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Elisa C P Catão, Cécile Thion, R H Krüger, James I Prosser
Low nitrification rates in Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) soils have puzzled researchers for decades. Potential mechanisms include biological inhibitors, low pH, low microbial abundance and low soil moisture content, which hinders microbial activity, including ammonia oxidation. Two approaches were used to evaluate these potential mechanisms, (i) manipulation of soil moisture and pH in microcosms containing Cerrado soil and (ii) assessment of nitrification inhibition in slurries containing mixtures of Cerrado soil and an actively nitrifying agricultural soil...
September 21, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Lanjun Wang, Jinhua Wang, Lusheng Zhu, Jun Wang
The production of commercial livestock and poultry often involves using with antibiotics and feed additives, such as oxytetracycline (OTC) and copper (Cu). These are often excreted into the soil by animal feces; hence, combined pollutants may contaminate the soil. To evaluate single and combined toxic effects of OTC and Cu on the soil ecology, changes in quantities of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes in the soil were studied over a 28-d incubation period by a plate count method, microbes numbers counted on days 7, 14, 21, and 28...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Abha Mundepi, Jeanette Norton, Miguel Cabrera, Dorcas Franklin, Mussie Y Habteselassie
Poultry litter (PL) is widely applied on grazing lands in Georgia. However, it is not clear how its long-term use affects soil microorganisms and their function. We examined changes in activity and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in a grazing land with a history of PL application and compared it to treatment with urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). Soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected in 2009 (after 15 yr of PL application) and in 2013 (after 2 yr of no application). The abundance and community composition of ammonia oxidizers (AO) were determined with molecular techniques that targeted Nitrification potential (NP) was used for measuring their activity...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Jacqueline L Gauer, J Brooks Jackson
INTRODUCTION: Medical schools worldwide are faced with the challenge of selecting from among many qualified applicants. One factor that might help admissions committees identify future exceptional medical students is scores on standardized entrance exams. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between scores on the most commonly used standardized medical school entrance exam in the USA, the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), and election to the US medical honors society, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA)...
2017: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Ante Lončarić, Mirela Kopjar, Vlasta Piližota
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of addition of 5% of apple peel powder (APP) and sugars (1, 5% of glucose, fructose, sucrose or trehalose) in apple purée on its phenolic composition and antioxidant activity (AOA). Apple purée samples were processed by freezing and freeze-drying. Apple purées containing APP showed higher phenolics, and AOA than the purées without APP. In freeze-dried samples the highest retention of individual polyphenols was achieved with addition of 1% of fructose or trehalose...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Brian P Peppers, Priya Varma, Yoon Mi Kim, Robert W Hostoffer, Michael P Rowane
The importance of increasing scholarly activity has been highlighted among residency programs currently accredited by the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) to ensure a smooth transition to the single accreditation system. The Scholar 7 program, a series of seven 2-hour sessions, was created to aid faculty and residents in the pursuit of scholarly work and to facilitate change in an entire community hospital system's environment by creating a self-replicating scholarly culture in a timely and cost-efficient manner...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Li Sun, Yajie Yin, Leslie H Clark, Wenchuan Sun, Stephanie A Sullivan, Arthur-Quan Tran, Jianjun Han, Lu Zhang, Hui Guo, Esther Madugu, Tommy Pan, Amanda L Jackson, Joshua Kilgore, Hannah M Jones, Timothy P Gilliam, Chunxiao Zhou, Victoria L Bae-Jump
Cancer cell metabolism is required to support the biosynthetic demands of cell growth and cell division, and to maintain reduction oxidaton (redox) homeostasis. This study was designed to test the effects of glucose and glutamine on ovarian cancer cell growth and explore the inter-relationship between glycolysis and glutaminolysis. The SKOV3, IGROV-1 and Hey ovarian cancer cell lines were assayed for glucose, pyruvate and glutamine dependence by analyzing cytotoxicity, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and ATP production...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
M Sneha Nair, Alok Saxena, Charanjit Kaur
The influence of chitosan (1% w/v) and alginate (2% w/v) coatings in combination with pomegranate peel extract (PPE; 1% w/v) on quality of guavas (cv Allahabad safeda) were studied. Restricted changes were recorded in respiration rate, ripening index, and instrumental colour values in case of the coated samples as compared to the control for 20days at 10°C. Samples coated with chitosan enriched with PPE (CHE) proved to be the most effective treatment in maintaining the overall fruit quality. Ascorbic acid, total phenolics, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity were recorded with restricted losses of 29%, 8%, 12%, 12% (DPPH) and 9% (FRAP), respectively for CHE samples at the end of storage...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
James E Carpenter, James P Bagian, Rebecca G Snider, Kyle J Jeray
Effective teamwork and communication can decrease medical errors in environments where the culture of safety is enhanced. Health care can benefit from programs that are based on teamwork, as in other high-stress industries (e.g., aviation), with crew resource management programs, simulator use, and utilization of checklists. Medical team training (MTT) with a strong leadership commitment was used at our institution to focus specifically on creating open, yet structured, communication in operating rooms. Training included the 3 phases of the World Health Organization protocol to organize communication and briefings: preoperative verification, preincision briefing, and debriefing at or near the end of the surgical case...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
David Rodríguez-Navarro, José Luis Lázaro-Galilea, Álvaro De-La-Llana-Calvo, Ignacio Bravo-Muñoz, Alfredo Gardel-Vicente, Georgios Tsirigotis, Juan Iglesias-Miguel
Here, we present an indoor positioning system (IPS) for detecting mobile agents based on a single Position Sensitive Device sensor (PSD) sited in the environment and InfraRed Emitter Diode (IRED) located on mobile agents. The main goal of the work is to develop an alternative IPS to other sensing technologies, cheaper, easier to install and with a low computational load to obtain a high rate of measurements per second. The proposed IPS has the capacity to accurately determine 3D position from the angle of arrival (AoA) of the signal received at the PSD sensor...
September 15, 2017: Sensors
Cristina Romani, Claudia Galuzzi, Cecilia Guariglia, Jeremy Goslin
Phonological complexity may be central to the nature of human language. It may shape the distribution of phonemes and phoneme sequences within languages, but also determine age of acquisition and susceptibility to loss in aphasia. We evaluated this claim using frequency statistics derived from a corpus of phonologically transcribed Italian words (phonitalia, available at phonitalia,org), rankings of phoneme age of acquisition (AoA) and rate of phoneme errors in patients with apraxia of speech (AoS) as an indication of articulatory complexity...
September 15, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Xiaoliang Jiang, Yujing Wu, Guihua Liu, Wenzhi Liu, Bei Lu
Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) play important roles in regulating the nitrification process in lake ecosystems. However, the relative effects of climate, catchment land use and local conditions on the sediment ammonia-oxidizing communities in lakes remain unclear. In this study, the diversity and abundance of AOA and AOB communities were investigated in ten Yangtze lakes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), clone library and quantitative PCR techniques. The results showed that the abundances of both AOA and AOB in bare sediments were considerably but not significantly higher than those in vegetated sediments...
September 13, 2017: AMB Express
Linda Hink, Pawel Lycus, Cécile Gubry-Rangin, Åsa Frostegård, Graeme W Nicol, James I Prosser, Lars R Bakken
Ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) are thought to emit more nitrous oxide (N2 O) than ammonia oxidising archaea (AOA), due to their higher N2 O yield under oxic conditions and denitrification in response to oxygen (O2 ) limitation. We determined the kinetics of growth and turnover of nitric oxide (NO) and N2 O at low cell densities of Nitrosomonas europaea (AOB) and Nitrosopumilus maritimus (AOA) during gradual depletion of TAN (NH3  + NH4(+) ) and O2 . Half-saturation constants for O2 and TAN were similar to those determined by others, except for the half-saturation constant for ammonium in N...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Maria Albuja-Cruz, Claire Travis, Michael Benge, Barbara Caufield, Mark Nehler
PURPOSE: The majority of surgery programs roster non-designated preliminary (NDP) residents. We and others have reported on the success of NDP resident mentoring with regard to categorical position placement. Lacking is a focus on the candidates themselves and differences based on initial career of choice. METHODS: NDP residents' files since the institution of SOAP were reviewed for demographics, initial career choice, financial burden, region of medical school of origin, application and interview history, and pre-screen interview candidate score (high score of 22 - data includes USMLE scores, major clerkship grades, and AOA) used for categorical recruitment...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
Yu Fujii, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takashi Maruyama, Masayuki Nitta, Taiichi Saito, Soko Ikuta, Hiroshi Iseki, Kazuhiro Hongo, Takakazu Kawamata
OBJECTIVE WHO Grade III gliomas are relatively rare and treated with multiple modalities such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The impact of the extent of resection (EOR) on improving survival in patients with this tumor type is unclear. Moreover, because of the heterogeneous radiological appearance of Grade III gliomas, the MRI sequence that best correlates with tumor volume is unknown. In the present retrospective study, the authors evaluated the prognostic significance of EOR. METHODS Clinical and radiological data from 122 patients with newly diagnosed WHO Grade III gliomas who had undergone intraoperative MRI-guided resection at a single institution between March 2000 and December 2011 were analyzed retrospectively...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
Montri D Wongworawat, Gary Capistrant, John M Stephenson
Telehealth is a way to provide health-care services to a patient from a provider who is at another location. The most common methods include a live interactive visit with the patient, interpretation of imaging, and monitoring of patient progress. Principally, telehealth is a way of providing a service rather than a type of service. It is about patient care, not data care.Examples of orthopaedic applications include conducting patient examinations, interpreting imaging studies, and providing postoperative care...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Jinjin Liu, Yue Yuan, Baikun Li, Qiong Zhang, Lei Wu, Xiyao Li, Yongzhen Peng
An anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic sequencing batch reactor (AOA-SBR) using sludge fermentation products as carbon source was developed to enhance nitrogen and phosphorus removal in municipal wastewater with low C/N ratio (<4) and reduce sludge production. The AOA-SBR achieved simultaneous partial nitrification and denitrification (SND), aerobic phosphorus uptake and anoxic denitrification through the real-time control and the addition of sludge fermentation products. The average removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus (PO4(3-)-P) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) after 145-day operation were 88...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
Sughashini Murugesu, Srdjan Saso, Benjamin P Jones, Timothy Bracewell-Milnes, Thanos Athanasiou, Anastasia Mania, Paul Serhal, Jara Ben-Nagi
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect, if any, of calcium ionophore as a method of artificial oocyte activation (AOA) on pregnancy outcomes and fertilization rates. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, prospective observational and retrospective trials, case reports, and a case-control trial. SETTING: University-affiliated teaching hospital. PATIENT(S): Infertile couples undergoing fertilization treatment...
September 2017: Fertility and Sterility
K Dimitri Kits, Christopher J Sedlacek, Elena V Lebedeva, Ping Han, Alexandr Bulaev, Petra Pjevac, Anne Daebeler, Stefano Romano, Mads Albertsen, Lisa Y Stein, Holger Daims, Michael Wagner
Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) via nitrite (NO2(-)) to nitrate (NO3(-)), is a key process of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. For decades, ammonia and nitrite oxidation were thought to be separately catalysed by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA), and by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). The recent discovery of complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox) in the NOB genus Nitrospira, which alone convert ammonia to nitrate, raised questions about the ecological niches in which comammox Nitrospira successfully compete with canonical nitrifiers...
September 14, 2017: Nature
Dhritikshama Roy, John McEvoy, Mark Blonigen, Maria Amundson, Eakalak Khan
The abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in full-scale two-stage trickling filters (TF) and moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) treating municipal wastewater. Biofilm samples were collected for 17months from nitrifying TF (NTF), biochemical oxygen demand TF (BTF), and MBBR media. The abundance of AOA and AOB was determined using a quantitative PCR approach targeting the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A gene of archaea and bacteria. AOA were dominant in the NTF and MBBR, while AOB dominated in the BTF...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
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