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Rosalind L Coleman, Susie McLean
INTRODUCTION: The offer of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional option for HIV prevention for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination HIV prevention approaches. Implementing this depends on integrating PrEP in public health programmes that address risky practices with evidence-based interventions, and that operate in an enabling legal and policy environment for the delivery of health services to those at higher risk of HIV infection...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Anthony J Rosellini, John Monahan, Amy E Street, Eric D Hill, Maria Petukhova, Ben Y Reis, Nancy A Sampson, David M Benedek, Paul Bliese, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
Growing concerns exist about violent crimes perpetrated by U.S. military personnel. Although interventions exist to reduce violent crimes in high-risk populations, optimal implementation requires evidence-based targeting. The goal of the current study was to use machine learning methods (stepwise and penalized regression; random forests) to develop models to predict minor violent crime perpetration among U.S. Army soldiers. Predictors were abstracted from administrative data available for all 975,057 soldiers in the U...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Natalia Królikowska, Jakub Szymkowiak, Rebecca Anne Laidlaw, Lechosław Kuczyński
Birds exhibit various forms of anti-predator behaviours to avoid reproductive failure, with mobbing-observation, approach and usually harassment of a predator-being one of the most commonly observed. Here, we investigate patterns of temporal variation in the mobbing response exhibited by a precocial species, the northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus). We test whether brood age and self-reliance, or the perceived risk posed by various predators, affect mobbing response of lapwings. We quantified aggressive interactions between lapwings and their natural avian predators and used generalized additive models to test how timing and predator species identity are related to the mobbing response of lapwings...
2016: Acta Ethologica
James Campbell Quick, M Ann McFadyen
Sexual harassment (SH) is a continuing, chronic occupational health problem in organizations and work environments. First addressed in the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology through a 1998 Special Section on Sexual Harassment, we return to this consequential issue. If the goal is to reduce SH in organizations, and we believe that it should be, then a key question is whether we have made progress in 2 decades. The answer is mixed. Yes, there is a 28% decline in SH complaints. No, there is an increase in complaints by males...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
An Bao, Donn J Colby, Toan Trang, Bao Quoc Le, Thien Duc Dinh, Quan Hoang Nguyen, Huyen Thi Hoang, M Reuel Friedman, Ron Stall
HIV prevalence among transgender women (TW) in Ho Chi Minh City is estimated at 18 %. However, no evidence-based programs or surveillance data exist in Vietnam specific to HIV testing uptake. We examined prevalence and correlates of past-year HIV testing among TW (n = 204) recruited in 2015 via snowball sampling. 59.3 % reported HIV testing in the previous year. In adjusted models, factors positively associated with HIV testing included consistent condom use during sex work with male clients; STI testing in past year; sex with casual partners in the past month; and experiences of police harassment...
October 11, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Meredith McGinley, Jennifer M Wolff, Kathleen M Rospenda, Li Liu, Judith A Richman
A two-part latent growth mixture model was implemented in order to examine heterogeneity in the growth of sexual harassment (SH) victimization in college and university students, and the extent to which SH class membership explains substance use and mental health outcomes for certain groups of students. Demographic risk factors, mental health, and substance use were examined as they related to chronically experienced SH victimization. Incoming freshmen students (N = 2855; 58% female; 54% White) completed a survey at five time points...
November 2016: Social Science Research
Sarah A Codde, Sarah G Allen, Dorian S Houser, Daniel E Crocker
Pinnipeds spend extended periods of time on shore during breeding, and some temperate species retreat to the water if exposed to high ambient temperatures. However, female northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) with pups generally avoid the water, presumably to minimize risks to pups or male harassment. Little is known about how ambient temperature affects thermoregulation of well insulated females while on shore. We used a thermographic camera to measure surface temperature (Ts) of 100 adult female elephant seals and their pups during the breeding season at Point Reyes National Seashore, yielding 782 thermograms...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Isaac Mensah Boafo, Peter Hancock, Eyal Gringart
AIM: To document the incidence, sources and effects of workplace verbal abuse and sexual harassment against Ghanaian nurses. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ghana from 2013-2014 which surveyed 592 professional nurses and midwives working in public hospitals in Ghana using the health sector violence questionnaire. RESULTS: The majority of participants were females (80%). The average age of participants was 31·76 years and the average number of years practising as nurse was 7·38...
April 2016: Nurs Open
Danny Gordon, Mario Prajna Pratama
This work sough to document how Indonesian trans* FTM persons experienced discrimination across the interlinked domains of social networks, religious and educational institutions, employment and the workplace and health/healthcare institutions. Objectives were 1) to map the discrimination experienced by trans* FTM individuals in Indonesia, and 2) to establish the specific priorities of the Indonesian trans* FTM community. In-depth interviews, focus-groups and participant observation was used involving 14 respondents...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
Anastasia Powell, Nicola Henry
Online forms of sexual harassment and abuse as experienced by adults represent an emerging yet under-researched set of behaviors, such that very few studies have sought to estimate the extent of the problem. This article presents the results of an online survey of 2,956 Australian adult (aged 18 to 54 years) experiences of technology-facilitated sexual violence (TFSV) victimization. The prevalence of TFSV was analyzed in relation to a 21-item scale developed in accordance with prior conceptual research identifying multiple dimensions of TFSV including digital sexual harassment, image-based sexual abuse, sexual aggression and/or coercion, and, gender and/or sexuality-based harassment (including virtual sexual violence)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Milena Nadgorny, Zeyun Xiao, Chao Chen, Luke A Connal
In this work we describe the synthesis, thermal and rheological characterization, hot-melt extrusion and three-dimensional printing (3DP) of poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP). We investigate the effect of thermal processing conditions on physical properties of produced filaments in order to achieve high quality, 3D- printable filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM). We 3D-print P2VP filaments using an affordable 3D printer. The pyridine moieties are crosslinked and quaternized post-printing to form 3D-printed pH-responsive hydrogels...
October 3, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
David S Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2016: Contraception
Ivy Shiue
Rarely do we know the perception toward neighbourhoods in people specifically with health conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to understand the perception toward neighbourhoods among adults with a series of the existing health conditions in a country-wide and population-based setting. Data were retrieved from and analysed in Scottish Household Survey, 2007-2008. Information on demographics, self-reported health conditions and perception toward neighbourhoods and the surrounding facilities was obtained by household interview...
September 14, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Benjamin H Schnapp, Benjamin H Slovis, Anar D Shah, Abra L Fant, Michael A Gisondi, Kaushal H Shah, Christie A Lech
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown that workplace violence in the emergency department (ED) is common. Residents may be among the most vulnerable staff, as they have the least experience with these volatile encounters. The goal for this study was to quantify and describe acts of violence against emergency medicine (EM) residents by patients and visitors and to identify perceived barriers to safety. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey study queried EM residents at multiple New York City hospitals...
September 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Pandora Pound, Rebecca Langford, Rona Campbell
OBJECTIVES: Although sex and relationship education (SRE) represents a key strand in policies to safeguard young people and improve their sexual health, it currently lacks statutory status, government guidance is outdated and a third of UK schools has poor-quality SRE. We aimed to investigate whether current provision meets young people's needs. DESIGN: Synthesis of qualitative studies of young people's views of their school-based SRE. SETTING: Eligible studies originated from the UK, Ireland, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan, Iran, Brazil and Sweden...
September 13, 2016: BMJ Open
Amanuel Alemu Abajobir, Steve Kisely, Gail Marilyn Williams, Alexandra Marie Clavarino, Jackob Moses Najman
Little is known about the associations between various types of childhood maltreatment and multiple forms of intimate partner violence victimization in early adulthood. This study examines the extent to which childhood experiences of maltreatment increase the risk for intimate partner violence victimization in early adulthood. Data for the present study are from 3322 young adults (55 % female) of the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy with the mean age of 20.6 years. The Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy is a prospective Australian pre-birth cohort study of mothers consecutively recruited during their first antenatal clinic visit at Brisbane's Mater Hospital from 1981 through to 1983...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Myeongjun Lee, Hyunjung Kim, Donghee Shin, Sangyun Lee
BACKGROUND: Harassment means systemic and repeated unethical acts. Research on workplace harassment have been conducted widely and the NAQ-R has been widely used for the researches. But this tool, however the limitations in revealing differended in sub-factors depending on the culture and in reflecting that unique characteristics of the Koren society. So, The workplace harassment questionnaire for Korean finace and service workers has been developed to assess the level of personal harassment at work...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Paul Hodkinson, Jon Garland
This paper examines the significance of experiences and understandings of targeted harassment to the identities of youth subcultural participants, through case study research on goths. It does so against a context of considerable recent public discussion about the victimization of alternative subcultures and a surprising scarcity of academic research on the subject. The analysis presented indicates that, although individual direct experiences are diverse, the spectre of harassment can form an ever-present accompaniment to subcultural life, even for those who have never been seriously targeted...
September 2016: British Journal of Sociology
Yun-Sik Cho, Jae Bum Park, Kyung-Jong Lee, Kyoung-Bok Min, Chul-In Baek
BACKGROUND: Presenteeism, a concept that has recently undergone active study, is the act of attending work while sick. This study investigates the association between presenteeism and various psychosocial factors within workplaces. METHODS: This study analyzed 29246 wage earners from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS, 2011) data using the logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between presenteeism and various psychosocial factors within workplaces...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Oswaldo Sinoe Medina-Gómez
INTRODUCTION: In Mexico there is little research to know the magnitude of mobbing. OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of mobbing and characteristics associated in workers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 499 workers who use medical unit. A questionnaire was used to determine the presence of mobbing and various instruments to know the personality, vulnerability to stress, self-esteem and depression. Prevalence odds ratio, dispersion, chi-square and Poisson regression were calculated...
July 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
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