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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036351/mirandola-2017-a-curated-knowledge-base-of-non-invasive-biomarkers
#1
Francesco Russo, Sebastiano Di Bella, Federica Vannini, Gabriele Berti, Flavia Scoyni, Helen V Cook, Alberto Santos, Giovanni Nigita, Vincenzo Bonnici, Alessandro Laganà, Filippo Geraci, Alfredo Pulvirenti, Rosalba Giugno, Federico De Masi, Kirstine Belling, Lars J Jensen, S Ren Brunak, Marco Pellegrini, Alfredo Ferro
miRandola (http://mirandola.iit.cnr.it/) is a database of extracellular non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that was initially published in 2012, foreseeing the relevance of ncRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers. An increasing amount of experimental evidence shows that ncRNAs are frequently dysregulated in diseases. Further, ncRNAs have been discovered in different extracellular forms, such as exosomes, which circulate in human body fluids. Thus, miRandola 2017 is an effort to update and collect the accumulating information on extracellular ncRNAs that is spread across scientific publications and different databases...
September 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945793/exosomal-lncrna-gas5-regulates-the-apoptosis-of-macrophages-and-vascular-endothelial-cells-in-atherosclerosis
#2
Lei Chen, Wenjin Yang, Yijun Guo, Wei Chen, Ping Zheng, Jinsong Zeng, Wusong Tong
Atherosclerosis is universally recognized as a chronic lipid-induced inflammation of the vessel wall. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) drives the onset of atherogenesis involving macrophages and endothelial cells (ECs). Our earlier work showed that expression of long noncoding RNA-growth arrest-specific 5 (lncRNA GAS5) was significantly increased in the plaque of atherosclerosis collected from patients and animal models. In this study, we found that knockdown of lncRNA GAS5 reduced the apoptosis of THP-1 cells treated with oxLDL...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756229/role-of-the-extracellular-matrix-located-mac-2-binding-protein-as-an-interactor-of-the-wnt-proteins
#3
Timo Pikkarainen, Tuomas Nurmi, Takako Sasaki, Ulrich Bergmann, Seppo Vainio
The Wnt proteins constitute a conserved family of secreted palmitoleate-containing signaling proteins that play important roles in development and tissue homeostasis. Their hydrophobic nature has raised the question of how the proteins are transported outside the cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that several different mechanisms, including transport by lipoprotein particles and exosomes, may contribute to this process. Here, we expressed epitope-tagged Wnt4 in HEK293 cells, and identified Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2BP) as its binding partner in the serum-free conditioned medium...
September 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711597/micrornas-and-extracellular-vesicles-in-cholangiopathies
#4
REVIEW
P Olaizola, P Y Lee-Law, A Arbelaiz, A Lapitz, M J Perugorria, L Bujanda, J M Banales
Cholangiopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting biliary epithelial cells (i.e. cholangiocytes). Early diagnosis, prognosis and treatment still remain clinically challenging for most of these diseases and are critical for adequate patient care. In the past decade, extensive research has emphasized microRNAs (miRs) as potential non-invasive biomarkers and tools to accurately identify, predict and treat cholangiopathies. MiRs can be released extracellularly conjugated with lipoproteins or encapsulated in extracellular vesicles (EVs)...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687758/directional-exosome-proteomes-reflect-polarity-specific-functions-in-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-monolayers
#5
Mikael Klingeborn, W Michael Dismuke, Nikolai P Skiba, Una Kelly, W Daniel Stamer, Catherine Bowes Rickman
The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) forms the outer blood-retinal barrier in the eye and its polarity is responsible for directional secretion and uptake of proteins, lipoprotein particles and extracellular vesicles (EVs). Such a secretional division dictates directed interactions between the systemic circulation (basolateral) and the retina (apical). Our goal is to define the polarized proteomes and physical characteristics of EVs released from the RPE. Primary cultures of porcine RPE cells were differentiated into polarized RPE monolayers on permeable supports...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495997/extracellular-vesicles-in-metabolic-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
M Carmen Martínez, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina
Metabolic syndrome defines a cluster of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. These factors include metabolic abnormalities, such as hyperglycemia, elevated triglyceride levels, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and obesity, mainly central adiposity. In this context, extracellular vesicles (EVs) may represent novel effectors that might help to elucidate disease-specific pathways in metabolic disease. Indeed, EVs (a terminology that encompasses microparticles, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies) are emerging as a novel mean of cell-to-cell communication in physiology and pathology because they represent a new way to convey fundamental information between cells...
May 12, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251957/-contamination-of-exosome-preparations-isolated-from-biological-fluids
#7
A E Grigor'eva, N S Dyrkheeva, O E Bryzgunova, S N Tamkovich, B P Chelobanov, E I Ryabchikova
The aim of our study was to attract the attention of researchers at the problem of contamination of exosome preparations. Using a transmission electron microscope JEM-1400 ("JEOL", Japan) we have examined exosome preparations, isolated according to the conventional scheme of sequential centrifugation from different biological fluids: plasma and urine of healthy persons and patients with oncologic diseases, bovine serum, and culture fluid (MDCK, MDA-MB и MCF-7 cells). All exosome preparations (over 200) contained exosomes, which were identified by immuno-electron microscopy using antibodies to tetraspanins CD63 or CD9...
January 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129550/atp-binding-cassette-a1-abca1-mediates-microparticle-formation-during-high-density-lipoprotein-hdl-biogenesis
#8
Anouar Hafiane, Jacques Genest
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Micro-particles (MP) are secreted by various cells. Their biological roles in health and in disease remain unknown. Here we describe formation of MP in the process of ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux in different cell types. METHODS: The ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) is the rate-limiting step in the biogenesis of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). We have found that ABCA1 and apoA-I contribute to the formation of MP...
February 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088841/intracellular-fate-of-ureaplasma-parvum-entrapped-by-host-cellular-autophagy
#9
Fumiko Nishiumi, Michinaga Ogawa, Yukiko Nakura, Yusuke Hamada, Masahiro Nakayama, Jiro Mitobe, Atsushi Hiraide, Norio Sakai, Makoto Takeuchi, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Itaru Yanagihara
Genital mycoplasmas, including Ureaplasma spp., are among the smallest human pathogenic bacteria and are associated with preterm birth. Electron microscopic observation of U. parvum showed that these prokaryotes have a regular, spherical shape with a mean diameter of 146 nm. U. parvum was internalized into HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and survived for at least 14 days around the perinuclear region. Intracellular U. parvum reached endosomes in HeLa cells labeled with EEA1, Rab7, and LAMP-1 within 1 to 3 hr...
June 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062296/relationship-between-circulating-microrna-30c-with-total-and-ldl-cholesterol-their-circulatory-transportation-and-effect-of-statins
#10
Ravinder Sodi, Jarlath Eastwood, Muriel Caslake, Chris J Packard, Laura Denby
BACKGROUND: Small non-coding microRNAs (miR) have important regulatory roles and are used as biomarkers of disease. We investigated the relationship between lipoproteins and circulating miR-30c, evaluated how they are transported in circulation and determined whether statins altered the circulating concentration of miR-30c. METHODS: To determine the relationship between lipoproteins and circulating miR-30c, serum samples from 79 subjects recruited from a lipid clinic were evaluated...
March 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989744/characterization-of-extracellular-vesicles-by-ir-spectroscopy-fast-and-simple-classification-based-on-amide-and-ch-stretching-vibrations
#11
Judith Mihály, Róbert Deák, Imola Csilla Szigyártó, Attila Bóta, Tamás Beke-Somfai, Zoltán Varga
Extracellular vesicles isolated by differential centrifugation from Jurkat T-cell line were investigated by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Amide and CH stretching band intensity ratios calculated from IR bands, characteristic of protein and lipid components, proved to be distinctive for the different extracellular vesicle subpopulations. This proposed 'spectroscopic protein-to-lipid ratio', combined with the outlined spectrum-analysis protocol is valid also for low sample concentrations (0...
December 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826926/analysis-of-the-distribution-profiles-of-circulating-micrornas-by-asymmetrical-flow-field-flow-fractionation
#12
Kenneth Flack, Luis A Jimenez, Wenwan Zhong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are stably present in circulatory systems. They are bound to various carriers like proteins, lipoprotein particles, and exosomes. Investigating the process of miRNA distribution among these carriers will help improve our understanding of their functions in the extracellular environment and their potential relationship with diseases. Here, we describe how to obtain the distribution profiles of circulating miRNAs by separation of different miRNA carriers in human serum with asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AF4), and detection of the miRNAs in the eluted fractions that enrich particular types of carriers with RT-qPCR...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665565/isolation-of-exosome-like-vesicles-from-plants-by-ultracentrifugation-on-sucrose-deuterium-oxide-d2o-density-cushions
#13
Christopher Stanly, Immacolata Fiume, Giovambattista Capasso, Gabriella Pocsfalvi
Exosomes are nanovesicles of endocytic origin that are about 30-100 nm in diameter, surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane, and contain proteins, nucleic acids, and other molecules. Mammalian cells- and biological fluids-derived exosomes have become the subject for a wide range of investigations in biological and biomedical sciences. More recently, a new interest is on the verge of rising: the presence of nanovesicles in plants. Lipoprotein vesicles from apoplastic fluid and exosome-like vesicles (ELVs) from fruit juice have been isolated and shown that they could be loaded with drugs and uptaken by recipient cells...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590148/biochemical-methods-to-analyze-wnt-protein-secretion
#14
Kathrin Glaeser, Michael Boutros, Julia Christina Gross
Wnt proteins act as potent morphogens in various aspects of embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. However, in addition to its physiological importance, aberrant Wnt signaling has been linked to the onset and progression of different types of cancer. On the cellular level, the secretion of Wnt proteins involves trafficking of lipid-modified Wnts from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi and further compartments via the Wnt cargo receptor evenness interrupted. Others and we have recently shown that Wnt proteins are secreted on extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as microvesicles and exosomes...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343009/clinical-relevance-of-circulating-cell-free-micrornas-in-ovarian-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Koji Nakamura, Kenjiro Sawada, Akihiko Yoshimura, Yasuto Kinose, Erika Nakatsuka, Tadashi Kimura
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynecologic malignancies. Since ovarian cancer develops asymptomatically, it is often diagnosed at an advanced and incurable stage. Despite many years of research, there is still a lack of reliable diagnostic markers and methods for early detection and screening. Recently, it was discovered that cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) circulate in the body fluids of healthy and diseased patients, suggesting that they may serve as a novel diagnostic marker. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential clinical relevance of circulating cell-free miRNA for ovarian cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics...
June 24, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335133/role-of-lipids-on-elongation-of-the-preimplantation-conceptus-in-ruminants
#16
REVIEW
Eduardo S Ribeiro, José E P Santos, William W Thatcher
Elongation of the preimplantation conceptus is a prerequisite for successful pregnancy in ruminants and depends on histotroph secretion by the endometrium. Lipids are an essential component of the histotroph, and recent studies indicate that lipids have important roles in the elongation phase of conceptus development. The onset of elongation is marked by dynamic changes in the transcriptome of trophectoderm cells, which are associated with lipid metabolism. During elongation, the trophectoderm increases transcript expression of genes related to uptake, metabolism and de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids and prostaglandins...
October 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27163393/mildly-oxidized-hdl-decrease-agonist-induced-platelet-aggregation-and-release-of-pro-coagulant-platelet-extracellular-vesicles
#17
M Tafelmeier, A Fischer, E Orsó, T Konovalova, A Böttcher, G Liebisch, S Matysik, G Schmitz
Stored platelet concentrates (PLCs) for therapeutic purpose, develop a platelet storage lesion (PSL), characterized by impaired platelet (PLT) viability and function, platelet extracellular vesicle (PL-EV) release and profound lipidomic changes. Whereas oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) activates PLTs and promotes atherosclerosis, effects linked to oxidized high-density lipoprotein (oxHDL) are poorly characterized. PLCs from blood donors were treated with native (nHDL) or mildly oxidized HDL (moxHDL) for 5days under blood banking conditions...
May 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087061/low-density-lipoprotein-mimics-blood-plasma-derived-exosomes-and-microvesicles-during-isolation-and-detection
#18
Barbara W Sódar, Ágnes Kittel, Krisztina Pálóczi, Krisztina V Vukman, Xabier Osteikoetxea, Katalin Szabó-Taylor, Andrea Németh, Beáta Sperlágh, Tamás Baranyai, Zoltán Giricz, Zoltán Wiener, Lilla Turiák, László Drahos, Éva Pállinger, Károly Vékey, Péter Ferdinandy, András Falus, Edit Irén Buzás
Circulating extracellular vesicles have emerged as potential new biomarkers in a wide variety of diseases. Despite the increasing interest, their isolation and purification from body fluids remains challenging. Here we studied human pre-prandial and 4 hours postprandial platelet-free blood plasma samples as well as human platelet concentrates. Using flow cytometry, we found that the majority of circulating particles within the size range of extracellular vesicles lacked common vesicular markers. We identified most of these particles as lipoproteins (predominantly low-density lipoprotein, LDL) which mimicked the characteristics of extracellular vesicles and also co-purified with them...
April 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26964503/pathways-for-modulating-exosome-lipids-identified-by-high-density-lipoprotein-like-nanoparticle-binding-to-scavenger-receptor-type-b-1
#19
Nicholas L Angeloni, Kaylin M McMahon, Suchitra Swaminathan, Michael P Plebanek, Iman Osman, Olga V Volpert, C Shad Thaxton
Exosomes are produced by cells to mediate intercellular communication, and have been shown to perpetuate diseases, including cancer. New tools are needed to understand exosome biology, detect exosomes from specific cell types in complex biological media, and to modify exosomes. Our data demonstrate a cellular pathway whereby membrane-bound scavenger receptor type B-1 (SR-B1) in parent cells becomes incorporated into exosomes. We tailored synthetic HDL-like nanoparticles (HDL NP), high-affinity ligands for SR-B1, to carry a fluorescently labeled phospholipid...
March 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26806392/microrna-transport-in-cardiovascular-complication-of-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Andrea Caporali, Vladislav Miscianinov, Jaimy Saif, Costanza Emanueli
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional inhibitory regulators of gene expression by binding to complementary messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts. Extracellular miRNAs are transported by membrane-derived vesicles (exosomes and microparticles), lipoproteins, and other ribonucleoprotein complexes. Extracellular microRNAs are emerging as important mediators of intercellular communications, being involved in the transmission of biological signals between cells. Several miRNAs have been identified as having a primary impact on many biological processes that are of direct relevance to cardiovascular complications of diabetes...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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