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Mechanical mitral

Yuying Tan, Hui Xu, Yongsheng Gao, Chengbin Zhang, Baogang Wang, Xiaocong Wang
Aneurysms of the aortic sinus are well-known clinical entities that can bulge into adjacent heart chambers or vessels. They usually reside in the right ventricle and very rarely bulge into the left ventricle causing mitral valve deformation. A 47-year-old man was admitted for shortness of breath and chest pain after exertion. He was diagnosed with a noncoronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm bulging into the mitral valve's anterior leaflet. The aortic valve and mitral valve annulus were severely damaged and irreparable...
June 19, 2018: Echocardiography
Pairoj Chattranukulchai, Jule Namchaisiri, Monravee Tumkosit, Sarinya Puwanant, Yongkasem Vorasettakarnkij, Suphot Srimahachota, Smonporn Boonyaratavej
BACKGROUND: Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary anomaly. The enlarged right coronary artery provides retrograde collaterals to supply the left ventricle then preferentially directs into the lower pressure pulmonary artery system causing coronary steal phenomenon. Few patients who survive through adulthood without surgery must have abundant, well-formed functioning collaterals with adequate perfusion of the left ventricle...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
María Elena Arnáiz-García, María José Dalmau-Sorlí, José María González-Santos, María Elena Pérez-Losada, José Alfonso Sastre-Rincón, Jesús Hernández-Hernández, Mª Carmen Vargas-Fajardo, Víctor Sagredo-Meneses, Javier López-Rodríguez, Ana María Arnáiz-García
A 52-year-old male patient, who underwent mitral replacement with a mechanical prosthesis as a child, sustained a cardiac arrest which was successfully resuscitated. Further investigation showed prosthesis malfunction with significant regurgitation in the context of multi-organ failure. In such a life-threatening condition, veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was considered as a rescue procedure to achieve optimisation of clinical status to allow definitive surgical treatment. An unusual complete fracture of the prosthesis was subsequently identified as the cause of acute dysfunction...
April 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
L A Nikolenko, E S Shopova, E S Golovneva, E S Nikolenko
Due to current options of cardiac surgery, operations on the heart of elderly patients have become routine in specialized cardiosurgical centers. The issue of pre- and postoperative anemia of different nature is essential in surgical correction of heart valves and coronary bypass. AIM: To study indexes of red blood in elderly patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and pathology of heart valves before and after surgical correction, including the relationship with position and type of the prosthesis...
2018: Kardiologiia
Long Deng, Xueying Huang, Chun Yang, Bin Lyu, Fujian Duan, Dalin Tang, Yunhu Song
BACKGROUND: The hydrodynamic mechanisms of systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) remain unclear. METHODS: Based on computed tomography (CT) images and clinical data, pre- and post-operative computational models of the left ventricle were constructed for 6 HOCM patients receiving septal myectomy. SAM was abolished in 5 patients and persisted in one after septal myectomy surgery. The obtained simulation results including flow field of the left ventricle and mechanical behaviors of the mitral valve (MV) between pre- and post-operative FSI models were compared...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Michael Lukas, Knut Holthoff, Veronica Egger
Single extracellular stimulation electrodes are a widespread means to locally activate synaptic inputs in acute brain slices. Here we describe the fabrication and application of a multielectrode stimulator that was developed for conditions under which independent stimulation of several nearby sites is desirable. For the construction of the multielectrode we have developed a method by which electrode wires can be spaced at minimal distances of 100 μm. This configuration increases the efficiency of stimulation paradigms, such as the comparison of proximal induced and control inputs for studies of synaptic plasticity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hubert Cochet, Lucas Morlon, Marie-Philippe Vergé, Marjorie Salel, Claudia Camaioni, Amélie Reynaud, Jérôme Peyrou, Philippe Ritter, Pierre Jais, François Laurent, Stéphane Lafitte, Michel Montaudon, Patricia Réant
BACKGROUND: Novel predictors of atrial fibrillation (AF) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are desirable. AIM: To detect new multimodality imaging variables predictive of de novo AF in HCM. METHODS: Consecutive patients with HCM underwent clinical assessment and 48-hour Holter electrocardiography to detect AF episodes. Left ventricular (LV) morphology, function and fibrosis, and the left atrium (LA) were characterized by cardiac magnetic resonance...
June 5, 2018: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
Micha T Maeder, Lukas Weber, Marc Buser, Marc Gerhard, Philipp K Haager, Francesco Maisano, Hans Rickli
In patients with aortic and/or mitral valve disease the presence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) indicates a decompensated state of the disease with left ventricular and left atrial dysfunction and exhausted compensatory mechanism, i.e., a state of heart failure. Pulmonary hypertension in this context is the consequence of the backwards transmission of elevated left atrial pressure. In this form of PH, pulmonary vascular resistance is initially normal (isolated post-capillary PH). Depending on the extent and chronicity of left atrial pressure elevation additional pulmonary vascular remodeling may occur (combined pre- and post-capillary PH)...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Gerald D Buckberg, Navin C Nanda, Christopher Nguyen, Mladen J Kocica
Cardiac dynamics are traditionally linked to a left ventricle, right ventricle, and septum morphology, a topography that differs from the heart's five-century-old anatomic description of containing a helix and circumferential wrap architectural configuration. Torrent Guasp's helical ventricular myocardial band (HVMB) defines this anatomy and its structure, and explains why the heart's six dynamic actions of narrowing, shortening, lengthening, widening, twisting, and uncoiling happen. The described structural findings will raise questions about deductions guiding "accepted cardiac mechanics", and their functional aspects will challenge and overturn them...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Taichi Sakaguchi, Nobuyuki Kagiyama, Misako Toki, Arudo Hiraoka, Akihiro Hayashida, Toshinori Totsugawa, Kentaro Tamura, Genta Chikazawa, Hidenori Yoshitaka, Kiyoshi Yoshida
BACKGROUND: Carpentier's techniques for degenerative posterior mitral leaflet prolapse have been established with excellent long-term results reported. However, residual mitral regurgitation (MR) occasionally occurs even after a straightforward repair, though the involved mechanisms are not fully understood. We sought to identify specific preoperative echocardiographic findings associated with residual MR after a posterior mitral leaflet repair. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively studied 117 consecutive patients who underwent a primary mitral valve repair for isolated posterior mitral leaflet prolapse including a preoperative 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography examination...
June 1, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Boleslaw Leszek Osinski, Alex Kim, Wenxi Xiao, Nisarg M Mehta, Leslie M Kay
The mammalian olfactory bulb (OB) generates gamma (40 - 100 Hz) and beta (15 - 30 Hz) local field potential (LFP) oscillations. Gamma oscillations arise at the peak of inhalation supported by dendrodendritic interactions between glutamatergic mitral cells (MCs) and GABAergic granule cells (GCs). Beta oscillations are induced by odorants in learning or odor sensitization paradigms, but their mechanism and function are still poorly understood. When centrifugal OB inputs are blocked, beta oscillations disappear, but gamma oscillations persist...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Cristina Russo, Antonella Russo, Rosalia Pellitteri, Stefania Stanzani
Ghrelin, a gastrointestinal hormone, is a modulator of the sense of smell. The main source of ghrelin in the central nervous system has been mainly observed in specific populations of hypothalamic neurons. An increasing number of studies have reported ghrelin synthesis and its effect on neurons outside the hypothalamus. Ghrelin and its receptors are expressed in the olfactory bulbs and in other centres of the brain, such as the amygdala, for processing olfactory signals, pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex and the dorsal vagal complex of the medulla oblongata...
May 29, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Yoshiyuki Takami, Naoki Hoshino, Yasuchika Kato, Yusuke Sakurai, Kentaro Amano, Yoshiro Higuchi, Masato Tochii, Michiko Ishida, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Yasushi Takagi, Yukio Ozaki
INTRODUCTION: Ventricular assist device is used in the patients with severe heart failure due to cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines, which are widely used chemotherapeutic agents for a wide range of malignant tumors. However, recovery of cardiac function is rare. METHODS: We present the clinical course of a 43-year-old woman in remission from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after the chemotherapy including anthracyclines, who presented in cardiogenic shock 8 months after the end of chemotherapy...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
James E Scriven, Antonia Scobie, Neville Q Verlander, Angela Houston, Tim Collyns, Vjeran Cajic, Onn Min Kon, Tamara Mitchell, Omar Rahama, Amy Robinson, Shirmila Withama, Peter Wilson, David Maxwell, Daniel Agranoff, Eleri Davies, Meirion Llewelyn, Shiu-Shing Soo, Amandip Sahota, Mike Cooper, Michael Hunter, Jennifer Tomlins, Simon Tiberi, Simon Kendall, Martin Dedicoat, Eliza Alexander, Teresa Fenech, Maria Zambon, Theresa Lamagni, E Grace Smith, Meera Chand
OBJECTIVES: Mycobacterium chimaera infection following cardiac surgery, due to contaminated cardiopulmonary bypass heater-cooler units, has been reported worldwide. However, the spectrum of clinical disease remains poorly understood. To address this, we report the clinical and laboratory features, treatment and outcome of the first 30 UK cases. METHODS: Case note review was performed for cases identified retrospectively through outbreak investigations and prospectively through on-going surveillance...
May 24, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Zhibin Cong, Bin Jiang, Jianbo Lu, Yunyi Cong, Jili Fu, Mingyue Jin, Xue Wang
Clinically the isovolumic contraction time (IVCT) can be measured by 3 echocardiographic methods of M-mode, pulse-wave Doppler (PWD), and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). But IVCT can be clinically different by the 3 methods. This study is to investigate whether there is a potentially unidentified phase causing the discrepancies by analyzing electric mechanical delay time (EMD), IVCT, and pre-ejection period (PEP).A total of 30 healthy subjects were recruited for the study. EMD, IVCT, and PEP were obtained by the 3 methods, respectively...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jason G Andrade, Elena Meseguer, Romain Didier, Charles Dussault, Jeffrey I Weitz
The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), which include dabigatran, apixaban, edoxaban and rivaroxaban, are preferred over vitamin K antagonists for stoke prevention in most patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. The NOACs are contraindicated in atrial fibrillation patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis or mechanical heart valves. There is evidence that bioprosthetic heart valves are less thrombogenic than mechanical heart valves, but it is unknown whether the risk of thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation patients with bioprosthetic valves differs from that in patients without such valves...
May 23, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Gunnar H Heine, Vincent Brandenburg, Stephan H Schirmer
BACKGROUND: Cardiological societies recommend, in their guidelines, that patients with atrial fibrillation and an intermediate (or higher) risk of stroke and systemic embolization should be treated with oral anticoagulant drugs. For patients who do not have mitral valve stenosis or a mechanical valve prosthesis, non-vitamin-K dependent oral anticoagulants (NOAC) are preferred over vitamin K antagonists (VKA) for this purpose. It is unclear, however, whether patients with chronic kidney disease and atrial fibrillation benefit from oral anticoagulation to the same extent as those with normal kidney function...
April 27, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Heynric B Grotenhuis, Florence A Aeschlimann, Wei Hui, Cameron Slorach, Rae S M Yeung, Susanne M Benseler, Timothy J Bradley, Lars Grosse-Wortmann
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Takayasu arteritis (TA) is characterized by extensive aortic, large and midsize arterial wall inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the morphological and elastic properties of the aorta and large arteries and the impact on left ventricular (LV) mechanics in children with TA. METHODS: Seven pediatric TA patients (6 female patients, 13.8 ± 3.2 years) were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, vascular ultrasound, applanation tonometry, and echocardiography from February 2015 until July 2017 and compared with 7 age- and sex-matched controls...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Chetan Ambastha, Gregory J Bittle, David Morales, Nathaniel Parchment, Progyaparamita Saha, Rachana Mishra, Sudhish Sharma, Alexander Vasilenko, Muthukumar Gunasekaran, Manal T Al-Suqi, Deqiang Li, Peixin Yang, Sunjay Kaushal
One of the most complex forms of congenital heart disease (CHD) involving single ventricle physiology is hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), characterized by underdevelopment of the left ventricle (LV), mitral and aortic valves, and narrowing of the ascending aorta. The underdeveloped LV is incapable of providing long-term systemic flow, and if left untreated, the condition is fatal. Current treatment for this condition consists of three consecutive staged palliative operations: the first is conducted within the first few weeks of birth, the second between 4 to 6 months, and the third and final surgery within the first 4 years...
April 2018: Translational Pediatrics
Francesco Cavarretta, Shawn D Burton, Kei M Igarashi, Gordon M Shepherd, Michael L Hines, Michele Migliore
The olfactory bulb (OB) transforms sensory input into spatially and temporally organized patterns of activity in principal mitral (MC) and middle tufted (mTC) cells. Thus far, the mechanisms underlying odor representations in the OB have been mainly investigated in MCs. However, experimental findings suggest that MC and mTC may encode parallel and complementary odor representations. We have analyzed the functional roles of these pathways by using a morphologically and physiologically realistic three-dimensional model to explore the MC and mTC microcircuits in the glomerular layer and deeper plexiform layer...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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