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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032518/synchronous-solitary-calvarial-yolk-sac-tumor-metastasis-as-the-initial-presentation-of-mediastinal-germ-cell-tumor
#1
Kirti Gupta, Madhivanan Karthigeyan, Ayushman Satapathy, Pravin Salunke
INTRODUCTION: In children, malignant tumors presenting as a calvarial mass that too as initial manifestation are unusual. Also, brain metastases per se are rare in pediatric solid tumors with an incidence of just 1.5%. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a child with calvarial metastasis which was the presenting symptom of an otherwise asymptomatic large malignant mediastinal germ cell tumor (GCT). The lesion was dural-based involving both calvaria as well as the underlying brain parenchyma...
October 14, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031913/chronic-pain-and-pain-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Pierre J Blanchet, Christine Brefel-Courbon
Pain is experienced by the vast majority of patients living with Parkinson's disease. It is most often of nociceptive origin, but may also be ascribed to neuropathic (radicular or central) or miscellaneous sources. The recently validated King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Scale is based on 7 domains including musculoskeletal pain, chronic body pain (central or visceral), fluctuation-related pain, nocturnal pain, oro-facial pain, pain with discolouration/oedema/swelling, and radicular pain. The basal ganglia integrate incoming nociceptive information and contribute to coordinated motor responses in pain avoidance and nocifensive behaviors...
October 12, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023577/sevoflurane-protects-rat-brain-endothelial-barrier-structure-and-function-after-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury
#3
Tanja Restin, Marie-Elisabeth Kajdi, Martin Schläpfer, Birgit Roth Z'graggen, Christa Booy, Claudia Dumrese, Beatrice Beck-Schimmer
BACKGROUND: After cerebral injury blood-brain barrier disruption significantly impairs brain homeostasis. Volatile anesthetics have been shown to be protective in ischemia-reperfusion injury scenarios. Their impact on brain endothelial cells after hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) has not yet been studied in detail. METHODS: Rat brain endothelial cells (RBE4) were exposed to severe hypoxia and reoxygenated in air in the presence or absence of sevoflurane. Changes in dextran permeability and architecture of the cellular junctional proteins ZO-1 and β-catenin were measured...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022413/moderate-o3-o2-therapy-enhances-enzymatic-and-non-enzymatic-antioxidant-in-brain-and-cochlear-that-protects-noise-induced-hearing-loss
#4
Parvaneh Nasezadeh, Farshad Shahi, Mohammadjavad Fridoni, Enayatollah Seydi, Morteza Izadi, Ahmad Salimi
Mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). In this study, we examined the protective effect of O2/O3 mixture (ozone/oxygen) therapy against mitochondrial induced damage and oxidative stress by noise exposure in rat brain and cochlear. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: 1 - control group; 2 - noise-exposed group (100 dB); 3 - noise + O2/O3, and 4 - O2/O3 (30 µg/ml). After 14 d, animals were anesthetised...
October 12, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994510/isolated-lingual-cysticercosis-a-rare-case-diagnosed-on-cytology
#5
Mukta Pujani, Mohd Jaseem Hassan, Sabina Khan, Sujata Jetley
Cysticercosis is caused by larval stage of Taenia solium called cysticercus cellulosae. Cysticercosis most commonly infects skeletal muscles, subcutaneous tissues, brain and ocular tissue. On extensive search of literature, only around 64 cases of lingual cysticercosis have been reported till date. We report a case of cysticercosis of tongue in a 35-year-old male who presented with a painless, slowly growing swelling over the lateral border of tongue. Fine needle aspiration cytology revealed wavy integument of cysticercus cellulosae alongwith inflammatory cells...
October 10, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988495/the-beneficial-effects-of-l-cysteine-on-brain-antioxidants-of-rats-affected-by-sodium-valproate
#6
R Z Hamza, N S El-Shenawy
Oxidative stress caused by sodium valproate (SV) is known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of brain tissue. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of l-cysteine (LC) on the antioxidants of brain tissue of rats. The animals were divided into six groups: control group 1 was treated with saline as vehicle, groups 2 and 3 were treated with low and high doses of SV (100 and 500 mg/kg, respectively), group 4 was treated with LC (100 mg/kg), and groups 5 and 6 were treated with low-dose SV + LC and high-dose SV + LC, respectively...
November 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987174/raised-intracranial-pressure-and-brain-edema
#7
Ville Leinonen, Ritva Vanninen, Tuomas Rauramaa
Acutely increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is a life-threatening neurosurgical emergency. Optimal management strategy is selected according to the causative process. Typical causes are intracranial bleeds like traumatic subdural, epidural, or intracerebral hematoma (ICH); spontaneous ICH, intraventricular hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus. When occurring without significant brain injury and treated effectively before herniation, a full recovery can be expected. In intraparenchymal injuries a full recovery is unlikely since dead cells in the central nervous system leave an "empty hole," to be replaced by cerebrospinal fluid...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983815/the-association-between-fabp7-serum-levels-with-survival-and-neurological-complications-in-acetaminophen-induced-acute-liver-failure-a-nested-case-control-study
#8
Constantine J Karvellas, Jaime L Speiser, Mélanie Tremblay, William M Lee, Christopher F Rose
BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is associated with significant mortality due to intracranial hypertension (ICH), a result of cerebral edema (CE) and astrocyte swelling. Brain-type fatty acid-binding protein (FABP7) is a small (15 kDa) cytoplasmic protein abundantly expressed in astrocytes. The aim of this study was to determine whether serum FABP7 levels early (day 1) or late (days 3-5) level were associated with 21-day mortality and/or the presence of ICH/CE in APAP-ALF patients...
October 5, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980554/-the-possibilities-for-the-expert-diagnostics-of-the-injuries-for-the-purpose-of-examination-of-the-remains-of-the-strongly-burnt-and-carbonized-corpses
#9
V A Fetisov, I Yu Makarov, A V Kovalev, A A Gusarov, B A Sarkisyan, V E Yankovsky
The objective of the present study was the analysis of the publications in the domestic and foreign literature containing the reports concerning the experience with forensic medical expertise of the strongly burnt and carbonized human corpses. Flame is known to sometimes cause injuries simulating the intravital wounds. Such injuries are categorized into the following types. Thermal ruptures reminiscent of the classical stab and slash wounds unaccompanied by swelling and hemorrhage in the surrounding tissues...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979186/hippocampal-and-cortical-pyramidal-neurons-swell-in-parallel-with-astrocytes-during-acute-hypoosmolar-stress
#10
Thomas R Murphy, David Davila, Nicholas Cuvelier, Leslie R Young, Kelli Lauderdale, Devin K Binder, Todd A Fiacco
Normal nervous system function is critically dependent on the balance of water and ions in the extracellular space (ECS). Pathological reduction in brain interstitial osmolarity results in osmotically-driven flux of water into cells, causing cellular edema which reduces the ECS and increases neuronal excitability and risk of seizures. Astrocytes are widely considered to be particularly susceptible to cellular edema due to selective expression of the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). The apparent resistance of pyramidal neurons to osmotic swelling has been attributed to lack of functional water channels...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978666/aqp4e-based-orthogonal-arrays-regulate-rapid-cell-volume-changes-in-astrocytes
#11
Marjeta Lisjak, Maja Potokar, Boštjan Rituper, Jernej Jorgačevski, Robert Zorec
Water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) plays a key role in the regulation of water homeostasis in the brain. It is predominantly expressed in astrocytes at blood-brain and blood-liquor interfaces. Although several AQP4 isoforms have been identified in the mammalian brain, two, AQP4a (M1) and AQP4c (M23), have been confirmed to cluster into plasma membrane supramolecular structures, termed orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs) and to enhance water transport through the plasma membrane. However, the role of the newly described water-conductive mammalian isoform AQP4e is unknown...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966151/the-long-and-winding-road-thoracic-myelopathy-associated-with-occipitocervical-davf
#12
Angelique Sao-Mai Do, Joseph Kapurch, Ravi Kumar, John Port, Jeffrey W Miller, Jamie J Van Gompel
Spinal DAVFs have diverse presentations. MRIs reveal spinal cord swelling in only 45-74%. We present an unusual case of a 57 yo male with a craniocervical junction DAVFs in which the edema appeared in the thoracolumbar region skipping the cervical spinal cord. A case report and literature review from a tertiary referral center. In our patient, symptoms progressed over 3 months from low back and radicular pain to weakness, saddle anesthesia, and urinary retention. MRI showed T2 hyperintensity from T3-4 to the conus medullaris (Fig 1 a,b)...
September 28, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962806/cortical-spreading-depression-and-ischemia-in-neurocritical-patients
#13
REVIEW
Néstor Wainsztein, Federico Rodríguez Lucci
Spreading depolarization in cerebral cortex is associated with swelling of neurons, distortion of dendritic spines, massive ion translocation with a large change of the slow electrical potential, and silencing of brain electrical activity. The term spreading depression represents a wave of spontaneous activity of the electrocorticogram that propagates through contiguous cerebral gray matter at a characteristic velocity. Spreading depression is a consequence of cortical spreading depolarization. Therefore, spreading depolarization is not always accompanied by spreading depression and the terms are not synonymous...
November 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956123/the-value-of-subtraction-mri-in-detection-of-amyloid-related-imaging-abnormalities-with-oedema-or-effusion-in-alzheimer-s-patients-an-interobserver-study
#14
Roland M Martens, Arianne Bechten, Silvia Ingala, Ronald A van Schijndel, Vania B Machado, Marcus C de Jong, Esther Sanchez, Derk Purcell, Michael H Arrighi, Robert H Brashear, Mike P Wattjes, Frederik Barkhof
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapeutic treatments targeting amyloid-β plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with the presence of amyloid-related imaging abnormalities with oedema or effusion (ARIA-E), whose detection and classification is crucial to evaluate subjects enrolled in clinical trials. PURPOSE: To investigate the applicability of subtraction MRI in the ARIA-E detection using an established ARIA-E-rating scale. METHODS: We included 75 AD patients receiving bapineuzumab treatment, including 29 ARIA-E cases...
September 27, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943419/severe-cerebral-complications-secondary-to-perforation-injury-of-the-anterior-skull-base-during-sinonasal-surgery-an-underappreciated-problem
#15
Shadi Al-Afif, Elvis J Hermann, Gökce Hatipoglu Majernik, Makoto Nakamura, Peter Raab, Thomas Lenarz, Joachim K Krauss
OBJECTIVE: Functional endonasal sinus surgery (FESS) is widely practiced and is considered a generally safe procedure. Skull base injuries occur in less than 1% of procedures and are typically associated with cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Rarely, skull base injuries might result in cerebral lesions. Here we present a series of four patients with iatrogenic perforating injuries of the anterior skull base and cerebral lesions after routine FESS. METHODS: Four patients with iatrogenic perforating cerebral lesions after routine FESS performed at other institutions were referred to a tertiary neurosurgery department within a 10-year period...
September 21, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933211/traumatic-brain-injury-current-treatment-strategies-and-future-endeavors
#16
Michael Galgano, Gentian Toshkezi, Xuecheng Qiu, Thomas Russell, Lawrence Chin, Li-Ru Zhao
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) presents in various forms ranging from mild alterations of consciousness to an unrelenting comatose state and death. In the most severe form of TBI, the entirety of the brain is affected by a diffuse type of injury and swelling. Treatment modalities vary extensively based on the severity of the injury and range from daily cognitive therapy sessions to radical surgery such as bilateral decompressive craniectomies. Guidelines have been set forth regarding the optimal management of TBI, but they must be taken in context of the situation and cannot be used in every individual circumstance...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930819/recovery-of-an-injured-corticobulbar-tract-in-a-patient-with-stroke-a-case-report
#17
Sungho Jang, Jonghoon Kim, Yousung Seo, Soyoung Kwak
RATIONALE: The corticobulbar tract (CBT) is known to be involved in the motor function of the non-oculomotor cranial nuclei and controls the muscles of the face, head, and neck. Several studies have reported injury of the CBT in patients with brain injury, however, little is known about recovery of the injured CBT. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 59-year-old right-handed male underwent decompressive craniectomy for management of brain swelling and intracerebral hemorrhage following an infarction in the left middle cerebral artery territory...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927215/effect-of-fibrin-glue-injection-into-the-cavernous-sinus-for-hemostasis-during-transcavernous-surgery-on-the-cerebral-venous-draining-system
#18
Terushige Toyooka, Naoki Otani, Kojiro Wada, Arata Tomiyama, Hideaki Ueno, Kazuya Fujii, Takuji Yamamoto, Yasuaki Nakao, Kentaro Mori
BACKGROUND: The extradural temporopolar transcavernous approach can be used to treat central skull base pathologies, but control of bleeding from the opened cavernous sinus is essential. Oxidized cellulose cotton packing and fibrin glue injection can be used, but the effect on the postoperative venous draining pattern remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in the venous drainage pattern immediately after transcavernous surgery with and without fibrin glue injection into the bleeding cavernous sinus...
April 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926646/vascular-hypoperfusion-in-acute-optic-neuritis-is-a-potentially-new-neurovascular-model-for-demyelinating-diseases
#19
Ta-Ching Chen, Chao-Yuan Yeh, Chao-Wen Lin, Chung-May Yang, Chang-Hao Yang, I-Hung Lin, Pao-Yang Chen, Jung-Yu Cheng, Fung-Rong Hu
PURPOSE: Optic neuritis is highly correlated with multiple sclerosis and is a major cause of acute visual loss and long-term neuronal degeneration. Primary cerebral hypoperfusion has been reported in brain demyelinating diseases. This study investigated whether peripapillary perfusion is changed in patients with acute optic neuritis (AON). METHODS: This three-year cohort study was conducted from September 1 2012, to August 31, 2015. Two hundred and forty-one patients with non-glaucomatous acute optic neuropathy were screened, and 42 non-highly myopic patients who had suffered their first episode of unilaterally idiopathic AON were studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925524/hypothermia-increases-aquaporin-4-aqp4-plasma-membrane-abundance-in-human-primary-cortical-astrocytes-via-a-calcium-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-trpv4-and-calmodulin-mediated-mechanism
#20
Mootaz M Salman, Philip Kitchen, M Nicola Woodroofe, James E Brown, Roslyn M Bill, Alex C Conner, Matthew T Conner
Human aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is the primary water channel protein in brain astrocytes. Hypothermia is known to cause astrocyte swelling in culture, but the precise role of AQP4 in this process is unknown. Primary human cortical astrocytes were cultured under hypothermic (32°C) or normothermic (37°C) conditions. AQP4 transcript, total protein and surface localized protein were quantified using RT-qPCR, sandwich ELISA with whole cell lysates, or cell-surface biotinylation followed by ELISA analysis of the surface-localized protein, respectively...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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