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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926680/formic-acid-as-a-secondary-substrate-for-succinic-acid-production-by-metabolically-engineered-mannheimia-succiniciproducens
#1
Jung Ho Ahn, Junho Bang, Won Jun Kim, Sang Yup Lee
There has been much effort exerted to reduce one carbon (C1) gas emission to address climate change. As one promising way to more conveniently utilize C1 gas, several technologies have been developed to convert C1 gas into useful chemicals such as formic acid (FA). In this study, systems metabolic engineering was utilized to engineer Mannheimia succiniciproducens to efficiently utilize FA. (13) C isotope analysis of M. succiniciproducens showed that FA could be utilized through formate dehydrogenase (FDH) reaction and/or the reverse reaction of pyruvate formate lyase (PFL)...
September 19, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926131/region-specific-impairment-of-the-cervical-spinal-cord-sc-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-preliminary-study-using-sc-templates-and-quantitative-mri-diffusion-tensor-imaging-inhomogeneous-magnetization-transfer
#2
Henitsoa Rasoanandrianina, Aude-Marie Grapperon, Manuel Taso, Olivier M Girard, Guillaume Duhamel, Maxime Guye, Jean-Philippe Ranjeva, Shahram Attarian, Annie Verschueren, Virginie Callot
In this preliminary study, our objective was to investigate the potential of high-resolution anatomical imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and conventional/inhomogeneous magnetization transfer imaging [magnetization transfer (MT)/inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT)] at 3 T, analyzed with template-extracted regions of interest, to measure the atrophy and structural changes of white (WM) and gray (GM) matter spinal cord (SC) occurring in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Ten patients with ALS and 20 age-matched healthy controls were recruited...
September 19, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925980/changes-in-fatty-acid-composition-of-human-milk-in-response-to-cold-like-symptoms-in-the-lactating-mother-and-infant
#3
Andrew S Gardner, Ibrahim A Rahman, Ching T Lai, Anna Hepworth, Naomi Trengove, Peter E Hartmann, Donna T Geddes
Infants rely on their innate immune systems to protect them from infection. Human milk (HM) contains fatty acids (FAs) and monoacylglycerols that are known to exhibit antiviral and antibacterial properties in vitro. The specific fat content of HM may potentially affect the efficacy of this antimicrobial activity. This preliminary study investigates whether the proportions of FA in HM change in response to infections, leading to cold-like symptoms in the mother or infant. Milk samples were obtained from mothers (n = 26) when they and their infants were healthy, and when mother, infant, or both suffered cold-like symptoms...
September 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925902/adipose-triglyceride-lipase-regulation-an-overview
#4
Ines Katrin Cerk, Lisa Wechselberger, Monika Oberer
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the key-enzyme for the release of fatty acids (FAs) from triacylglycerol (TG) stores during intracellular lipolysis producing FAs used for energy production. There is growing evidence that the products and intermediates from lipolytic breakdown during the FA mobilization process also have fundamental regulatory functions affecting cell signaling, gene expression, metabolism, cell growth, cell death, and lipotoxicity. Regulation of ATGL is therefore vital for maintaining a defined balance between lipid storage and mobilization...
September 18, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925092/the-ontogeny-of-developmental-buffering-in-lizard-head-shape
#5
Marko M Lazić, Dennis Rödder, Antigoni Kaliontzopoulou
Canalization and developmental stability (DS) are important organismal properties involved in determining the level of phenotypic variation. Ontogenetic patterns of phenotypic variance components can shed light on the mechanistic basis of developmental buffering (DB). Here, we analyze how individual FA and among-individual variation in head shape change in ontogenetic series of three lizard species raised in laboratory. The degree of asymmetry increased slightly with size, suggesting that developmental mechanisms hypothesized to correct for deviations either do not exist, or that their efficiency is truncated with increasing size...
September 19, 2017: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924203/the-common-variants-implicated-in-microstructural-abnormality-of-first-episode-and-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-schizophrenia
#6
H Y Ren, Q Wang, W Lei, C C Zhang, Y F Li, X J Li, M L Li, W Deng, C H Huang, F Du, L S Zhao, Y C Wang, X H Ma, X Hu, T Li
Both post-mortem and neuroimaging studies have identified abnormal white matter (WM) microstructure in patients with schizophrenia. However, its genetic underpinnings and relevant biological pathways remain unclear. In order to unravel the genes and the pathways associated with abnormal WM microstructure in schizophrenia, we recruited 100 first-episode, drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 140 matched healthy controls to conduct genome-wide association analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) value measured using diffusing tensor imaging (DTI), followed by multivariate association study and pathway enrichment analysis...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923561/update-on-the-safety-of-phosphodiesterase-type-5-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-erectile-dysfunction
#7
REVIEW
Faysal A Yafi, Ira D Sharlip, Edgardo F Becher
INTRODUCTION: Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). Although historically found to have limited drug-related adverse events, emerging data have suggested that PDE5Is might be associated with melanoma or recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. AIM: To summarize the literature on the safety of PDE5Is. METHODS: A literature review was performed through PubMed from 1990 through 2016 regarding ED...
September 8, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923379/synthesis-characterization-cellular-uptake-and-apoptosis-inducing-properties-of-two-highly-cytotoxic-cyclometalated-ruthenium-ii-%C3%AE-carboline-complexes
#8
Jincan Chen, Fa Peng, Yao Zhang, Baojun Li, Ji She, Xinming Jie, Zhilin Zou, Man Chen, Lanmei Chen
Two new cyclometalated Ru(II) complexes of the general formula [Ru(N-N)2(1-Ph-βC)](PF6), where N-N = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dmb, Ru1), 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy, Ru2), and 1-Ph-βC (1-phenyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) is a β-carboline alkaloids derivatives, have been synthesized and characterized. The in vitro cytotoxicities, cellular uptake and localization, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis-inducing mechanisms of these complexes have been extensively explored by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), flow cytometry, comet assay, inverted fluorescence microscope as well as western blotting experimental techniques...
September 6, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923141/carotid-and-femoral-arterial-wall-distensibility-during-long-duration-spaceflight
#9
Philippe Arbeille, Romain Provost, Kathryn Zuj
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess changes in common carotid (CA) and superficial femoral (FA) arterial stiffness during long-duration spaceflight. METHODS: Ultrasound imaging was used to investigate the CA and FA of 10 astronauts preflight (PRE), on flight day 15 (FD15), after 4-5 mo (FD4-5m), and 4 d after return to Earth (R+4). Arterial wall properties were assessed through the calculation of strain, stiffness (β), pressure-strain elastic modulus (Ep), and distensibility (DI)...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922944/revised-inverse-problem-algorithm-based-prediction-of-coronary-artery-stenosis-readings-from-the-clinical-data-of-patients-with-coronary-heart-diseases
#10
Lung-Fa Pan, Shao-Wen Chiu, Min-Feng Xiao, Chia-Hui Chen, Lung-Kwang Pan
AIM: Coronary artery stenosis readings were predicted in this study on the basis of clinical data for patients with coronary heart diseases using the inverse problem algorithm. METHOD: Five factors, including age, BSA (body surface area), MAP (mean artery pressure), sugar AC (ante cibum), and LDL-C (low-density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol) were incorporated into a nonlinear first-order regression fit analysis to develop a prediction equation with sixteen terms derived via a revised inverse problem algorithm implemented through the STATISTICA default regression fit...
September 18, 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922941/taguchi-dynamic-analysis-application-to-computer-tomography-number-mass-density-linear-dependence-optimization
#11
Kuo Hsun-Nan, Yi Juei-En, Chen Chia-Hui, Pan Lung-Fa, Pan Lung-Kwang
The Taguchi dynamic analysis was applied to optimize the linear dependence between computer tomography (CT) number and mass density. The Taguchi unique L18(2(1) × 3(5)) orthogonal array was utilized in the dynamic analysis of a commercial Catphan 600 phantom with CTP 404 module, in order to optimize eighteen combinations of six factors controlling the CT simulator operation, i.e. scan time, kVp, mA, field of view (FOV), slice thickness, and imaging processing algorithm. Each factor being assigned two or three different levels made it possible to organize the required number of combinations (18)...
September 18, 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920430/click-functionalized-sers-nanoprobes-with-improved-labeling-efficiency-and-capability-for-cancer-cell-imaging
#12
Renyong Liu, Jun Zhao, Guangmei Han, Tingting Zhao, Ruilong Zhang, Bianhua Liu, Zhengjie Liu, Cheng Zhang, Linlin Yang, Zhongping Zhang
Precise identification and detection of cancer cells using nanoparticle probes are critically important for early cancer diagnosis and the subsequent therapy. We herein develop a novel folate receptor (FR)-targeted surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoprobes for cancer cell imaging based on click coupling strategy. A Raman-active derivative (DNBA-N3) is designed with a disulfide bond for covalently anchoring to the surface of hollow gold nanoparticles (HAuNPs) and a terminal azide group for facilitating highly efficient conjugation with bioligand...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919893/ripk3-fas-associated-death-domain-axis-regulates-pulmonary-immunopathology-to-cryptococcal-infection-independent-of-necroptosis
#13
Zhenzong Fa, Qun Xie, Wei Fang, Haibing Zhang, Haiwei Zhang, Jintao Xu, Weihua Pan, Jinhua Xu, Michal A Olszewski, Xiaoming Deng, Wanqing Liao
Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) are multifunctional regulators of cell death and immune response. Using a mouse model of cryptococcal infection, the roles of FADD and RIPK3 in anti-cryptococcal defense were investigated. Deletion of RIPK3 alone led to increased inflammatory cytokine production in the Cryptococcus neoformans-infected lungs, but in combination with FADD deletion, it led to a robust Th1-biased response with M1-biased macrophage activation. Rather than being protective, these responses led to paradoxical C...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919867/sulfated-cholecystokinin-8-promotes-cd36-mediated-fatty-acid-uptake-into-primary-mouse-duodenal-enterocytes
#14
Claire Demenis, John McLaughlin, Craig P Smith
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an archetypal incretin hormone secreted by intestinal enteroendocrine cells (EEC) in response to ingested nutrients. The aim of this study was to determine whether CCK modulates enterocyte fatty acid uptake by primary mouse duodenal cells. Exposure of primary mouse duodenal cells to 10 pM sulfated CCK-8 caused a two fold increase in dodecanoic acid fatty acid (FA) uptake. The selective CCK A receptor antagonist loxiglumide (100 μM) completely abolished the CCK-8 induced FA uptake. The CD36 fatty acid translocase-specific inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (1 μM) also completely inhibited CCK-8 induced FA uptake, as did treatment with 200 μM phloretin...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919524/chitosan-ferulic-acid-coated-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-electrospun-materials-with-antioxidant-antibacterial-and-antitumor-properties
#15
Gyuldzhan Yakub, Milena Ignatova, Nevena Manolova, Iliya Rashkov, Reneta Toshkova, Ani Georgieva, Nadya Markova
Novel fibrous materials from poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), chitosan (Ch) and natural phenolic acid ferulic acid (FA) of diverse design were successfully prepared by electrospinning or electrospinning combined with dip-coating. FA incorporated in the PCL fibrous mats or in the Ch coating was in the amorphous state as evidenced by the performed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The release of FA was affected by the composition and design of the polymer matrix. The incorporation of a combination of FA and Ch in the fibrous mats imparted to these materials higher killing rates against pathogenic bacteria S...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919479/fabp1-knockdown-in-human-enterocytes-impairs-proliferation-and-alters-lipid-metabolism
#16
Rodriguez Sawicki Luciana, Bottasso Arias Natalia María, Scaglia Natalia, Falomir Lockhart Lisandro Jorge, Franchini Gisela Raquel, Storch Judith, Córsico Betina
Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins (FABPs) are abundant intracellular proteins that bind long chain fatty acids (FA) and have been related with inmunometabolic diseases. Intestinal epithelial cells express two isoforms of FABPs: liver FABP (LFABP or FABP1) and intestinal FABP (IFABP or FABP2). They are thought to be associated with intracellular dietary lipid transport and trafficking towards diverse cell fates. But still their specific functions are not well understood. To study FABP1's functions, we generated an FABP1 knockdown model in Caco-2 cell line by stable antisense cDNA transfection (FABP1as)...
September 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919478/atorvastatin-reduces-lipid-accumulation-in-the-liver-by-activating-protein-kinase-a-mediated-phosphorylation-of-perilipin-5
#17
Xing Gao, Yang Nan, Yuanlin Zhao, Yuan Yuan, Bincheng Ren, Chao Sun, Kaiyu Cao, Ming Yu, Xuyang Feng, Jing Ye
Statins have been proven to be effective in treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, it was reported that statins decreased the hepatic expression of perilipin 5 (Plin5), a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein, which plays critical roles in regulating lipid accumulation and lipolysis in liver. However, the function and regulation mechanism of Plin5 have not yet been well-established in NAFLD treatment with statins. In this study, we observed that atorvastatin moderately reduced the expression of Plin5 in livers without changing the protein level of Plin5 in the hepatic LD fraction of mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD)...
September 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919188/-contribution-of-multimodal-imaging-in-the-various-stages-of-stargardt-disease
#18
L El Matri, Y Falfoul, M Kortli, A Hassairi, H Charfi, A Turki, F Kort, A Chebil
PURPOSE: To describe the contribution of multimodal imaging in the various stages of Stargardt disease (STGD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 46 eyes of 23 STGD patients with identified ABCA4 mutations. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FA) and Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 25...
September 14, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918670/ph-sensitive-metal-phenolic-network-capsules-for-targeted-photodynamic-therapy-against-cancer-cells
#19
Yuanqing Wei, Zhenzhen Wei, Peicheng Luo, Wei Wei, Songqin Liu
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective and promising method for cancer treatment, which is proposed for more than one century. However, the specific delivery of photosensitizer to target carcinoma cells to reduce the side effect is still a great challenge. This work provides a strategy to deliver photosensitizers to cancer cells by utilizing pH-sensitive polyethylene glycol metal-phenolic network (PEG-MPN) capsules to encapsulate haematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME). With the assistance of folic acid (FA), HMME-doped PEG-MPN capsules (MPN@HMMEs) accumulate in carcinoma cells selectively followed by releasing HMME in the lysosomes because of the physiologically relevant acidic pH environment...
September 18, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918472/a-reliable-protocol-for-colorimetric-determination-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-uptake-by-cells
#20
Daiana K Deda, Roberta M Cardoso, Mayara K Uchiyama, Christiane Pavani, Sergio H Toma, Mauricio S Baptista, Koiti Araki
Size, shape, and surface properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) can influence their interaction with biological systems, particularly the incorporation by tumor cells and consequently the biological activity and efficiency in biomedical applications. Several strategies have been used to evaluate cellular uptake of SPIONs. While qualitative methods are generally based on microscopy techniques, quantitative assays are carried out by techniques such as inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and flow cytometry...
September 16, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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