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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048954/the-cumulative-probability-of-arrest-by-age-28-years-in-the-united-states-by-disability-status-race-ethnicity-and-gender
#1
Erin J McCauley
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cumulative probability (c) of arrest by age 28 years in the United States by disability status, race/ethnicity, and gender. METHODS: I estimated cumulative probabilities through birth cohort life tables with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. RESULTS: Estimates demonstrated that those with disabilities have a higher cumulative probability of arrest (c = 42.65) than those without (c = 29...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048194/applying-intersectionality-to-explore-the-relations-between-gendered-racism-and-health-among-black-women
#2
Jioni A Lewis, Marlene G Williams, Erica J Peppers, Cecile A Gadson
The purpose of this study was to apply an intersectionality framework to explore the influence of gendered racism (i.e., intersection of racism and sexism) on health outcomes. Specifically, we applied intersectionality to extend a biopsychosocial model of racism to highlight the psychosocial variables that mediate and moderate the influence of gendered racial microaggressions (i.e., subtle gendered racism) on health outcomes. In addition, we tested aspects of this conceptual model by exploring the influence of gendered racial microaggressions on the mental and physical health of Black women...
October 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027747/isn-t-it-high-time-we-talked-openly-about-racism
#3
EDITORIAL
Sally Thorne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024856/social-cognition-and-african-american-men-the-roles-of-perceived-discrimination-and-experimenter-race-on-task-performance
#4
Arundati Nagendra, Benjamin L Twery, Enrique W Neblett, Hasan Mustafic, Tevin S Jones, D'Angelo Gatewood, David L Penn
The Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study consists of a battery of eight tasks selected to measure social-cognitive deficits in individuals with schizophrenia. The battery is currently in a multisite validation process. While the SCOPE study collects basic demographic data, more nuanced race-related factors might artificially inflate cross-cultural differences in social cognition. As an initial step, we investigated whether race, independent of mental illness status, affects performance on the SCOPE battery...
September 27, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023649/a-long-term-effect-of-perceptual-individuation-training-on-reducing-implicit-racial-bias-in-preschool-children
#5
Miao K Qian, Paul C Quinn, Gail D Heyman, Olivier Pascalis, Genyue Fu, Kang Lee
This study tracked the long-term effect of perceptual individuation training on reducing 5-year-old Chinese children's (N = 95, Mage  = 5.64 years) implicit pro-Asian/anti-Black racial bias. Initial training to individuate other-race Black faces, followed by supplementary training occurring 1 week later, resulted in a long-term reduction of pro-Asian/anti-Black bias (70 days). In contrast, training Chinese children to recognize White or Asian faces had no effect on pro-Asian/anti-Black bias. Theoretically, the finding that individuation training can have a long-term effect on reducing implicit racial bias in preschoolers suggests that a developmentally early causal linkage between perceptual and social processing of faces is not a transitory phenomenon...
October 12, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020025/worry-about-racial-discrimination-a-missing-piece-of-the-puzzle-of-black-white-disparities-in-preterm-birth
#6
Paula Braveman, Katherine Heck, Susan Egerter, Tyan Parker Dominguez, Christine Rinki, Kristen S Marchi, Michael Curtis
OBJECTIVES: The causes of the large and persistent Black-White disparity in preterm birth (PTB) are unknown. It is biologically plausible that chronic stress across a woman's life course could be a contributor. Prior research suggests that chronic worry about experiencing racial discrimination could affect PTB through neuroendocrine, vascular, or immune mechanisms involved in both responses to stress and the initiation of labor. This study aimed to examine the role of chronic worry about racial discrimination in Black-White disparities in PTB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969457/educational-content-related-to-postcolonialism-and-indigenous-health-inequities-recommended-for-all-rehabilitation-students-in-canada-a-qualitative-study
#7
Ala Hojjati, Allana S W Beavis, Aly Kassam, Daniel Choudhury, Michelle Fraser, Renée Masching, Stephanie A Nixon
BACKGROUND: Postcolonial analysis can help rehabilitation providers understand how colonization and racialization create and sustain health inequities faced by indigenous peoples. However, there is little guidance in the literature regarding inclusion of postcolonialism within rehabilitation educational curricula. Therefore, this study explored perspectives regarding educational content related to postcolonialism and indigenous health that rehabilitation students in Canada should learn to increase health equity...
October 2, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958015/advance-care-planning-in-skilled-nursing-facilities-a-multisite-examination-of-professional-judgments
#8
Kristin R Baughman, Ruth Ludwick, David Jarjoura, Denise Kropp, Vimal Shenoy
Background and Objectives: Lack of advance care planning (ACP) may increase hospitalizations and impact the quality of life for skilled nursing facility (SNF) residents, especially African American residents who may be less likely to receive ACP discussions. We examined the professional judgments of SNF providers to see if race of SNF residents and providers, and risk for hospitalization for residents influenced professional judgments as to when ACP was needed and feelings of responsibility for ensuring ACP discussions...
August 22, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945442/changing-norms-strategies-and-systems-to-support-behavioral-health-and-social-justice-a-call-to-action-and-introduction-to-the-special-section
#9
Jill D McLeigh, Ryan P Kilmer
This editorial introduces this special section of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. The Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice (formerly the American Orthopsychiatric Association) has developed the theme for its track at the 2016 Annual Research and Policy Conference on Child, Adolescent, and Young Adult Behavioral Health. The Global Alliance, the parent organization of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, has long sought to address prevailing social conditions by treating them as problems to be solved through multilevel, contextually grounded social interventions...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942527/psychological-pathways-from-racial-discrimination-to-cortisol-in-african-american-males-and-females
#10
Daniel B Lee, Melissa K Peckins, Justin E Heinze, Alison L Miller, Shervin Assari, Marc A Zimmerman
The association between racial discrimination (discrimination) and stress-related alterations in the neuroendocrine response-namely, cortisol secretion-is well documented in African Americans (AAs). Dysregulation in production of cortisol has been implicated as a contributor to racial health disparities. Guided by Clark et al. (Am Psychol 54(10):805-816, 1999. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.54.10.805 ) biopsychosocial model of racism and health, the present study examined the psychological pathways that link discrimination to total cortisol concentrations in AA males and females...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936795/the-ugly-truth-about-ourselves-and-our-robot-creations-the-problem-of-bias-and-social-inequity
#11
Ayanna Howard, Jason Borenstein
Recently, there has been an upsurge of attention focused on bias and its impact on specialized artificial intelligence (AI) applications. Allegations of racism and sexism have permeated the conversation as stories surface about search engines delivering job postings for well-paying technical jobs to men and not women, or providing arrest mugshots when keywords such as "black teenagers" are entered. Learning algorithms are evolving; they are often created from parsing through large datasets of online information while having truth labels bestowed on them by crowd-sourced masses...
September 21, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929885/first-nations-inuit-and-m%C3%A3-tis-health-considerations-for-canadian-health-leaders-in-the-wake-of-the-truth-and-reconciliation-commission-of-canada-report
#12
Mary McNally, Debbie Martin
First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples living in Canada face profound health disparities relative to non-Indigenous Canadians on almost every measure of health and well-being. Advancing health opportunities for Indigenous peoples require responses at all levels of healthcare delivery and policy. Therefore, it is critical for health leaders and providers within Canada's healthcare institutions, systems, and settings to understand and address the determinants of health unique to Indigenous peoples, including the legacy of colonialism and both long-standing and present-day racism...
March 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929884/la-sant%C3%A3-des-premi%C3%A3-res-nations-des-inuits-et-des-m%C3%A3-tis-les-facteurs-que-doivent-envisager-les-leaders-en-sant%C3%A3-canadiens-dans-la-foul%C3%A3-e-du-rapport-de-la-commission-de-v%C3%A3-rit%C3%A3-et-r%C3%A3-conciliation-du-canada
#13
Mary McNally, Debbie Martin
Les peuples des Premières nations, inuits et métis qui habitent au Canada sont aux prises avec de profondes disparités en matière de santé par rapport aux Canadiens non autochtones, et ce, dans presque toutes les mesures liées à la santé et au bien-être. Pour faire progresser les services de santé auprès des peuples autochtones, il faut passer à l'action dans tous les ordres de prestation des soins et des politiques en santé. Il est donc essentiel que les leaders et les prestataires des établissements, des systèmes et des installations de santé du Canada comprennent et prennent en main les déterminants de la santé propres aux peuples autochtones, y compris l'héritage du colonialisme et le racisme ancien et actuel...
March 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916954/discrimination-and-mental-health-in-a-representative-sample-of-african-american-and-afro-caribbean-youth
#14
Lee M Pachter, Cleopatra H Caldwell, James S Jackson, Bruce A Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Racism and discrimination are psychosocial stressors that affect the health of minority populations. While discrimination has been associated with poor mental health, little is known about the relationship between discrimination and mental health outcomes in youth nationally. Furthermore, mental and behavioral health consequences of discrimination may differ in different minority groups. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to determine (1) how common perceptions of discrimination are in a nationally representative sample of African-American (AA) and Afro-Caribbean (AC) teens, (2) the relationship between discrimination and mental health conditions, and (3) whether discrimination has different associations with mental health in AA and AC youth...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905731/what-does-health-justice-look-like-for-people-returning-from-incarceration
#15
Lisa Puglisi, Joseph P Calderon, Emily A Wang
Access to health care is a constitutional right in the United States correctional system, and many incarcerated adults are newly diagnosed with chronic diseases in prison. Despite this right, the quality of correctional health care is variable, largely unmeasured and unregulated, and characterized by patients' widespread distrust of a health system that is intimately tied to a punitive criminal justice system. Upon release, discontinuity of care is the norm, and when continuity is established, it is often hindered by distrust, discrimination, poor communication, and racism in the health system...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902536/income-and-wealth-gaps-inequitable-public-policies-and-the-tentacles-of-racism
#16
Ruth Enid Zambrana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876308/the-need-to-promote-sexual-health-in-america-a-new-vision-for-public-health-action
#17
Jessie V Ford, Megan B Ivankovich, John M Douglas, Edward W Hook, Lynn Barclay, Joycelyn Elders, David Satcher, Eli Coleman
Sexual health is considered to be a state of wellness with physical, emotional, mental, and social dimensions. Sexual health can contribute to our overall well-being in each of these dimensions. However, despite the intrinsic importance and positive aspects of sexuality in our lives, the United States presently faces significant challenges related to the sexual health of its citizens, including human immunodeficiency virus, other sexually transmitted infections, viral hepatitis, unintended pregnancies, sexual violence, sexual dysfunction, and cancers in reproductive tracts with serious disparities among the populations affected...
June 28, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864792/color-blind-racial-beliefs-among-dental-students-and-faculty
#18
Yu Su, Linda S Behar-Horenstein
Providing culturally competent patient care requires an awareness of racial and cultural norms as well as a recognition of racism. Yet, there is a paucity of research devoted to this problem. In dental education, increased attention has focused on eliminating oral health care disparities due to ethnicity and race. Further investigation to determine the relationship between color-blind attitudes (failing to recognize the impact of race and racism on social justice) and dental educators' cultural competence is needed...
September 2017: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864275/racial-disparity-in-infant-mortality
#19
Nana Matoba, James W Collins
In the United States, African-American infants have significantly higher mortality than white infants. Previous work has identified associations between individual socioeconomic factors and select community-level factors. In this review, the authors look beyond traditional risk factors for infant mortality and examine the social context of race in this country, in an effort to understand African-American women's long-standing birth outcome disadvantage. In the process, recent insights are highlighted concerning neighborhood-level factors such as crime, segregation, built environment, and institutional racism, other likely causes for the poor outcomes of African-American infants in this country compared with infants in most other industrialized nations...
October 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829273/postracial-fantasies-and-the-reproduction-of-scientific-racism
#20
Patrick Ryan Grzanka, Daniel R Morrison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
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