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Lipoprotein exosome

Shaolin He, Chun Wu, Junhui Xiao, Dazhu Li, Ziyan Sun, Ming Li
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages engage in tight and specific interactions that play critical roles in cardiovascular homeostasis and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are circular membrane fragments released from the endosomal compartment as exosomes or shed from the surfaces of the membranes of most cell types. Increasing evidence indicates that EVs play a pivotal role in cell-to-cell communication. However, the contribution of EVs, as determine by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-exposed and/or Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2)-transduced ECs in the interaction between vascular ECs and monocytes/ macrophages, which is a key event in atherosclerotic plaque development, has remained elusive...
February 21, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Chaoyang Huang, Yuan Huang, Yijiang Zhou, Wencheng Nie, Xiangyuan Pu, Xiaolei Xu, Jianhua Zhu
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) has a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. The participation of oxLDL‑stimulated macrophages has been well‑established in atherosclerosis, however the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Macrophage‑derived exosomes are actively released and are involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes. However, the function of exosomes secreted by oxLDL‑stimulated macrophages in atherosclerosis remains unknown. Exosomes from oxLDL‑treated macrophages and controls were co‑cultured with endothelial cells and the exosomes were taken up by endocytosis...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ruzena Stranska, Laurens Gysbrechts, Jens Wouters, Pieter Vermeersch, Katarzyna Bloch, Daan Dierickx, Graciela Andrei, Robert Snoeck
BACKGROUND: Plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs), especially exosome-like vesicles (ELVs), are being increasingly explored as a source of potential noninvasive disease biomarkers. The discovery of blood-based biomarkers associated with ELVs requires methods that isolate high yields of these EVs without significant contamination with highly abundant plasma proteins and lipoproteins. The rising interest in blood-based EV-associated biomarkers has led to the rapid development of novel EV isolation methods...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Willem J M Mulder, Mandy M T van Leent, Marnix Lameijer, Edward A Fisher, Zahi A Fayad, Carlos Pérez-Medina
Nature is an inspirational source for biomedical engineering developments. Particularly, numerous nanotechnological approaches have been derived from biological concepts. For example, among many different biological nanosized materials, viruses have been extensively studied and utilized, while exosome research has gained much traction in the 21st century. In our body, fat is transported by lipoproteins, intriguing supramolecular nanostructures that have important roles in cell function, lipid metabolism, and disease...
December 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Kaloyan Takov, Derek M Yellon, Sean M Davidson
Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) such as exosomes are nanocarriers of proteins, RNAs and DNAs. Isolation of pure sEV populations remains challenging, with reports of protein and lipoprotein contaminants in the isolates. Cellular uptake - a cornerstone for understanding exosome and sEV function - is frequently examined using lipophilic dyes such as PKH67 or CellMask to label the vesicles. In this study, we investigated whether contaminants can confound the outcomes from sEV and exosomes uptake experiments...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Francesco Russo, Sebastiano Di Bella, Federica Vannini, Gabriele Berti, Flavia Scoyni, Helen V Cook, Alberto Santos, Giovanni Nigita, Vincenzo Bonnici, Alessandro Laganà, Filippo Geraci, Alfredo Pulvirenti, Rosalba Giugno, Federico De Masi, Kirstine Belling, Lars J Jensen, S Ren Brunak, Marco Pellegrini, Alfredo Ferro
miRandola ( is a database of extracellular non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that was initially published in 2012, foreseeing the relevance of ncRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers. An increasing amount of experimental evidence shows that ncRNAs are frequently dysregulated in diseases. Further, ncRNAs have been discovered in different extracellular forms, such as exosomes, which circulate in human body fluids. Thus, miRandola 2017 is an effort to update and collect the accumulating information on extracellular ncRNAs that is spread across scientific publications and different databases...
September 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Lei Chen, Wenjin Yang, Yijun Guo, Wei Chen, Ping Zheng, Jinsong Zeng, Wusong Tong
Atherosclerosis is universally recognized as a chronic lipid-induced inflammation of the vessel wall. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) drives the onset of atherogenesis involving macrophages and endothelial cells (ECs). Our earlier work showed that expression of long noncoding RNA-growth arrest-specific 5 (lncRNA GAS5) was significantly increased in the plaque of atherosclerosis collected from patients and animal models. In this study, we found that knockdown of lncRNA GAS5 reduced the apoptosis of THP-1 cells treated with oxLDL...
2017: PloS One
Timo Pikkarainen, Tuomas Nurmi, Takako Sasaki, Ulrich Bergmann, Seppo Vainio
The Wnt proteins constitute a conserved family of secreted palmitoleate-containing signaling proteins that play important roles in development and tissue homeostasis. Their hydrophobic nature has raised the question of how the proteins are transported outside the cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that several different mechanisms, including transport by lipoprotein particles and exosomes, may contribute to this process. Here, we expressed epitope-tagged Wnt4 in HEK293 cells, and identified Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2BP) as its binding partner in the serum-free conditioned medium...
September 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
P Olaizola, P Y Lee-Law, A Arbelaiz, A Lapitz, M J Perugorria, L Bujanda, J M Banales
Cholangiopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting biliary epithelial cells (i.e. cholangiocytes). Early diagnosis, prognosis and treatment still remain clinically challenging for most of these diseases and are critical for adequate patient care. In the past decade, extensive research has emphasized microRNAs (miRs) as potential non-invasive biomarkers and tools to accurately identify, predict and treat cholangiopathies. MiRs can be released extracellularly conjugated with lipoproteins or encapsulated in extracellular vesicles (EVs)...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Mikael Klingeborn, W Michael Dismuke, Nikolai P Skiba, Una Kelly, W Daniel Stamer, Catherine Bowes Rickman
The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) forms the outer blood-retinal barrier in the eye and its polarity is responsible for directional secretion and uptake of proteins, lipoprotein particles and extracellular vesicles (EVs). Such a secretional division dictates directed interactions between the systemic circulation (basolateral) and the retina (apical). Our goal is to define the polarized proteomes and physical characteristics of EVs released from the RPE. Primary cultures of porcine RPE cells were differentiated into polarized RPE monolayers on permeable supports...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
M Carmen Martínez, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina
Metabolic syndrome defines a cluster of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. These factors include metabolic abnormalities, such as hyperglycemia, elevated triglyceride levels, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and obesity, mainly central adiposity. In this context, extracellular vesicles (EVs) may represent novel effectors that might help to elucidate disease-specific pathways in metabolic disease. Indeed, EVs (a terminology that encompasses microparticles, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies) are emerging as a novel mean of cell-to-cell communication in physiology and pathology because they represent a new way to convey fundamental information between cells...
May 12, 2017: Circulation Research
A E Grigor'eva, N S Dyrkheeva, O E Bryzgunova, S N Tamkovich, B P Chelobanov, E I Ryabchikova
The aim of our study was to attract the attention of researchers at the problem of contamination of exosome preparations. Using a transmission electron microscope JEM-1400 ("JEOL", Japan) we have examined exosome preparations, isolated according to the conventional scheme of sequential centrifugation from different biological fluids: plasma and urine of healthy persons and patients with oncologic diseases, bovine serum, and culture fluid (MDCK, MDA-MB и MCF-7 cells). All exosome preparations (over 200) contained exosomes, which were identified by immuno-electron microscopy using antibodies to tetraspanins CD63 or CD9...
January 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
Anouar Hafiane, Jacques Genest
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Micro-particles (MP) are secreted by various cells. Their biological roles in health and in disease remain unknown. Here we describe formation of MP in the process of ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux in different cell types. METHODS: The ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) is the rate-limiting step in the biogenesis of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). We have found that ABCA1 and apoA-I contribute to the formation of MP...
February 2017: Atherosclerosis
Fumiko Nishiumi, Michinaga Ogawa, Yukiko Nakura, Yusuke Hamada, Masahiro Nakayama, Jiro Mitobe, Atsushi Hiraide, Norio Sakai, Makoto Takeuchi, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Itaru Yanagihara
Genital mycoplasmas, including Ureaplasma spp., are among the smallest human pathogenic bacteria and are associated with preterm birth. Electron microscopic observation of U. parvum showed that these prokaryotes have a regular, spherical shape with a mean diameter of 146 nm. U. parvum was internalized into HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and survived for at least 14 days around the perinuclear region. Intracellular U. parvum reached endosomes in HeLa cells labeled with EEA1, Rab7, and LAMP-1 within 1 to 3 hr...
June 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Ravinder Sodi, Jarlath Eastwood, Muriel Caslake, Chris J Packard, Laura Denby
BACKGROUND: Small non-coding microRNAs (miR) have important regulatory roles and are used as biomarkers of disease. We investigated the relationship between lipoproteins and circulating miR-30c, evaluated how they are transported in circulation and determined whether statins altered the circulating concentration of miR-30c. METHODS: To determine the relationship between lipoproteins and circulating miR-30c, serum samples from 79 subjects recruited from a lipid clinic were evaluated...
March 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Judith Mihály, Róbert Deák, Imola Csilla Szigyártó, Attila Bóta, Tamás Beke-Somfai, Zoltán Varga
Extracellular vesicles isolated by differential centrifugation from Jurkat T-cell line were investigated by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Amide and CH stretching band intensity ratios calculated from IR bands, characteristic of protein and lipid components, proved to be distinctive for the different extracellular vesicle subpopulations. This proposed 'spectroscopic protein-to-lipid ratio', combined with the outlined spectrum-analysis protocol is valid also for low sample concentrations (0...
December 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Kenneth Flack, Luis A Jimenez, Wenwan Zhong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are stably present in circulatory systems. They are bound to various carriers like proteins, lipoprotein particles, and exosomes. Investigating the process of miRNA distribution among these carriers will help improve our understanding of their functions in the extracellular environment and their potential relationship with diseases. Here, we describe how to obtain the distribution profiles of circulating miRNAs by separation of different miRNA carriers in human serum with asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AF4), and detection of the miRNAs in the eluted fractions that enrich particular types of carriers with RT-qPCR...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Christopher Stanly, Immacolata Fiume, Giovambattista Capasso, Gabriella Pocsfalvi
Exosomes are nanovesicles of endocytic origin that are about 30-100 nm in diameter, surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane, and contain proteins, nucleic acids, and other molecules. Mammalian cells- and biological fluids-derived exosomes have become the subject for a wide range of investigations in biological and biomedical sciences. More recently, a new interest is on the verge of rising: the presence of nanovesicles in plants. Lipoprotein vesicles from apoplastic fluid and exosome-like vesicles (ELVs) from fruit juice have been isolated and shown that they could be loaded with drugs and uptaken by recipient cells...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kathrin Glaeser, Michael Boutros, Julia Christina Gross
Wnt proteins act as potent morphogens in various aspects of embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. However, in addition to its physiological importance, aberrant Wnt signaling has been linked to the onset and progression of different types of cancer. On the cellular level, the secretion of Wnt proteins involves trafficking of lipid-modified Wnts from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi and further compartments via the Wnt cargo receptor evenness interrupted. Others and we have recently shown that Wnt proteins are secreted on extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as microvesicles and exosomes...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Koji Nakamura, Kenjiro Sawada, Akihiko Yoshimura, Yasuto Kinose, Erika Nakatsuka, Tadashi Kimura
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynecologic malignancies. Since ovarian cancer develops asymptomatically, it is often diagnosed at an advanced and incurable stage. Despite many years of research, there is still a lack of reliable diagnostic markers and methods for early detection and screening. Recently, it was discovered that cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) circulate in the body fluids of healthy and diseased patients, suggesting that they may serve as a novel diagnostic marker. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential clinical relevance of circulating cell-free miRNA for ovarian cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics...
June 24, 2016: Molecular Cancer
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