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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108463/targeting-glioblastoma-with-car-t-cells
#1
(no author information available yet)
CAR T cells targeting IL13Rα2 proved effective against recurrent multifocal leptomeningeal glioblastoma, according to a case report. Direct delivery of the therapy into the cerebrospinal fluid was well tolerated, completely eliminating the patient's brain and spinal tumors for 7.5 months, during which the patient resumed his normal activities.
January 20, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105468/simulating-the-effect-of-spectroscopic-mri-as-a-metric-for-radiation-therapy-planning-in-patients-with-glioblastoma
#2
J Scott Cordova, Shravan Kandula, Saumya Gurbani, Jim Zhong, Mital Tejani, Oluwatosin Kayode, Kirtesh Patel, Roshan Prabhu, Eduard Schreibmann, Ian Crocker, Chad A Holder, Hyunsuk Shim, Hui-Kuo Shu
Due to glioblastoma's infiltrative nature, an optimal radiation therapy (RT) plan requires targeting infiltration not identified by anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, high-resolution, whole-brain spectroscopic MRI (sMRI) is used to describe tumor infiltration alongside anatomical MRI and simulate the degree to which it modifies RT target planning. In 11 patients with glioblastoma, data from preRT sMRI scans were processed to give high-resolution, whole-brain metabolite maps normalized by contralateral white matter...
December 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102943/comparison-of-five-cluster-validity-indices-performance-in-brain-18-f-fet-pet-image-segmentation-using-k-means
#3
Bedor Abualhaj, Guoyang Weng, Melissa Ong, Ali Asgar Attarwala, Flavia Molina, Karen Büsing, Gerhard Glatting
PURPOSE: Dynamic [(18) F]fluoro-ethyl-L-tyrosine positron emission tomography ([(18) F]FET-PET) is used to identify tumor lesions for radiotherapy treatment planning, to differentiate glioma recurrence from radiation necrosis and to classify gliomas grading. To segment different regions in the brain k-means cluster analysis can be used. The main disadvantage of k-means is that the number of clusters must be pre-defined. In this study, we therefore compared different cluster validity indices for automated and reproducible determination of the optimal number of clusters based on the dynamic PET data...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100038/trim8-regulates-stemness-in-glioblastoma-through-pias3-stat3
#4
Changming Zhang, Subhas Mukherjee, Carol Tucker-Burden, James L Ross, Monica J Chau, Jun Kong, Daniel J Brat
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant form of primary brain tumor and GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) contribute to the rapid growth, therapeutic resistance and clinical recurrence of these fatal tumors. STAT3 signaling supports the maintenance and proliferation of GSCs, yet regulatory mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we report that tri-partite motif containing protein 8 (TRIM8) activates STAT3 signaling to maintain stemness and self-renewing capabilities of GSCs. TRIM8 (also known as "glioblastoma expressed ring finger protein") is expressed equally in GBM and normal brain tissues, despite its hemizygous deletion in the large majority of GBMs, and its expression is highly correlated with stem cell markers...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099914/advances-in-epigenetic-glioblastoma-therapy
#5
Dong Hoon Lee, Hyun-Wook Ryu, Hye-Rim Won, So Hee Kwon
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal primary brain tumor in adults despite contemporary gold-standard first-line treatment strategies. This type of tumor recurs in virtually all patients and no commonly accepted standard treatment exists for the recurrent disease. Therefore, advances in all scientific and clinical aspects of GBM are urgently needed. Epigenetic mechanisms are one of the major factors contributing to the pathogenesis of cancers, including glioblastoma. Epigenetic modulators that regulate gene expression by altering the epigenome and non-histone proteins are being exploited as therapeutic drug targets...
January 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098415/intracranial-aav-ifn-%C3%AE-gene-therapy-eliminates-invasive-xenograft-glioblastoma-and-improves-survival-in-orthotopic-syngeneic-murine-model
#6
Dwijit GuhaSarkar, James Neiswender, Qin Su, Guangping Gao, Miguel Sena-Esteves
The highly invasive property of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and genetic heterogeneity are largely responsible for tumor recurrence after the current standard-of-care treatment and thus a direct cause of death. Previously, we have shown that intracranial interferon-beta (IFN-β) gene therapy by locally administered adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) successfully treats noninvasive orthotopic glioblastoma models. Here, we extend these findings by testing this approach in invasive human GBM xenograft and syngeneic mouse models...
November 9, 2016: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097788/outcome-of-patients-with-intracranial-relapse-enrolled-on-national-wilms-tumor-study-group-clinical-trials
#7
Rajkumar Venkatramani, Yueh-Yun Chi, Max J Coppes, Marcio Malogolowkin, John A Kalapurakal, Jing Tian, Jeffrey S Dome
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of brain metastases (at diagnosis or at relapse) in patients with Wilms tumor is very rare. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics of patients with Wilms tumor and relapse to the brain enrolled on the National Wilms Tumor Studies (NWTSs) 1-5. RESULTS: Intracranial relapse was documented in 47 patients (0.5%). Of the 45 patients with adequate data, 26 (58%) patients were male. Thirty-eight (84%) patients had favorable histology Wilms tumor...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093345/stereotactic-radiosurgery-srs-for-melanoma-brain-metastases-a-comprehensive-clinical-case-series
#8
Rui Feng, Eric K Oermann, Raj Shrivastava, Ariel Gold, Brian T Collins, Douglas Kondziolka, Sean P Collins
BACKGROUND: Melanoma has high propensity to metastasize to the brain. With recent gains in improving patient survival, stereotactic radiosurgery may offer an effective and less neurotoxic alternative to whole brain radiation. In the study, we report on the safety and efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in treating melanoma brain metastases in 87 patients. METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter study examined 87 patients with 309 metastases underwent single-dose or multifractionated SRS for treatment of intracranial metastases from malignant melanoma...
January 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093344/unusual-intracerebral-presentation-of-a-myxoid-neurofibroma-a-case-report
#9
Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa, Karina Hoshino, João Norberto Stavale, Oreste Paulo Lanzoni, Sergio Cavalheiro, Manoel Antonio Paiva Neto
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromas are benign nerve sheath tumors that usually affect peripheral nerves and are related to Neurofibromatosis type 1; however, they have not been described as a cause of intraparenchymal brain tumor. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of intracranial myxoid neurofibroma in a 19-year-old female patient manifested as an intense and progressive cephalea, followed by nausea, vomiting, and photo- and phonophobia. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed an extent expansive left frontoparietal parafalcine/parasagittal tumor...
January 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081463/analysis-of-the-results-of-recurrent-intracranial-meningiomas-treated-with-re-radiosurgery
#10
Moinay Kim, Do Hee Lee, Hyun Jung Kim Rn, Young Hyun Cho, Jeong Hoon Kim, Do Hoon Kwon
OBJECTS: Meningioma is the most common intracranial neoplasm, comprising approximately 30% of all primary intracranial tumors (Claus et al., 2005) [1]. Treatment options include observation, microsurgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is a very effective treatment for intracranial meningiomas; previous studies showed the tumor control rate at 5-10 years of follow-up as 84.3%-100% in all cases (Feigl et al...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081224/resveratrol-impairs-glioma-stem-cells-proliferation-and-motility-by-modulating-the-wnt-signaling-pathway
#11
Chiara Cilibrasi, Gabriele Riva, Gabriele Romano, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Riccardo Bazzoni, Valentina Butta, Laura Paoletta, Leda Dalprà, Mario Strazzabosco, Marialuisa Lavitrano, Roberto Giovannoni, Angela Bentivegna
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a grade IV astrocytoma and the most common form of malignant brain tumor in adults. GBM remains one of the most fatal and least successfully treated solid tumors: current therapies provide a median survival of 12-15 months after diagnosis, due to the high recurrence rate. Glioma Stem Cells (GSCs) are believed to be the real driving force of tumor initiation, progression and relapse. Therefore, better therapeutic strategies GSCs-targeted are needed. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in fruits and vegetables displaying pleiotropic health benefits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074323/changes-in-cerebral-metabolism-during-ketogenic-diet-in-patients-with-primary-brain-tumors-1-h-mrs-study
#12
Moran Artzi, Gilad Liberman, Nachum Vaisman, Felix Bokstein, Faina Vitinshtein, Orna Aizenstein, Dafna Ben Bashat
Normal brain cells depend on glucose metabolism, yet they have the flexibility to switch to the usage of ketone bodies during caloric restriction. In contrast, tumor cells lack genomic and metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose. Ketogenic-diet (KD) was suggested as a therapeutic option for malignant brain cancer. This study aimed to detect metabolic brain changes in patients with malignant brain gliomas on KD using proton magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Fifty MR scans were performed longitudinally in nine patients: four patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GB) treated with KD in addition to bevacizumab; one patient with gliomatosis-cerebri treated with KD only; and four patients with recurrent GB who did not receive KD...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069802/genomic-profiling-of-a-large-set-of-diverse-pediatric-cancers-identifies-known-and-novel-mutations-across-tumor-spectra
#13
Juliann Chmielecki, Mark Bailey, Jie He, Julia Elvin, Jo-Anne Vergilio, Shakti Ramkissoon, James Suh, Garrett M Frampton, James X Sun, Samantha Morley, Daniel Spritz, Siraj Ali, Laurie Gay, Rachel L Erlich, Jeffrey S Ross, Joana Buxhaku, Hilary Davies, Vinny Faso, Alexis Germain, Blair Glanville, Vincent A Miller, Philip J Stephens, Katherine A Janeway, John M Maris, Soheil Meshinchi, Trevor J Pugh, Jack F Shern, Doron Lipson
Pediatric cancers are generally characterized by low mutational burden and few recurrently mutated genes. Recent studies suggest that genomic alterations may help guide treatment decisions and clinical trial selection. Here, we describe genomic profiles from 1,215 pediatric tumors representing sarcomas, extracranial embryonal tumors, brain tumors, hematologic malignancies, carcinomas, and gonadal tumors. Comparable published datasets identified similar frequencies of clinically relevant alterations, validating this dataset as biologically relevant...
January 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068482/metabolic-reprogramming-in-brain-tumors
#14
Sriram Venneti, Craig B Thompson
Next-generation sequencing has substantially enhanced our understanding of the genetics of primary brain tumors by uncovering several novel driver genetic alterations. How many of these genetic modifications contribute to the pathogenesis of brain tumors is not well understood. An exciting paradigm emerging in cancer biology is that oncogenes actively reprogram cellular metabolism to enable tumors to survive and proliferate. We discuss how some of these genetic alterations in brain tumors rewire metabolism...
December 21, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061500/collision-tumor-composed-of-meningioma-and-cavernoma
#15
Jens Weigel, Markus Neher, Michael Schrey, Peter H Wünsch, Hans-Herbert Steiner
A true collision tumor is a rare entity composed of two histologically distinct neoplasms coinciding in the same organ. This paper reports a unique case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. On the first hand, meningioma which is usually a benign lesion arising from the meningothelial cell in the arachnoidal membrane. On the other, cerebral cavernoma which is a well-circumscribed, benign vascular hamartoma within the brain. To our knowledge, there is no previously documented case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061403/berberine-ameliorates-intrahippocampal-kainate-induced-status-epilepticus-and-consequent-epileptogenic-process-in-the-rat-underlying-mechanisms
#16
Reza Sedaghat, Yosra Taab, Zahra Kiasalari, Siamak Afshin-Majd, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Mehrdad Roghani
Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening neurologic condition, instigating epileptogenesis to transform normal brain to an epileptic condition. SE is followed by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and final development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) that is resistant to treatment. Neuroprotective strategies are increasingly put forward as a promising therapy to prevent and/or manage epileptic conditions. In this study, we investigated whether berberis alkaloid, i.e. berberine (BBR), could ameliorate intrahippocampal kainate-induced SE and its consequent epileptogenic process and to explore some underlying mechanisms...
January 3, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057017/the-brain-penetrating-cxcr4-antagonist-prx177561-increases-the-antitumor-effects-of-bevacizumab-and-sunitinib-in-preclinical-models-of-human-glioblastoma
#17
Giovanni Luca Gravina, Andrea Mancini, Francesco Marampon, Alessandro Colapietro, Simona Delle Monache, Roberta Sferra, Flora Vitale, Peter J Richardson, Lee Patient, Stephen Burbidge, Claudio Festuccia
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma recurrence after treatment with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab is characterized by a highly infiltrative and malignant behavior that renders surgical excision and chemotherapy ineffective. It has been demonstrated that anti-VEGF/VEGFR therapies control the invasive phenotype and that relapse occurs through the increased activity of CXCR4. We therefore hypothesized that combining bevacizumab or sunitinib with the novel CXCR4 antagonist, PRX177561, would have superior antitumor activity...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052766/biopsy-of-breast-cancer-metastases-patient-characteristics-and-survival
#18
Shlomit Strulov Shachar, Tanya Mashiach, Georgeta Fried, Karen Drumea, Noa Shafran, Hyman B Muss, Gil Bar-Sela
BACKGROUND: Discordance in hormone receptors (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status between primary tumors and metastatic sites for breast cancer is well established. However, it is uncertain which patient-related factors lead to biopsy when metastases are suspected and whether having a biopsy impacts survival. METHODS: The medical charts of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients diagnosed January 2000-August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
January 4, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052119/pre-clinical-study-of-panobinostat-in-xenograft-and-genetically-engineered-murine-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-models
#19
Tammy Hennika, Guo Hu, Nagore G Olaciregui, Kelly L Barton, Anahid Ehteda, Arjanna Chitranjan, Cecilia Chang, Andrew J Gifford, Maria Tsoli, David S Ziegler, Angel M Carcaboso, Oren J Becher
BACKGROUND: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), or high-grade brainstem glioma (BSG), is one of the major causes of brain tumor-related deaths in children. Its prognosis has remained poor despite numerous efforts to improve survival. Panobinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, is a targeted agent that has recently shown pre-clinical efficacy and entered a phase I clinical trial for the treatment of children with recurrent or progressive DIPG. METHODS: A collaborative pre-clinical study was conducted using both a genetic BSG mouse model driven by PDGF-B signaling, p53 loss, and ectopic H3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048647/tu-d-207b-07-radiomic-response-assessment-for-recurrent-glioblastoma-treated-with-bevacizumab-in-the-brain-trial
#20
P Grossmann, V Narayan, R Huang, H Aerts
PURPOSE: To develop radiomic biomarkers for non-invasive response assessment of Bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech) treatment in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). METHODS: We analyzed prospectively acquired data from the BRAIN trial. For 167 patients, we extracted 71 radiomic features each from normalized post-contrast T1-weighted and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences at baseline (pretreatment), and at follow-ups of six and twelve weeks (post-treatment), respectively, where available...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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