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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908646/an-unusual-case-of-suicide-by-methanol-ingestion
#1
Brian Waters, Kenji Hara, Natsuki Ikematsu, Mio Takayama, Aya Matsusue, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Shin-Ichi Kubo
A female in her late teens purposely ingested alcohol fuel containing methanol to commit suicide, which she admitted on social media. She was found in distress by her parents and died at the hospital some hours later. Autopsy revealed swelling of the brain and edematous and congestive lungs. No other trauma or unusual findings were revealed at autopsy. Methanol was detected upon routine screening for alcohols by headspace gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection. To confirm the presence of methanol and its metabolite formic acid, a method with detection by mass spectrometry was used...
June 4, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902493/relationship-between-ventricular-characteristics-on-brain-computed-tomography-and-6-month-neurologic-outcome-in-cardiac-arrest-survivors-who-underwent-targeted-temperature-management
#2
Dong Hun Lee, Byung Kook Lee, Kyung Woon Jeung, Yong Hun Jung, Yong Soo Cho, In Soo Cho, Chun Song Yun, Jin Woong Kim, Jung Soo Park, Yong Il Min
AIM OF THE STUDY: Brain swelling after cardiac arrest may affect the ventricles. We aimed to investigate the prognostic performance of ventricular characteristics on brain computed tomography (CT) in cardiac arrest survivors who underwent targeted temperature management (TTM). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included adult comatose cardiac arrest survivors who underwent brain CT scan within 24 hours after resuscitation and underwent TTM from 2014 to 2016...
June 11, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900785/the-lysosomal-storage-disease-gm2-gangliosidosis-in-captive-banded-mongoose-siblings-mungos-mungo
#3
Julia Wimmershoff, Kathrin Kuehni-Boghenbor, Adrian C Sewell, Anna Oevermann, Hany Farwanah, Nadia Robert, Stefan Hoby, Christian Wenker, Michael H Stoffel
  This study reports the occurrence of the lysosomal storage disease GM2 gangliosidosis (Sandhoff disease) in two 11-mo-old captive-bred, male and female mongoose siblings ( Mungos mungo). The clinical signs and the pathological findings reported here were similar to those reported in other mammalian species. Light microscopy revealed an accumulation of stored material in neurons and macrophages accompanied by a significant neuronal degeneration (swelling of neuronal soma, loss of Nissl substance, and neuronal loss) and gliosis...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896715/measurement-of-mitochondrial-toxicity-parameters-in-embryonic-hippocampus
#4
Ahmad Salimi, Jalal Pourahmad
Recent discoveries have focused on mitochondria functions in the neuroscience research for approaches to study mitochondria dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrion is one of the organelles that is possibly worst affected in cognitive impairments. These are known as "powerhouse" of the cell as they are the main source of generation of ATP through aerobic respiration. They have role in oxidative phosphorylation and metabolism, they play central role in cell differentiation, apoptosis, oxygen sensing and detoxification of reactive oxygen species, innate immunity, mitochondrial matrix calcium, and maintenance of cell quality and regulation of cytoplasmic...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888158/pseudohypoxic-brain-swelling-after-elective-lumbar-spinal-surgery-case-report
#5
John Dickinson, Derek Kroll, Josh Bentley, Aaron J Gustin
Pseudohypoxic brain swelling (or the more recent term, postoperative intracranial hypotension-associated venous congestion) is a rare and potentially deadly complication that can occur after routine spine or brain surgery. The mechanism of this injury has been described as a rapid cerebral spinal fluid drainage leading to venous cerebral congestion. The clinical and radiographic findings mimic those found in a patient who has suffered an anoxic brain injury. We present the third reported case of postoperative intracranial hypotension-associated venous congestion following spinal surgery...
April 9, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885875/clinical-characteristics-of-acute-encephalopathy-with-acute-brain-swelling-a-peculiar-type-of-acute-encephalopathy
#6
Megumi Nukui, Hisashi Kawawaki, Takeshi Inoue, Ichiro Kuki, Shin Okazaki, Kiyoko Amo, Masao Togawa, Junichi Ishikawa, Hiroshi Rinka, Masashi Shiomi
OBJECTIVES: Acute encephalopathy has been observed with acute brain swelling (ABS) that is characterized by rapid progression to whole-brain swelling. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of ABS. METHODS: We encountered four patients with ABS and retrospectively investigated their clinical data with a medical chart review. RESULTS: Three patients had seizure clustering or status epilepticus in the clinical course...
June 7, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885815/cell-volume-changes-as-revealed-by-fluorescence-microscopy-global-vs-local-approaches
#7
Thuraya Awadová, Helena Pivoňková, Zuzana Heřmanová, Denisa Kirdajová, Miroslava Anděrová, Jan Malínský
BACKGROUND: Several techniques for cell volume measurement using fluorescence microscopy have been established to date. In this study, we compare the performance of three different approaches which allow for estimations of the cell volume changes in biological samples containing individual fluorescently labeled cells either in culture or in the tissue context. The specific requirements, limitations and advantages of individual approaches are discussed. NEW METHOD: Global morphometric data are quantitatively compared with local information about the overall cell volume, represented by the concentration of a mobile fluorophore accumulated within the monitored cell...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884896/control-of-spreading-depression-with-electrical-fields
#8
Andrew J Whalen, Ying Xiao, Herve Kadji, Markus A Dahlem, Bruce J Gluckman, Steven J Schiff
Spreading depression or depolarization is a large-scale pathological brain phenomenon related to migraine, stroke, hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. Once initiated, spreading depression propagates across gray matter extruding potassium and other active molecules, collapsing the resting membrane electro-chemical gradient of cells leading to spike inactivation and cellular swelling, and propagates independently of synaptic transmission. We demonstrate the modulation, suppression and prevention of spreading depression utilizing applied transcortical DC electric fields in brain slices, measured with intrinsic optical imaging and potassium dye epifluorescence...
June 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882685/no-reflow-phenomenon-in-heart-and-brain
#9
Robert A Kloner, Kevin S King, Michael Harrington
The no-reflow phenomenon refers to the observation that when an organ is made ischemic by occlusion of a large artery supplying it, restoration of patency in that artery does not restore perfusion to the microvasculature supplying the parenchyma of that organ. This has been observed following prolonged arterial occlusions in the heart (30 to 90 minutes), brain, skin, and kidney. In experimental models, zones of no-reflow in the heart are characterized by ultrastructural microvascular damage, including focal endothelial swelling obstructing the lumen of small vessels...
June 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879529/minocycline-attenuates-brain-injury-and-iron-overload-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-aged-female-rats
#10
REVIEW
Shuhui Dai, Ya Hua, Richard F Keep, Nemanja Novakovic, Zhou Fei, Guohua Xi
Brain iron overload is involved in brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). There is evidence that systemic administration of minocycline reduces brain iron level and improves neurological outcome in experimental models of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. However, there is evidence in cerebral ischemia that minocycline is not protective in aged female animals. Since most ICH research has used male models, this study was designed to provide an overall view of ICH-induced iron deposits at different time points (1 to 28 days) in aged (18-month old) female Fischer 344 rat ICH model and to investigate the neuroprotective effects of minocycline in those rats...
June 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866760/association-of-severe-and-therapy-refractory-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-neuromyelitis-optica-a-management-challenge
#11
Inês Furtado, Guiomar Pinheiro, Ana Campar, Teresa Mendonça
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystemic autoimmune disorder. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an infrequent neuroinflammatory disorder, whose association with SLE remains rare. The authors report the case of an 18-year-old woman, with SLE refractory to multiple immunosuppressive therapies and novel biological agents. Under immunosuppressive therapy, the patient presented with transverse myelitis with contiguous spinal cord lesions and urinary incontinence, having been diagnosed with seropositive NMO, which was also proven to be refractory to common treatments...
June 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848532/unusual-case-of-cerebral-demyelination-and-bilateral-optic-neuritis-in-an-infant-with-suppurative-bcg-lymphadenitis
#12
Poorani Anandakrishnan, Teik Beng Khoo
Cerebral demyelination and optic neuritis are often seen in children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following various infections and immunisations. An eight month old girl presented with a left axillary lymph node swelling and an erythematous lace-like rash over her cheeks and trunk. She then developed acute encephalopathy, bilateral nystagmus, right hemiparesis and left facial nerve palsy. Her electroencephalogram showed an encephalopathic process and visual evoked response study were grossly abnormal...
May 30, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847238/radioprotective-activity-of-glutathione-on-cognitive-ability-in-x-ray-radiated-tumor-bearing-mice
#13
Lina Lu, Zongli Li, Yanhua Zuo, Libo Zhao, Bin Liu
OBJECTIVES: The use of X-ray for therapeutics always raises the problem of radiation hazards to living beings. In this research, we explored the radioprotective activity of glutathione (GSH) on cognitive ability of X-ray radiated tumor-bearing mice. METHODS: Forty C57BL/6 mice were chosen to establish the GL261 glioma model and randomly divided into four groups: Model group, X-ray group, Pre-GSH group and Pos-GSH group. Morris water maze test was used to test cognitive ability...
May 30, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804473/diagnostic-performance-of-ct-mri-and-their-combined-use-for-the-assessment-of-the-direct-cranial-or-intracranial-extension-of-malignant-head-and-neck-tumors
#14
Hye Yeon Choi, Dae Young Yoon, Eun Soo Kim, Sora Baek, Kyoung Ja Lim, Young Lan Seo, Eun Joo Yun
Background Preoperative radiological evaluation of the cranial or intracranial extension of malignant head and neck tumors is critical in the planning of curative surgery. Purpose To assess the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), compared to CT or MRI alone in diagnosing the direct cranial or intracranial extension of malignant head and neck tumors, using histopathologic results as the reference standard. Material and Methods CT and MRI images in 41 patients with malignant head and neck tumors abutting the skull were retrospectively reviewed...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795667/phosphorylated-recombinant-hsp27-protects-the-brain-and-attenuates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-following-stroke-in-mice-receiving-intravenous-tissue-plasminogen-activator
#15
Yoshiaki Shimada, Hideki Shimura, Ryota Tanaka, Kazuo Yamashiro, Masato Koike, Yasuo Uchiyama, Takao Urabe, Nobutaka Hattori
Loss of integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in ischemic stroke victims initiates a devastating cascade of events causing brain damage. Maintaining the BBB is important to preserve brain function in ischemic stroke. Unfortunately, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), the only effective fibrinolytic treatment at the acute stage of ischemic stroke, also injures the BBB and increases the risk of brain edema and secondary hemorrhagic transformation. Thus, it is important to identify compounds that maintain BBB integrity in the face of ischemic injury in patients with stroke...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793978/ischemic-brain-injury-leads-to-brain-edema-via-hyperthermia-induced-trpv4-activation
#16
Yutaka Hoshi, Kohki Okabe, Koji Shibasaki, Takashi Funatsu, Norio Matsuki, Yuji Ikegaya, Ryuta Koyama
Brain edema is characterized by an increase in net brain water content, which results in an increase in brain volume. Although brain edema is associated with a high fatality rate, the cellular and molecular processes of edema remain largely unclear. Here, we developed an in vitro model of ischemic stroke-induced edema in which male mouse brain slices were treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to mimic ischemia. We continuously measured the cross-sectional area of the brain slice for 150 min under macroscopic microscopy, finding that OGD induces swelling of brain slices...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778535/lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-lpa-6-regulates-endothelial-blood-brain-barrier-function-implication-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#17
Kayo Masago, Yasuyuki Kihara, Keisuke Yanagida, Fumie Hamano, Shinsuke Nakagawa, Masami Niwa, Takao Shimizu
Cerebral edema is a life-threatening neurological condition characterized by brain swelling due to accumulation of excess fluid both intracellularly and extracellularly. Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) develops cerebral edema by disrupting blood brain barrier (BBB). However, the mechanisms by which mediator induces brain edema in FHF remain to be elucidated. Here, we assessed a linkage between brain edema and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling by utilizing an animal model of FHF and in vitro BBB model. Azoxymethane-treated mice developed FHF and hepatic encephalopathy, associated with higher autotaxin (ATX) activities in serum than controls...
May 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771445/tirofiban-combined-with-rt-pa-intraarterial-thrombolysis-improves-the-recanalization-rate-of-acute-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-rabbits
#18
Y-J Yu, W Xiong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the curative effect of tirofiban combined with recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA) selective intra-arterial thrombolysis on acute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 adult male Japanese white rabbits weighing 2.5-3.0 kg were selected, and the acute cerebral infarction model was established via autologous thromboembolism of middle cerebral artery. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: tirofiban group (Ti group, 5 μg/kg, n=15), rt-PA group (rt-PA group, 2 mg/kg, n=15), tirofiban + rt-PA group (Ti + rt-PA group, 3 μg/kg Ti + 1 mg/kg rt-PA, n=15), and control group (Co group, n=15)...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768694/de-novo-variants-in-rhobtb2-an-atypical-rho-gtpase-gene-cause-epileptic-encephalopathy
#19
Hazrat Belal, Mitsuko Nakashima, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Kenji Yokochi, Mariko Taniguchi-Ikeda, Kazushi Aoto, Mohammed Badrul Amin, Azusa Maruyama, Hiroaki Nagase, Takeshi Mizuguchi, Satoko Miyatake, Noriko Miyake, Kazumoto Iijima, Shigeaki Nonoyama, Naomichi Matsumoto, Hirotomo Saitsu
By whole exome sequencing, we identified three de novo RHOBTB2 variants in three patients with epileptic encephalopathies (EEs). Interestingly, all three patients showed acute encephalopathy (febrile status epilepticus), with magnetic resonance imaging revealing hemisphere swelling or reduced diffusion in various brain regions. RHOBTB2 encodes Rho-related BTB domain-containing protein 2, an atypical Rho GTPase that is a substrate-specific adaptor or itself is a substrate for the Cullin-3 (CUL3)-based ubiquitin/proteasome complex...
May 16, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760764/human-brain-organoids-on-a-chip-reveal-the-physics-of-folding
#20
Eyal Karzbrun, Aditya Kshirsagar, Sidney R Cohen, Jacob H Hanna, Orly Reiner
Human brain wrinkling has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders and yet its origins remain unknown. Polymer gel models suggest that wrinkling emerges spontaneously due to compression forces arising during differential swelling, but these ideas have not been tested in a living system. Here, we report the appearance of surface wrinkles during the in vitro development and self-organization of human brain organoids in a micro-fabricated compartment that supports in situ imaging over a timescale of weeks...
May 2018: Nature Physics
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