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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428330/genomic-responses-to-socio-sexual-environment-in-male-drosophila-melanogaster-exposed-to-conspecific-rivals
#1
Irina I Mohorianu, Amanda Bretman, Damian T Smith, Emily Fowler, Tamas Dalmay, Tracey Chapman
Socio-sexual environments have profound effects on fitness. Local sex ratios can alter the threat of sexual competition, to which males respond via plasticity in reproductive behaviours and ejaculate composition. In Drosophila melanogaster, males detect the presence of conspecific mating rivals prior to mating using multiple, redundant sensory cues. Males that respond to rivals gain significant fitness benefits by altering mating duration and ejaculate composition. Here we investigated the underlying genome-wide changes involved...
April 20, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424311/mechanics-of-the-thorax-in-flies
#2
REVIEW
Tanvi Deora, Namrata Gundiah, Sanjay P Sane
Insects represent more than 60% of all multicellular life forms, and are easily among the most diverse and abundant organisms on earth. They evolved functional wings and the ability to fly, which enabled them to occupy diverse niches. Insects of the hyper-diverse orders show extreme miniaturization of their body size. The reduced body size, however, imposes steep constraints on flight ability, as their wings must flap faster to generate sufficient forces to stay aloft. Here, we discuss the various physiological and biomechanical adaptations of the thorax in flies which enabled them to overcome the myriad constraints of small body size, while ensuring very precise control of their wing motion...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424098/identification-of-odorant-binding-protein-genes-in-galeruca-daurica-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-and-analysis-of-their-expression-profiles
#3
L Li, Y-T Zhou, Y Tan, X-R Zhou, B-P Pang
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) play a fundamental role in insect olfaction. In recent years, Galeruca daurica (Joannis) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) has become one of the most important insect pests in the Inner Mongolian grasslands of China. This pest only feeds on the species of Allium plants, implying the central role of olfaction in its search for specific host plants. However, the olfaction-related proteins have not been investigated in this beetle. In this study, we identified 29 putative OBP genes, namely GdauOBP1-29, from the transcriptome database of G...
April 20, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423624/assessment-of-female-breast-dose-for-thoracic-cone-beam-ct-using-mosfet-dosimeters
#4
Wenzhao Sun, Bin Wang, Bo Qiu, Jian Liang, Weihao Xie, Xiaowu Deng, Zhenyu Qi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the breast dose during a routine thoracic cone-beam CT (CBCT) check with the efforts to explore the possible dose reduction strategy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters were used to measure breast surface doses during a thorax kV CBCT scan in an anthropomorphic phantom. Breast doses for different scanning protocols and breast sizes were compared. Dose reduction was attempted by using partial arc CBCT scan with bowtie filter...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422918/reassessing-the-cardiac-box-a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-thoracic-gunshot-wounds-and-cardiac-injury
#5
Rashi Jhunjhunwala, Michael J Mina, Elizabeth I Roger, Christopher J Dente, Michael Heninger, Jacquelyn S Carr, Stacy D Dougherty, Rondi B Gelbard, Jeffrey M Nicholas, Amy D Wyrzykowski, David V Feliciano, Bryan C Morse
BACKGROUND: High energy missiles can cause cardiac injury regardless of entrance site. This study assesses the adequacy of the anatomic borders of the current "cardiac box" to predict cardiac injury. METHODS: Retrospective autopsy review was performed to identify patients with penetrating torso gunshot wounds 2011-2013. Using a circumferential grid system around the thorax, logistic regression analysis was performed to detect differences in rates of cardiac injury from entrance/exit wounds in the "cardiac box" vs...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422911/do-vented-chest-seals-differ-in-efficacy-an-experimental-evaluation-using-a-swine-hemopneumothorax-model
#6
Bijan S Kheirabadi, Irasema B Terrazas, Nahir Miranda, Spc Amber N Voelker, Francoise Arnaud, Harold G Klemcke, Frank F Butler, Michael A Dubick
OBJECTIVE: Hemopneumothorax (HPTX) is the second leading cause of potentially preventable death among combat casualties. We investigated the ability of five FDA-approved non-occlusive chest seals (CSs) to seal a bleeding chest wound and prevent tension HPTX in a swine model. METHODS: Following instrumentation, an open chest wound was created in the left thorax of spontaneously air-breathing anesthetized pigs (n=26, 43 Kg). Autologous fresh blood (226 mL) was then infused into the pleural cavity to produce HPTX...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420897/in-vivo-analysis-of-three-dimensional-dynamic-scapular-dyskinesis-in-scapular-or-clavicular-fractures
#7
Eugene Kim, Jai Hyung Park, Byeong-Ryong Han, Hee Jin Park, So Yeon Lee, Tsuyoshi Murase, Kazumi Sugamoto, Sumika Ikemoto, Se-Jin Park
The three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of the scapula were analyzed in vivo in 10 patients with scapular and 10 patients with clavicular fracture. Both the injured shoulder and normal contralateral shoulder were evaluated by computed tomography in the neutral and fully elevated positions. 3D rotational and translational movements of the scapula relative to the thorax during arm elevation were analyzed. A computer simulation program was used to compare rotational elevation/depression in the coronal plane, anterior/posterior tilting in the sagittal plane and protraction/retraction in the axial plane between the normal and affected sides...
April 2017: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420293/acute-gastric-outlet-obstruction-secondary-to-exclusive-paraoesophageal-small-bowel-herniation-a-case-report
#8
Jean-Charles de Schoutheete, Alex M Reece-Smith, Saj A Wajed
INTRODUCTION: Herniation of abdominal viscera into the thorax may occur as a consequence of abnormal defects in the diaphragm. In adults, the most common condition relates to herniations through a weakened crural orifice via which the oesophagus normally traverses. These hiatus hernias are classified as types I-IV depending on the extent of visceral involvement. CASE REPORT: We present here a case of type IV hiatus hernia with massive mediastinal herniation of the small bowel, yet remarkable in that the stomach itself remained completely intra-abdominal...
April 19, 2017: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420038/retrospective-evaluation-of-coyote-attacks-in-dogs-154-cases-1997-2012
#9
Virginia M Frauenthal, Philip Bergman, Robert J Murtaugh
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation and outcome of known attacks in client-owned dogs caused by the common coyote, Canis latrans. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Private referral hospital. ANIMALS: One hundred fifty-four client-owned dogs known to be attacked by coyotes. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Records from a private referral hospital from May 1997 through December 2012 were reviewed...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414028/culex-culiciomyia-sasai-diptera-culicidae-senior-synonym-of-cx-spiculothorax-and-a-new-country-record-for-bhutan
#10
Thanari Phanitchakun, Parinya Wilai, Jassada Saingamsook, Rinzin Namgay, Tobgyel Drukpa, Yoshio Tsuda, Catherine Walton, Ralph E Harbach, Pradya Somboon
Culex (Culiciomyia) spiculothorax was described from Thailand based on the presence of spiculation on the thorax of larvae. Adult females are characterized but are indistinguishable from those of related species, such as Cx. pallidothorax. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences revealed that specimens identified as Cx. spiculothorax from Thailand, Japan and Bhutan form a single clade with Cx. sasai from Japan (Kimura 2-parameter genetic distances 0-0.9%) that is clearly distinct from clades comprised of other species of subgenus Culiciomyia...
April 13, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410690/eye-lens-dose-correlations-with-personal-dose-equivalent-and-patient-exposure-in-paediatric-interventional-cardiology-performed-with-a-fluoroscopic-biplane-system
#11
L Alejo, C Koren, E Corredoira, F Sánchez, J Bayón, A Serrada, E Guibelalde
PURPOSE: To analyse the correlations between the eye lens dose estimates performed with dosimeters placed next to the eyes of paediatric interventional cardiologists working with a biplane system, the personal dose equivalent measured on the thorax and the patient dose. METHODS: The eye lens dose was estimated in terms of Hp(0.07) on a monthly basis, placing optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) on goggles. The Hp(0.07) personal dose equivalent was measured over aprons with whole-body OSLDs...
April 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408977/mitogenomes-of-giant-skipper-butterflies-reveal-an-ancient-split-between-deep-and-shallow-root-feeders
#12
Jing Zhang, Qian Cong, Xiao-Ling Fan, Rongjiang Wang, Min Wang, Nick V Grishin
Background: Giant-Skipper butterflies from the genus Megathymus are North American endemics. These large and thick-bodied Skippers resemble moths and are unique in their life cycles. Grub-like at the later stages of development, caterpillars of these species feed and live inside yucca roots. Adults do not feed and are mostly local, not straying far from the patches of yucca plants. Methods: Pieces of muscle were dissected from the thorax of specimens and genomic DNA was extracted (also from the abdomen of a specimen collected nearly 60 years ago)...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408329/highest-dominant-frequency-and-rotor-positions-are-robust-markers-of-driver-location-during-non-invasive-mapping-of-atrial-fibrillation-a-computational-study
#13
Miguel Rodrigo, Andreu M Climent, Alejandro Liberos, Francisco Fernández-Avilés, Omer Berenfeld, Felipe Atienza, Maria S Guillem
BACKGROUND: Dominant Frequency (DF) and rotor mapping have been proposed as non-invasive techniques to guide localization of drivers maintaining atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the robustness of both techniques in identifying atrial drivers non-invasively under the effect of electrical noise or model uncertainties. METHODS: Inverse-computed DFs and phase maps were obtained on 30 different mathematical AF simulations. Epicardial Highest DF (HDF) regions and rotor location were compared with the same inverse-computed measurements after addition of noise to the ECG, size variations of the atria and linear or angular deviations in the atrial location inside the thorax...
April 10, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408041/nontraumatic-head-and-neck-injuries-a-clinical-approach-part-2
#14
B Brea Álvarez, L Esteban García, M Tuñón Gómez, Y Cepeda Ibarra
Nontraumatic emergencies of the head and neck represent a challenge in the field of neuroradiology for two reasons. As explained in the first part of this update, these entities affect an area where the thorax joins the cranial cavity and can thus compromise both structures; second, they are uncommon, so they are not well known. Maintaining the same approach as in the first part, focusing on the clinical presentations in the emergency department rather than on the anatomic regions affected, we will study the entities that present with two patterns: those that present with a combination of cervical numbness, dysphagia, and dyspnea and those that present with acute sensory deficits...
April 10, 2017: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406134/tracheobroncopathia-osteochondroplastica-three-case-reports-with-literature-review
#15
T Aktas, F Aktas, Z Ozmen, N Yaşayancan, A Arıcı
Tracheobroncopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) is a benign disease of the large airways seen very rarely. It is characterized by 1-3 mm sized ossified nodular lesions in submucosa. Its etiology is unclear, but it is stated that malignancy, chronic inflammation, amyloidosis, and genetic factors might have an effect on it. It was first described by Wilks in a 38-year-old man diagnosed with tuberculosis in 1857. Generally, patients are asymptomatic and TO is diagnosed incidentally. But symptoms become significant with infections and obstruction in tracheabronchial tree...
April 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405492/a-rare-complication-of-central-venous-catheter-extravasation-in-a-preterm-neonate-hemidiaphragmatic-paralysis
#16
C Hobson, D Dubillot, H Lardy, D Sirinelli, E Saliba, E Lopez
We report a case of a preterm neonate born at 26 weeks' of gestation diagnosed with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis. This paralysis was a consequence of a phrenic nerve injury due to extravasation of hyperosmolar parenteral nutrition fluid in the upper thorax. Chest X-rays and ultrasonography confirmed the diagnosis. The neonate was treated with prolonged respiratory support and did not require surgical treatment. This report describes a case of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis as a complication of central venous catheter insertion...
April 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405105/hesperidin-as-radioprotector-against-radiation-induced-lung-damage-in-rat-a-histopathological-study
#17
Gholam Hassan Haddadi, Abolhasan Rezaeyan, Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi, Massood Hosseinzadeh, Reza Fardid, Masoud Najafi, Ashkan Salajegheh
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by ionizing radiation, and one of the organs commonly affected by ROS is the lung. Radiation-induced lung injury including pneumonia and lung fibrosis is a dose-limiting factor in radiotherapy (RT) of patients with thorax irradiation. Administration of antioxidants has been proved to protect against ROS. The present study was aimed to assess the protective effect of hesperidin (HES) against radiation-induced lung injury of male rats. Fifty rats were divided into three groups...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404729/wings-as-impellers-honey-bees-co-opt-flight-system-to-induce-nest-ventilation-and-disperse-pheromones
#18
Jacob M Peters, Nick Gravish, Stacey A Combes
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are remarkable fliers that regularly carry heavy loads of nectar and pollen, supported by a flight system - the wings, thorax and flight muscles - that one might assume is optimized for aerial locomotion. However, honey bees also use this system to perform other crucial tasks that are unrelated to flight. When ventilating the nest, bees grip the surface of the comb or nest entrance and fan their wings to drive airflow through the nest, and a similar wing-fanning behavior is used to disperse volatile pheromones from the Nasonov gland...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403899/hepato-bronchial-fistula-secondary-to-perforated-sigmoid-diverticulitis-a-case-report
#19
Jun Sunny Yin, Shaylan Govind, Daniele Wiseman, Richard Inculet, Raymond Kao
BACKGROUND: Patients with diverticulitis are predisposed to hepatic abscesses via seeding through the portal circulation. Hepatic abscesses are well-documented sequelae of diverticulitis, however instances of progression to hepato-bronchial fistulization are rare. We present a case of diverticulitis associated with hepatic abscess leading to hepato-bronchial fistulization, which represents a novel disease course not yet reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old Caucasian man presented with a history of unintentional weight loss and dyspnea both at rest and with exertion...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403093/jejunojejunal-intussusception-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-in-a-situs-inversus-totalis-patient-a-case-report
#20
Guangyi Jiang, Baojuan Fu, Sheng Lv, Junjie Hong, Xiujun Cai
INTRODUCTION: Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is an uncommon clinical manifestation. Patients with SIT typically have malformation in the thorax and abdomen. The incidence of SIT ranges from 1/10,000 to 1/20,000 (Al-Jumaily and Hoche. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2001;11:229). Jejunojejunal intussusception is a rare complication after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Intussusception in adult cases accounts for 5% of adult intestinal obstruction cases, while in children, the occurrence is high and the majority of them are idiopathic cases...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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