. "Why can’t you just fix this?" he asked, referring to his diabetes. Mr. Y. is a traditional Navajo, or Diné. In the..
April 13, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
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