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Lipoprotein exosome

Christopher Stanly, Immacolata Fiume, Giovambattista Capasso, Gabriella Pocsfalvi
Exosomes are nanovesicles of endocytic origin that are about 30-100 nm in diameter, surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane, and contain proteins, nucleic acids, and other molecules. Mammalian cells- and biological fluids-derived exosomes have become the subject for a wide range of investigations in biological and biomedical sciences. More recently, a new interest is on the verge of rising: the presence of nanovesicles in plants. Lipoprotein vesicles from apoplastic fluid and exosome-like vesicles (ELVs) from fruit juice have been isolated and shown that they could be loaded with drugs and uptaken by recipient cells...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kathrin Glaeser, Michael Boutros, Julia Christina Gross
Wnt proteins act as potent morphogens in various aspects of embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. However, in addition to its physiological importance, aberrant Wnt signaling has been linked to the onset and progression of different types of cancer. On the cellular level, the secretion of Wnt proteins involves trafficking of lipid-modified Wnts from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi and further compartments via the Wnt cargo receptor evenness interrupted. Others and we have recently shown that Wnt proteins are secreted on extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as microvesicles and exosomes...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Koji Nakamura, Kenjiro Sawada, Akihiko Yoshimura, Yasuto Kinose, Erika Nakatsuka, Tadashi Kimura
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynecologic malignancies. Since ovarian cancer develops asymptomatically, it is often diagnosed at an advanced and incurable stage. Despite many years of research, there is still a lack of reliable diagnostic markers and methods for early detection and screening. Recently, it was discovered that cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) circulate in the body fluids of healthy and diseased patients, suggesting that they may serve as a novel diagnostic marker. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential clinical relevance of circulating cell-free miRNA for ovarian cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics...
2016: Molecular Cancer
Eduardo S Ribeiro, José E P Santos, William W Thatcher
Elongation of the preimplantation conceptus is a prerequisite for successful pregnancy in ruminants and depends on histotroph secretion by the endometrium. Lipids are an essential component of the histotroph, and recent studies indicate that lipids have important roles in the elongation phase of conceptus development. The onset of elongation is marked by dynamic changes in the transcriptome of trophectoderm cells, which are associated with lipid metabolism. During elongation, the trophectoderm increases transcript expression of genes related to uptake, metabolism and de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids and prostaglandins...
October 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
M Tafelmeier, A Fischer, E Orsó, T Konovalova, A Böttcher, G Liebisch, S Matysik, G Schmitz
Stored platelet concentrates (PLCs) for therapeutic purpose, develop a platelet storage lesion (PSL), characterized by impaired platelet (PLT) viability and function, platelet extracellular vesicle (PL-EV) release and profound lipidomic changes. Whereas oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) activates PLTs and promotes atherosclerosis, effects linked to oxidized high-density lipoprotein (oxHDL) are poorly characterized. PLCs from blood donors were treated with native (nHDL) or mildly oxidized HDL (moxHDL) for 5days under blood banking conditions...
May 6, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Barbara W Sódar, Ágnes Kittel, Krisztina Pálóczi, Krisztina V Vukman, Xabier Osteikoetxea, Katalin Szabó-Taylor, Andrea Németh, Beáta Sperlágh, Tamás Baranyai, Zoltán Giricz, Zoltán Wiener, Lilla Turiák, László Drahos, Éva Pállinger, Károly Vékey, Péter Ferdinandy, András Falus, Edit Irén Buzás
Circulating extracellular vesicles have emerged as potential new biomarkers in a wide variety of diseases. Despite the increasing interest, their isolation and purification from body fluids remains challenging. Here we studied human pre-prandial and 4 hours postprandial platelet-free blood plasma samples as well as human platelet concentrates. Using flow cytometry, we found that the majority of circulating particles within the size range of extracellular vesicles lacked common vesicular markers. We identified most of these particles as lipoproteins (predominantly low-density lipoprotein, LDL) which mimicked the characteristics of extracellular vesicles and also co-purified with them...
2016: Scientific Reports
Nicholas L Angeloni, Kaylin M McMahon, Suchitra Swaminathan, Michael P Plebanek, Iman Osman, Olga V Volpert, C Shad Thaxton
Exosomes are produced by cells to mediate intercellular communication, and have been shown to perpetuate diseases, including cancer. New tools are needed to understand exosome biology, detect exosomes from specific cell types in complex biological media, and to modify exosomes. Our data demonstrate a cellular pathway whereby membrane-bound scavenger receptor type B-1 (SR-B1) in parent cells becomes incorporated into exosomes. We tailored synthetic HDL-like nanoparticles (HDL NP), high-affinity ligands for SR-B1, to carry a fluorescently labeled phospholipid...
2016: Scientific Reports
Andrea Caporali, Vladislav Miscianinov, Jaimy Saif, Costanza Emanueli
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional inhibitory regulators of gene expression by binding to complementary messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts. Extracellular miRNAs are transported by membrane-derived vesicles (exosomes and microparticles), lipoproteins, and other ribonucleoprotein complexes. Extracellular microRNAs are emerging as important mediators of intercellular communications, being involved in the transmission of biological signals between cells. Several miRNAs have been identified as having a primary impact on many biological processes that are of direct relevance to cardiovascular complications of diabetes...
January 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Gerardo Botti, Laura Marra, Maria Gabriella Malzone, Annamaria Anniciello, Chiara Botti, Renato Franco, Monica Cantile
In recent years the importance of the role played by non-coding RNA on the regulation of gene expression was increased by numerous studies. The research mainly focused on small ncRNAs, such as miRNAs, while the functions of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) have been much less studied. lncRNAs can be transcribed from intergenic, intragenic or specific chromosomal regions. Compared to miRNAs, lncRNAs have a complex secondary and tertiary structure which allows to bind proteins, RNA, DNA and to carry out their regulatory functions...
December 9, 2015: Current Drug Targets
Michael P Plebanek, R Kannan Mutharasan, Olga Volpert, Alexandre Matov, Jesse C Gatlin, C Shad Thaxton
Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles that mediate intercellular communication. Cellular exosome uptake mechanisms are not well defined partly due to the lack of specific inhibitors of this complex cellular process. Exosome uptake depends on cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains called lipid rafts, and can be blocked by non-specific depletion of plasma membrane cholesterol. Scavenger receptor type B-1 (SR-B1), found in lipid rafts, is a receptor for cholesterol-rich high-density lipoproteins (HDL). We hypothesized that a synthetic nanoparticle mimic of HDL (HDL NP) that binds SR-B1 and removes cholesterol through this receptor would inhibit cellular exosome uptake...
October 29, 2015: Scientific Reports
Roman Samsonov, Tatiana Shtam, Vladimir Burdakov, Andrey Glotov, Evgenia Tsyrlina, Lev Berstein, Alexander Nosov, Vladimir Evtushenko, Michael Filatov, Anastasia Malek
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Prostate-specific antigen has, however, insufficient diagnostic specificity. Novel complementary diagnostic approaches are greatly needed. MiRNAs are small regulatory RNAs which play an important role in tumorogenesis and are being investigated as a cancer biomarker. In addition to their intracellular regulatory functions, miRNAs are secreted into the extracellular space and can be found in various body fluids, including urine...
January 2016: Prostate
Ya-Kai Huang, Jian-Chun Yu
Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the most popular non-coding RNAs in cancer research. To date, the roles of miRNAs and lncRNAs have been extensively studied in GC, suggesting that miRNAs and lncRNAs represent a vital component of tumor biology. Furthermore, circulating miRNAs and lncRNAs are found to be dysregulated in patients with GC compared with healthy individuals. Circulating miRNAs and lncRNAs may function as promising biomarkers to improve the early detection of GC...
September 14, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Edward J Goetzl, Adam Boxer, Janice B Schwartz, Erin L Abner, Ronald C Petersen, Bruce L Miller, Olga D Carlson, Maja Mustapic, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
Transcription factors that mediate neuronal defenses against diverse stresses were quantified in plasma neural-derived exosomes of Alzheimer's disease or frontotemporal dementia patients and matched controls. Exosomal levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6, heat-shock factor-1, and repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor all were significantly lower in Alzheimer's disease patients than controls (P < 0.0001). In frontotemporal dementia, the only significant difference was higher levels of repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor than in controls...
July 2015: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Jaffre J Athman, Ying Wang, David J McDonald, W Henry Boom, Clifford V Harding, Pamela A Wearsch
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen that infects lung macrophages and releases microbial factors that regulate host defense. M. tuberculosis lipoproteins and lipoglycans block phagosome maturation, inhibit class II MHC Ag presentation, and modulate TLR2-dependent cytokine production, but the mechanisms for their release during infection are poorly defined. Furthermore, these molecules are thought to be incorporated into host membranes and released from infected macrophages within exosomes, 40-150-nm extracellular vesicles that derive from multivesicular endosomes...
August 1, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Imo E Hoefer, Sabine Steffens, Mika Ala-Korpela, Magnus Bäck, Lina Badimon, Marie-Luce Bochaton-Piallat, Chantal M Boulanger, Giuseppina Caligiuri, Stefanie Dimmeler, Jesus Egido, Paul C Evans, Tomasz Guzik, Brenda R Kwak, Ulf Landmesser, Manuel Mayr, Claudia Monaco, Gerard Pasterkamp, Jose Tuñón, Christian Weber
Identification of subjects at increased risk for cardiovascular events plays a central role in the worldwide efforts to improve prevention, prediction, diagnosis, and prognosis of cardiovascular disease and to decrease the related costs. Despite their high predictive value on population level, traditional risk factors fail to fully predict individual risk. This position paper provides a summary of current vascular biomarkers other than the traditional risk factors with a special focus on the emerging -omics technologies...
October 14, 2015: European Heart Journal
Neha Vyas, Ankita Walvekar, Dhananjay Tate, Vairavan Lakshmanan, Dhiru Bansal, Alessandra Lo Cicero, Graca Raposo, Dasaradhi Palakodeti, Jyotsna Dhawan
Hedgehog (Hh) is a secreted morphogen that elicits differentiation and patterning in developing tissues. Multiple proposed mechanisms to regulate Hh dispersion includes lipoprotein particles and exosomes. Here we report that vertebrate Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is secreted on two types of extracellular-vesicles/exosomes, from human cell lines and primary chick notochord cells. Although largely overlapping in size as estimated from electron micrographs, the two exosomal fractions exhibited distinct protein and RNA composition...
2014: Scientific Reports
Jonathan Ashby, Kenneth Flack, Luis A Jimenez, Yaokai Duan, Abdel-Kareem Khatib, George Somlo, Shizhen Emily Wang, Xinping Cui, Wenwan Zhong
Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are potential biomarkers useful in cancer diagnosis. They have been found to be bound to various carriers like proteins, lipoprotein particles, and exosomes. It is likely that only miRNAs in particular carriers, but not the overall quantity, are directly related to cancer development. Herein, we developed a method for rapid separation of different miRNA carriers in serum using asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AF4). Sera from two healthy individuals (control) or from two cancer patients (case) were fractionated...
September 16, 2014: Analytical Chemistry
Parisa Yousefpour, Ashutosh Chilkoti
The goal of drug delivery is to improve the safety and therapeutic efficacy of drugs. This review focuses on delivery platforms that are either derived from endogenous pathways, long-circulating biomolecules and cells or that piggyback onto long-circulating biomolecules and cells. The first class of such platforms is protein-based delivery systems--albumin, transferrin, and fusion to the Fc domain of antibodies--that have a long-circulation half-life and are designed to transport different molecules. The second class is lipid-based delivery systems-lipoproteins and exosomes-that are naturally occurring circulating lipid particles...
September 2014: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Jan Novák, Julie Bienertová-Vašků, Tomáš Kára, Miroslav Novák
Hyperlipidemia is a well-accepted risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a novel class of posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, are involved in a variety of biological and pathological processes, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis. As our knowledge of miRNAs expands, a new class of "circulating miRNAs" has recently been described. It includes miRNAs which may be found in various bodily fluids packaged in microvesicles/exosomes, or bound to specific transporting proteins...
2014: Mediators of Inflammation
Shuhei Komatsu, Daisuke Ichikawa, Hiroki Takeshita, Ryo Morimura, Shoji Hirajima, Masahiro Tsujiura, Tsutomu Kawaguchi, Mahito Miyamae, Hiroaki Nagata, Hirotaka Konishi, Atsushi Shiozaki, Eigo Otsuji
MicroRNAs have been reported to be stably detectable in plasma/serum and to exhibit resistance to endogenous ribonuclease activity because of binding to proteins such as Argonaute-2 and high-density lipoprotein, or being packed by secretory particles such as exosomes. These secretory particles include specific microRNAs and can function as intercellular transmitters. These findings could open-up a new and promising field in the use of circulating microRNAs for cancer treatment. In particular, miR-18a, which is located in the potentially oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster, is a highly expressed microRNAs in several types of cancers...
May 2014: In Vivo
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