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Ricardo J Eloy Alves, Bui Quang Minh, Tim Urich, Arndt von Haeseler, Christa Schleper
Ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) are ubiquitous and abundant in nature and play a major role in nitrogen cycling. AOA have been studied intensively based on the amoA gene (encoding ammonia monooxygenase subunit A), making it the most sequenced functional marker gene. Here, based on extensive phylogenetic and meta-data analyses of 33,378 curated archaeal amoA sequences, we define a highly resolved taxonomy and uncover global environmental patterns that challenge many earlier generalisations. Particularly, we show: (i) the global frequency of AOA is extremely uneven, with few clades dominating AOA diversity in most ecosystems; (ii) characterised AOA do not represent most predominant clades in nature, including soils and oceans; (iii) the functional role of the most prevalent environmental AOA clade remains unclear; and (iv) AOA harbour molecular signatures that possibly reflect phenotypic traits...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Jinjin Tao, Tongshuo Bai, Rui Xiao, Peng Wang, Fuwei Wang, Alexander M Duryee, Yi Wang, Yi Zhang, Shuijin Hu
Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) oxidize ammonia into nitrite, the first and rate-limiting step of microbial nitrification, and exert major controls over soil nitrogen transformations. The Loess Plateau in northwest China is characterized with deep soils that are often exposed to the surface and reactive nitrogen (N) inputs due to erosion and human removal of the surface soil. However, few have examined the distribution of AOA and AOB along the profile of Loess Plateau soils and their responses to N inputs...
April 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chih-Sheng Yang, Eleni Stampouloglou, Nathan M Kingston, Liye Zhang, Stefano Monti, Xaralabos Varelas
The transcriptional regulators TAZ and YAP (TAZ/YAP) have emerged as pro-tumorigenic factors that drive many oncogenic traits, including induction of cell growth, resistance to cell death, and activation of processes that promote migration and invasion. Here, we report that TAZ/YAP reprogram cellular energetics to promote the dependence of breast cancer cell growth on exogenous glutamine. Rescue experiments with glutamine-derived metabolites suggest an essential role for glutamate and α-ketoglutarate (AKG) in TAZ/YAP-driven cell growth in the absence of glutamine...
April 16, 2018: EMBO Reports
G E Rudenskaya, E I Surkova, F A Konovalov
Ataxias with oculomotor apraxia (AOA) belong to autosomal recessive ataxias. Their common feature is oculomotor apraxia: inability to coordinate eye movements not due to muscle weakness. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) gives unique opportunities of rare disorders diagnostics and discovering of new forms, including AOA. In 2015, AOA type 4 produced by PNKP mutations was delineated in a group of Portuguese patients. We diagnosed AOA4 in a 9-year-old boy from Byelorussian family. He presented with ataxia since 2 years and deterioration in 8 years, oculomotor apraxia, dystonic hyperkinesia, dysarthria, polyneuropathy, borderline/mildly impaired intelligence, cerebellar atrophy on MRI and moderate hypercholesterolemia...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Fei Ye, Mao-Hua Ma, Huub J M Op den Camp, Antonis Chatzinotas, Lei Li, Ming-Quan Lv, Sheng-Jun Wu, Yu Wang
Understanding how microorganisms respond to environmental disturbance is one of the key focuses in microbial ecology. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) are responsible for ammonia oxidation which is a crucial step in the nitrogen cycle. Although the physiology, distribution, and activity of AOA and AOB in soil have been extensively investigated, their recovery from a natural disturbance remains largely unknown. To assess the recovery capacities, including resistance and resilience, of AOA and AOB, soil samples were taken from a reservoir riparian zone which experienced periodically water flooding...
April 11, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Ziyan Wei, Jinhua Wang, Lusheng Zhu, Jun Wang, Guodong Zhu
Enrofloxacin (EFX) is one of the most frequently used broad-spectrum veterinary drugs, and copper (Cu) is a heavy metal that could easily bind to certain antibiotic molecules. Hence EFX and Cu were chosen as representatives of antibiotics and heavy metals to explore the abundance and variation of soil microbial populations with a plate-counting technique, as well as the copy numbers of amoA gene in ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) by quantitative PCR methods in Argosols samples...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xia Wang, Shengjun Xu, Shanghua Wu, Shugeng Feng, Zhihui Bai, Guoqiang Zhuang, Xuliang Zhuang
Ammonia (NH3 ) volatilization is one of the primary pathways of nitrogen (N) loss from soils after chemical fertilizer is applied, especially from the alkaline soils in Northern China, which results in lower efficiency for chemical fertilizers. Therefore, we conducted an incubation experiment using an alkaline soil from Tianjin (pH8.37-8.43) to evaluate the suppression effect of Trichoderma viride (T. viride) biofertilizer on NH3 volatilization, and compared the differences in microbial community structure among all samples...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Yuan Gao, Jun Li, Xukun Pan, Dingrong Liu, Richard Napier, Liyao Dong
We previously reported that the mechanism of quinclorac resistance in Echinochloa crus-galli var. zelayensis may be closely related to ethylene biosynthesis and the detoxification of cyanide. Differences in EcCAS gene sequences and expression levels may result in higher capacity to detoxify cyanide in resistant biotypes, which may avoid cyanide accumulation and avoid more ethylene and cyanide production and then avoid damage. In the present study, we focused on the mechanism of resistance related to ethylene biosynthesis in E...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Sandro Queirós, Pedro Morais, Christophe Dubois, Jens-Uwe Voigt, Wolfgang Fehske, Andreas Kuhn, Tobias Achenbach, Jaime C Fonseca, João L Vilaça, Jan D'hooge
BACKGROUND: Accurate aortic annulus (AoA) sizing is crucial for transcatheter aortic valve implantation planning. Three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a viable alternative to the standard multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) for such assessment, with few automatic software solutions available. The aim of this study was to present and evaluate a novel software tool for automatic AoA sizing by 3D TEE. METHODS: One hundred one patients who underwent both preoperative MDCT and 3D TEE were retrospectively analyzed using the software...
April 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Seda Karabulut, Özlem Aksünger, Can Ata, Yusuf Sağıroglu, İlknur Keskin
Fertilization problems are the major problems that may be faced in 30-55% of the patients during an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle. A successful oocyte activation depends on factors related to both sperm and oocyte, and one of the important factors that mediates the process is Ca2+ concentration within the oocyte. Artificial oocyte activation (AOA) is a method used for fertilization problems that commonly involve the usage of Ca2+ ionophores and is usually used in problems such as total fertilization failure (TFF) and globozoospermia...
April 5, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Haiyang Liu, Jia Li, Yan Zhao, Kexin Xie, Xianjin Tang, Shaoxian Wang, Zhongpei Li, Yulin Liao, Jianming Xu, Hongjie Di, Yong Li
Nitrification plays an important role in the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, and fertilizer application may influence soil nitrifiers' abundance and composition. However, the effect of long-term manure application in paddy soils on nitrifying populations is poorly understood. We chose four long-term manure experimental fields in the south of China to study how the abundance and community structure of nitrifiers would change in response to long-term manure application using quantitative PCR and Miseq sequencing analyses...
March 26, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Tatoba R Waghmode, Shuaimin Chen, Jiazhen Li, Ruibo Sun, Binbin Liu, Chunsheng Hu
Soil microbial community plays an important role in terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycling. However, the response of the soil nitrifier and denitrifier communities to climate warming is poorly understood. A long-term field warming experiment has been conducted for 8 years at Luancheng Experimental Farm Station on the North China Plain; we used this field to examine how soil microbial community structure, nitrifier, and denitrifier abundance respond to warming under regular irrigation (RI) and high irrigation (HI) at different soil depths (0-5, 5-10, and 10-20 cm)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Boyd R Buser, James E Swartwout, Maura Biszewski, Terri Lischka
In 2014, the American Osteopathic Association (AOA), the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) agreed to establish a new, single accreditation system for graduate medical education in the United States. The 5-year transition period, from July 1, 2015, through June 30, 2020, gives AOA training programs time to apply for and receive ACGME accreditation before the AOA ceases its postdoctoral accreditation functions. This article discusses policies to protect osteopathic residents during training, addresses program size, reviews progress at the midpoint of the 5-year transition, and looks at next steps in the establishment of the single accreditation system...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Laura K Hempstead, Beth Rosemergey, Steven Foote, Kelly Swade, Karen B Williams
Context: The transition period for the single accreditation system for graduate medical education under the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) began on July 1, 2015, and will end June 30, 2020. As of February 5, 2018, 82.6% of residency programs accredited by the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) have applied for or achieved ACGME accreditation and 160 programs have applied for or achieved osteopathic recognition. Objective: To assess baseline attitudes of osteopathic and allopathic faculty and residents in AOA-accredited and dually accredited residency programs regarding the value of osteopathic-focused educational curricula and mentors...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Mirjana Djukic, Mara Fesatidou, Iakovos Xenikakis, Athina Geronikaki, Violina T Angelova, Vladimir Savic, Marta Pasic, Branislav Krilovic, Dusan Djukic, Borko Gobeljic, Marina Pavlica, Ana Djuric, Ivan Stanojevic, Danilo Vojvodic, Luciano Saso
The initial steps in preclinical drug developing research concern the synthesis of new compounds for specific therapeutic use which needs to be confirmed by in vitro and then in vivo testing. Nine thiazolidinone derivatives (numerically labeled 1-9) classified as follows: 1,3-thiazole-based compounds (1 and 2); 1,3,4-thiadiazole based compounds (3 and 4); substituted 5-benzylideno-2-adamantylthiazol[3,2-b][1,2,4]triazol-6(5H)ones (5-8); and an ethylaminothiazole-based chalcone (9), were tested for antioxidant activity (AOA) by using three in vitro assays: DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging capacity test); FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power test); and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test)...
March 21, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Ji-An Luo, Si-Wei Pan, Dong-Liang Peng, Zhi Wang, Yan-Jun Li
A constrained least-squares (CLS) 3D source localization method is presented for acoustic sensor networks with sensor position errors. The proposed approach uses angles of arrivals (AOAs) and gain ratios of arrival (GROAs) measured simultaneously at each node to estimate the source position jointly. Compared to AOA-only localization methods, the GROAs can be used in conjunction with AOA measurements so as to get more accurate results by exploiting the geometrical relationship between these two measurements...
March 22, 2018: Sensors
F Ayca Ozdemir Olgun, Ayşem Üzer, Birsen Demirata Ozturk, Reşat Apak
Antioxidant activity (AOA) assays using nanotechnology are recently developed utilizing nanoparticles of transition metal oxides, especially nanoceria that can switch between trivalent and tetravalent oxidation states of cerium. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO-NPs) may act as both an oxidant and an antioxidant, depending on the preparation method and particle size. A novel colorimetric sensor for AOA assay is proposed with the use of poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt (PAANa)-coated CeO-NPs. PAANa-coated CeO-NPs oxidized tetramethyl benzidine (TMB), a peroxidase substrate, in a slightly acidic solution at pH 4...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Chenyuan Dang, Wen Liu, Yaxuan Lin, Maosheng Zheng, Huan Jiang, Qian Chen, Jinren Ni
Surface sediments are the inner source of contaminations in aquatic systems and usually maintain aerobic conditions. As the key participators of nitrification process, little is known about the activities and contributions of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in the surface sediments. In this study, we determined the net and potential nitrification rates and used 1-octyne as an AOB specific inhibitor to detect the contributions of AOA and AOB to nitrification in surface sediments of Danjiangkou reservoir, which is the water source area of the middle route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China...
March 1, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Junjie Liu, Zhenhua Yu, Qin Yao, Yueyu Sui, Yu Shi, Haiyan Chu, Caixian Tang, Ashley E Franks, Jian Jin, Xiaobing Liu, Guanghua Wang
Black soils (Mollisols) of northeast China are highly productive and agriculturally important for food production. Ammonia-oxidizing microbes play an important role in N cycling in the black soils. However, the information related to the composition and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing microbes in the black soils has not yet been addressed. In this study, we used the amoA gene to quantify the abundance and community composition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) across the black soil zone...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hoang Vu Phan, Hoon Cheol Park
Studies on wing kinematics indicate that flapping insect wings operate at higher angles of attack (AoAs) than conventional rotary wings. Thus, effectively flying an insect-like flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FW-MAV) requires appropriate wing design for achieving low power consumption and high force generation. Even though theoretical studies can be performed to identify appropriate geometric AoAs for a wing for achieving efficient hovering flight, designing an actual wing by implementing these angles into a real flying robot is challenging...
March 1, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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