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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630875/contribution-of-the-microenvironmental-niche-to-glioblastoma-heterogeneity
#1
REVIEW
Ivy A W Ho, Winston S N Shim
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive cancer of the brain. The dismal prognosis is largely attributed to the heterogeneous nature of the tumor, which in addition to intrinsic molecular and genetic changes is also influenced by the microenvironmental niche in which the glioma cells reside. The cancer stem cells (CSCs) hypothesis suggests that all cancers arise from CSCs that possess the ability to self-renew and initiate tumor formation. CSCs reside in specialized niches where interaction with the microenvironment regulates their stem cell behavior...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626600/distant-brain-recurrence-in-patients-with-five-or-more-newly-diagnosed-brain-metastases-treated-with-focal-stereotactic-radiotherapy-alone
#2
Olivia Claire Barrett, Andrew M McDonald, Jonathan W Thompson, Markus Bredel, Gerald McGwin, Kristen O Riley, John B Fiveash
BACKGROUND: To assess the clinical outcomes in patients with greater than 4 newly diagnosed brain metastases treated with focal stereotactic radiotherapy alone. METHODS: All patients with five or more brain metastases who received focal radiotherapy without whole brain radiation or resection were included in this retrospective analysis. Distant brain failure (DBF), overall survival (OS) and toxicity were reported. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients met inclusion with median clinical follow-up of 6...
2017: Journal of Radiosurgery and SBRT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621619/histopathological-prognostic-factors-of-recurrence-following-definitive-therapy-for-atypical-and-malignant-meningiomas
#3
Daniel Kim, Andrzej Niemierko, William L Hwang, Anat O Stemmer-Rachamimov, William T Curry, Fred G Barker, Robert L Martuza, Kevin S Oh, Jay S Loeffler, Helen A Shih
OBJECTIVE Patients with atypical and malignant (WHO Grade II and III) meningiomas have a worse prognosis than patients with benign (WHO Grade I) meningiomas. However, there is limited understanding of the pathological risk factors that affect long-term tumor control following combined treatment with surgery and radiation therapy. Here, the authors identify clinical and histopathological risk factors for the progression and/or recurrence (P/R) of high-grade meningiomas based on the largest series of patients with atypical and malignant meningiomas, as defined by the 2007 WHO classification...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620939/engineering-novel-targeted-boron-10-enriched-theranostic-nanomedicine-to-combat-against-murine-brain-tumors-via-mr-imaging-guided-boron-neutron-capture-therapy
#4
Naresh Kuthala, Raviraj Vankayala, Yi-Nan Li, Chi-Shiun Chiang, Kuo Chu Hwang
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a very common type of "incurable" malignant brain tumor. Although many treatment options are currently available, most of them eventually fail due to its recurrence. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) emerges as an alternative noninvasive therapeutic treatment modality. The major challenge in treating GBMs using BNCT is to achieve selective imaging, targeting, and sufficient accumulation of boron-containing drug at the tumor site so that effective destruction of tumor cells can be achieved without harming the normal brain cells...
June 16, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619837/differentiation-between-treatment-induced-necrosis-and-recurrent-tumors-in-patients-with-metastatic-brain-tumors-comparison-among-11-c-methionine-pet-fdg-pet-mr-permeability-imaging-and-mri-adc-preliminary-results
#5
N Tomura, M Kokubun, T Saginoya, Y Mizuno, Y Kikuchi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In patients with metastatic brain tumors after gamma knife radiosurgery, the superiority of PET using (11)C-methionine for differentiating radiation necrosis and recurrent tumors has been accepted. To evaluate the feasibility of MR permea- bility imaging, it was compared with PET using (11)C-methionine, FDG-PET, and DWI for differentiating radiation necrosis from recurrent tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study analyzed 18 lesions from 15 patients with metastatic brain tumors who underwent gamma knife radiosurgery...
June 15, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614736/nanoparticle-mediated-knockdown-of-dna-repair-sensitizes-cells-to-radiotherapy-and-extends-survival-in-a-genetic-mouse-model-of-glioblastoma
#6
Forrest M Kievit, Kui Wang, Tatsuya Ozawa, Aria W Tarudji, John R Silber, Eric C Holland, Richard G Ellenbogen, Miqin Zhang
Glioblastoma (GBM) remains incurable, and recurrent tumors that rarely respond to standard-of-care radiation and chemo-therapies. Therefore, strategies that enhance the effects of these therapies should provide significant benefits to GBM patients. We have developed a nanoparticle delivery vehicle that can stably bind and protect nucleic acids for specific delivery into brain tumor cells. These nanoparticles can deliver therapeutic siRNAs to sensitize GBM cells to radiotherapy and improve GBM treatment via systemic administration...
June 11, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612247/-18-f-fluorothymidine-pet-imaging-in-gliomas-an-update
#7
Alexandra Nikaki, George Angelidis, Roxani Efthimiadou, Ioannis Tsougos, Varvara Valotassiou, Konstantinos Fountas, Vasileios Prasopoulos, Panagiotis Georgoulias
Brain neoplasms constitute a group of tumors with discrete differentiation grades, and therefore, course of disease and prognosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the gold standard method for the investigation of central nervous system tumors. However, MRI suffers certain limitations, especially if radiation therapy or chemotherapy has been previously applied. On the other hand, given the development of newer radiopharmaceuticals, positron emission tomography (PET) aims to a better investigation of brain tumors, assisting in the clinical management of the patients...
June 13, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612225/prolonged-survival-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-and-a-history-of-brain-metastases-results-of-a-preplanned-subgroup-analysis-from-the-randomized-phase-iii-beacon-trial
#8
Javier Cortés, Hope S Rugo, Ahmad Awada, Chris Twelves, Edith A Perez, Seock-Ah Im, Patricia Gómez-Pardo, Lee S Schwartzberg, Veronique Diéras, Denise A Yardley, David A Potter, Audrey Mailliez, Alvaro Moreno-Aspitia, Jin-Seok Ahn, Carol Zhao, Ute Hoch, Mary Tagliaferri, Alison L Hannah, Joyce O'Shaughnessy
PURPOSE: Conventional chemotherapy has limited activity in patients with breast cancer and brain metastases (BCBM). Etirinotecan pegol (EP), a novel long-acting topoisomerase-1 inhibitor, was designed using advanced polymer technology to preferentially accumulate in tumor tissue including brain metastases, providing sustained cytotoxic SN38 levels. METHODS: The phase 3 BEACON trial enrolled 852 women with heavily pretreated locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer between 2011 and 2013...
June 13, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610554/slc7a11-over-expression-in-glioblastoma-is-associated-with-increased-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties
#9
Monika Dagmara Polewski, Rosyli Francis Reveron-Thornton, Gregory Allan Cherryholmes, Georgi K Marinov, Karen Saida Aboody
System xc- is a sodium independent electro-neutral transporter, composed of a catalytic subunit xCT (SLC7A11) which is involved in importing cystine. Certain cancers such as gliomas up-regulate the expression of system xc- which confers a survival advantage against the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing the generation of the antioxidant glutathione. However, ROS have also been shown to function as targeted, intracellular second messengers in an array of physiological processes such as proliferation...
June 13, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607828/a-rare-association-of-ganglioglioma-and-cavernous-malformation-report-of-two-cases-and-literature-review
#10
Biagio R Carangelo, Giovanni Muscas, Clelia Miracco, Vitaliano F Muzii
BACKGROUND: Some glial tumors have been observed in association with different types of vascular malformations of the brain (angiogliomas). However, the association of ganglioglioma with other vascular malformations is extremely rare, with only few cases reported in the literature, one of which is referred to as "angioganglioglioma." CASE DESCRIPTION: Two patients presented with acute onset of neurological symptoms, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding of cavernoma of the left middle cerebellar penduncle, and small mass of the chiasmatic region, respectively...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607048/intraoperative-assessment-of-tumor-margins-during-glioma-resection-by-desorption-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#11
Valentina Pirro, Clint M Alfaro, Alan K Jarmusch, Eyas M Hattab, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol, R Graham Cooks
Intraoperative desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is used to characterize tissue smears by comparison with a library of DESI mass spectra of pathologically determined tissue types. Measurements are performed in the operating room within 3 min. These mass spectra provide direct information on tumor infiltration into white or gray brain matter based on N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and on membrane-derived complex lipids. The mass spectra also indicate the isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation status of the tumor via detection of 2-hydroxyglutarate, currently assessed postoperatively on biopsied tissue using immunohistochemistry...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605510/phase-i-study-of-oral-sonidegib-lde225-in-pediatric-brain-and-solid-tumors-and-a-phase-ii-study-in-children-and-adults-with-relapsed-medulloblastoma
#12
Mark W Kieran, Julia Chisholm, Michela Casanova, Alba A Brandes, Isabelle Aerts, Eric Bouffet, Simon Bailey, Sarah Leary, Tobey J MacDonald, Francoise Mechinaud, Kenneth J Cohen, Riccardo Riccardi, Warren Mason, Darren Hargrave, Stacey Kalambakas, Priya Deshpande, Feng Tai, Eunju Hurh, Birgit Geoerger
Background.: Sonidegib (LDE225) is a potent, selective Hedgehog (Hh) inhibitor of SMOOTHENED. This study explored the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of sonidegib in children with relapsed/recurrent tumors followed by a phase II trial in pediatric and adult patients with relapsed medulloblastoma (MB) to assess tumor response. Methods.: Pediatric patients aged ≥1-<18 years were included according to a Bayesian design starting at 372mg/m2 of continuous once daily oral sonidegib...
June 9, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605463/stereotactic-radiosurgery-and-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-for-glioblastoma
#13
Jennifer L Shah, Gordon Li, Jenny L Shaffer, Melissa I Azoulay, Iris C Gibbs, Seema Nagpal, Scott G Soltys
Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Standard therapy depends on patient age and performance status but principally involves surgical resection followed by a 6-wk course of radiation therapy given concurrently with temozolomide chemotherapy. Despite such treatment, prognosis remains poor, with a median survival of 16 mo. Challenges in achieving local control, maintaining quality of life, and limiting toxicity plague treatment strategies for this disease. Radiotherapy dose intensification through hypofractionation and stereotactic radiosurgery is a promising strategy that has been explored to meet these challenges...
June 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604807/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-trkb-signaling-modulates-cancer-endothelial-cells-interaction-and-affects-the-outcomes-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#14
Yi-Fang Tsai, Ling-Ming Tseng, Chih-Yi Hsu, Muh-Hwa Yang, Jen-Hwey Chiu, Yi-Ming Shyr
AIMS: There is good evidence that the tumor microenvironment plays an important role in cancer metastasis and progression. Our previous studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) participates in the process of metastasis and in the migration of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BDNF on the tumor cell microenvironment, namely, the cancer cell-endothelial cell interaction of TNBC cells. METHODS: We conducted oligoneucleotide microarray analysis of potential biomarkers that are able to differentiate recurrent TNBC from non-recurrent TNBC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604803/impact-of-tumor-position-conductivity-distribution-and-tissue-homogeneity-on-the-distribution-of-tumor-treating-fields-in-a-human-brain-a-computer-modeling-study
#15
Anders Rosendal Korshoej, Frederik Lundgaard Hansen, Axel Thielscher, Gorm Burckhardt von Oettingen, Jens Christian Hedemann Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Tumor treating fields (TTFields) are increasingly used in the treatment of glioblastoma. TTFields inhibit cancer growth through induction of alternating electrical fields. To optimize TTFields efficacy, it is necessary to understand the factors determining the strength and distribution of TTFields. In this study, we provide simple guiding principles for clinicians to assess the distribution and the local efficacy of TTFields in various clinical scenarios. METHODS: We calculated the TTFields distribution using finite element methods applied to a realistic head model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601978/recurrent-or-symptomatic-residual-posterior-fossa-hemangioblastomas-how-are-they-different-from-their-primary-counterparts
#16
Shruti Gupta, Lily Pal, Jayesh C Sardhara, Awadhesh K Jaiswal, Arun Srivastava, Anant Mehrotra, Kuntal Kanti Das, Sanjay Behari
BACKGROUND: Posterior fossa hemangioblastomas are WHO grade I benign lesions with a surprisingly high recurrence rate. This study determines the factors responsible for recurrence and the clinico-radiological and histopathological differences between primary (group A; n = 60) and recurrent/symptomatic residual (group B; n = 24) tumors. METHODS: Radiologically, tumors were differentiated into cystic, cystic with a mural nodule, solid-cystic/microcystic and solid...
June 11, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599984/prevention-and-management-of-postoperative-seizures-in-neuro-oncology
#17
F Chassoux, E Landre
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy related to brain tumors is often difficult to treat and may impact the quality of life. We performed a review of current recommendations for the prevention of postoperative seizures and optimizing the anti-epileptic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Based on studies performed since 2000 we conducted the review by (1) analyzing the incidence of tumoral epilepsy and mechanisms of epileptogenicity; (2) describing the current medical and surgical strategy according to oncologic treatments; (3) discussing the management of postoperative seizures; (4) considering the drug withdrawal after oncologic therapy...
June 6, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597184/epithelial-membrane-protein-2-emp2-promotes-angiogenesis-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#18
Yu Qin, Masamichi Takahashi, Kristopher Sheets, Horacio Soto, Jessica Tsui, Panayiotis Pelargos, Joseph P Antonios, Noriyuki Kasahara, Isaac Yang, Robert M Prins, Jonathan Braun, Lynn K Gordon, Madhuri Wadehra
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant brain tumor and is associated with an extremely poor clinical prognosis. One pathologic hallmark of GBM is excessive vascularization with abnormal blood vessels. Extensive investigation of anti-angiogenic therapy as a treatment for recurrent GBM has been performed. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), suggests a progression-free survival benefit but no overall survival benefit. Developing novel anti-angiogenic therapies are urgently needed in controlling GBM growth...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593138/licochalcone-a-specifically-induces-cell-death-in-glioma-stem-cells-via-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#19
Kenta Kuramoto, Shuhei Suzuki, Hirotsugu Sakaki, Hiroyuki Takeda, Tomomi Sanomachi, Shizuka Seino, Yoshitaka Narita, Takamasa Kayama, Chifumi Kitanaka, Masashi Okada
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant primary intrinsic brain tumor. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are associated with chemoradiotherapy resistance and the recurrence of glioblastomas after conventional therapy. The targeting of GSCs is potentially an effective treatment for the long-term survival of glioblastoma patients. Licochalcone A, a natural chalconoid from licorice root, exerts anticancer effects; however, its effect on GSCs remains unknown. We found that Licochalcone A induced massive caspase-dependent death in GSCs but not in differentiated GSCs nor normal somatic and neural stem cells...
June 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592117/mechanisms-regulating-radiosensitivity-of-glioma-stem-cells
#20
Y Liu, Y Shen, T Sun, W Yang
Malignant glioblastoma (GBM) has become a very common and difficult brain tumor given its low cure rate and high recurrence rate. GBMs are resistant to treatments because glioma stem cells (GSCs)/glioma-initiating cells (GICs), a specific subpopulation of GBM, possess properties of tumor stem cells, such as unlimited proficiency, self-renewal, differentiation and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and exhibit a very strong DNA repair capability. Radiotherapy has become a preponderant treatment, and researchers have found many significant tumor microenvironmental factors and valuable signaling pathways regulating the GSC radioresistance, including NOTCH, Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog, STAT3, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR...
June 8, 2017: Neoplasma
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