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Brain swelling

Yukio Maezawa, Tsutomu Sato, Kazuki Kano, Kenki Segami, Tetsushi Nakajima, Taiichi Kawabe, Junya Shirai, Hiroto Fujikawa, Toru Aoyama, Tsutomu Hayashi, Kousuke Ikeda, Takanobu Yamada, Satoshi Tsuchida, Naoto Yamamoto, Takashi Ohshima, Yasushi Rino, Munetaka Masuda, Takashi Ogata, Haruhiko Cho, Takaki Yoshikawa
A30 -year-old woman underwent total gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection after being diagnosed with clinical T3, N2, M0, Stage III B gastric cancer. The postoperative pathological findings revealed a T3(SE), N2, M0, Stage III B tumor. Headache, dizziness, and vomiting occurred during chemotherapy for peritoneal recurrence, using weekly paclitaxel on days 1, 8, and 15. Head CT showed a solitary tumor with a diameter of 28mm in the cerebellum, as well as cerebellar swelling and hydrocephalus. She underwent an emergency craniotomy and tumor enucleation...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Shouta Sugio, Koujiro Tohyama, Shinichiro Oku, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Takeshi Yoshimura, Keigo Hikishima, Ryutaro Yano, Takahiro Fukuda, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano, Masahiko Watanabe, Masaki Fukata, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Kenji F Tanaka
Astrocytes have recently been shown to provide physiological support for various brain functions, although little is known about their involvement in white matter integrity. Several inherited infantile-onset leukoencephalopathies, such as Alexander disease and megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC), implicate astrocytic involvement in the formation of white matter. Several mouse models of MLC had been generated by knocking out the Mlc1 gene; however, none of those models was reported to show myelin abnormalities prior to formation of the myelin sheath...
October 17, 2016: Glia
Martin Sillesen, Theodore Bambakidis, Simone Dekker, Yongqing Li, Hasan B Alam
BACKGROUND: Resuscitation with Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) decreases brain lesion size and swelling in a swine model of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). We hypothesized that brain gene expression profiles following TBI+HS would be modulated by FFP resuscitation. STUDY DESIGN: 15 swine underwent a protocol of TBI and HS, two hours of shock followed by resuscitation with FFP, Normal Saline (NS) or hetastarch (Hextend, HEX, 5/group). After 6 hours, brain RNA was isolated and hybridized onto a Porcine Gene ST 1...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Alain Goriely, Johannes Weickenmeier, Ellen Kuhl
When a swelling soft solid is rigidly constrained on all sides except for a circular opening, it will bulge out to expand as observed during decompressive craniectomy, a surgical procedure used to reduce stresses in swollen brains. While the elastic energy of the solid decreases throughout this process, large stresses develop close to the opening. At the point of contact, the stresses exhibit a singularity similar to the ones found in the classic punch indentation problem. Here, we study the stresses generated by swelling and the evolution of the bulging shape associated with this process...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Alexander V Tschulakow, Ulrich Schraermeyer, H Peter Rodemann, Sylvie Julien-Schraermeyer
Retinoblastoma (Rb) is the most frequent primary intraocular tumour in children and if let untreated, can cause death. Preclinical animal models that mimic molecular, genetic, and cellular features of cancers are essential for studying cancer and searching for promising diagnosis and treatment modalities. There are several models described for Rb, but none of them fully met our requirements.The aim of this study was to create a novel xenograft-nude mouse-model with broad application possibilities, which closely resembles the clinical observations and to investigate the development and spread of the tumour by using SLO/OCT as well as histology methods...
September 30, 2016: Biology Open
Guanghui Tang, Guo-Yuan Yang
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a family member of water-channel proteins and is dominantly expressed in the foot process of glial cells surrounding capillaries. The predominant expression at the boundaries between cerebral parenchyma and major fluid compartments suggests the function of aquaporin-4 in water transfer into and out of the brain parenchyma. Accumulating evidences have suggested that the dysregulation of aquaporin-4 relates to the brain edema resulting from a variety of neuro-disorders, such as ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, trauma, etc...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mohammad Fazel Bakhsheshi, Yong Wang, Lynn Keenliside, Ting-Yim Lee
BACKGROUND: Target temperature management is the single most effective intervention and the gold standard in post-resuscitation care today. However, cooling the whole body below 33-34 °C can cause severe complications. Therefore, developing a selective brain cooling (SBC) approach which can be initiated early to induce rapid cooling and maintain the target temperature over 12-24 h before slowly rewarming brain temperature by itself alone would be advantageous. Vortex tubes are simple mechanical devices generating cold air from a stream of compressed air without applied chemical or energy...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Samuel Crocodile Wassmer, Georges Emile Raymond Grau
Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe and fatal form of malaria in humans with over half a million deaths each year. Cerebral malaria, a complex neurological syndrome of severe falciparum malaria, is often fatal and represents a major public health burden. Despite vigorous efforts, the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria remains to be elucidated, thereby hindering the development of adjunctive therapies. In recent years, multidisciplinary and collaborative approaches have led to groundbreaking progress both in the laboratory and in the field...
September 23, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Jose V Lafuente, G Bermudez, L Camargo-Arce, S Bulnes
Cerebral syndromes related to high altitude exposure are becoming more frequent as the number of trips to high altitudes has increased in the last decade. The commonest symptom is headache, followed by acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), which can be fatal. The pathophysiology of these syndromes is not fully comprehended. The classical "tight-fit hypothesis" defends the fact that there are some anatomical variations that would obstruct the sinovenous outflow and worsen the vasogenic edema and intracranial hypertension reactive to hypoxia...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Jens E V Petersen, Thomas Lavstsen, Alister Craig
Recent findings have linked brain swelling to death in cerebral malaria (CM). These observations have prompted a number of investigations into the mechanisms of this pathology with the goal of identifying potential therapeutic targets. In this issue of the JCI, Gallego-Delgado and colleagues present evidence that implicates angiotensin receptors and the relocation of β-catenin to the endothelial cell nucleus in CM. This study provides a renewed focus on infected erythrocyte debris as the cause of endothelial damage and challenges previous work implicating direct effects of infected erythrocyte sequestration in the brain as the major driver of disease...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Cunxiu Fan, Yuhua Zhao, Qian Yu, Wu Yin, Haipeng Liu, Jianzhong Lin, Tianhe Yang, Ming Fan, Luobu Gesang, Jiaxing Zhang
A large proportion of lowlanders ascending to high-altitude (HA) show no signs of mountain sickness. Whether their brains have indeed suffered from HA environment and the persistent sequelae after return to lowland remain unknown. Thirty-one sea-level college students, who had a 30-day teaching on Qinghai-Tibet plateau underwent MRI scans before, during, and two months after HA exposure. Brain volume, cortical structures, and white matter microstructure were measured. Besides, serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 and neuropsychiatric behaviors were tested...
2016: Scientific Reports
Gustav Folmer Genét, Peter Bentzer, Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Pär Ingemar Johansson
Traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and edema formation. Recent animal studies have shown that fresh frozen plasma (FFP) resuscitation reduces brain swelling and improves endothelial function compared to isotonic NaCl (NS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether pooled and pathogen-reduced plasma (OctaplasLG(®) [OCTA]; Octapharma, Stockholm, Sweden) was comparable to FFP with regard to effects on brain water content, BBB permeability, and plasma biomarkers of endothelial glycocalyx shedding and cell damage...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Nasya M Sturdivant, Sean G Smith, Syed F Ali, Jeffrey C Wolchok, Kartik Balachandran
Non-penetrating or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly experienced in accidents, the battlefield and in full-contact sports. Astrocyte cellular edema is one of the major factors that leads to high morbidity post-mTBI. Various studies have reported an upregulation of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel protein, following brain injury. AZA is an antiepileptic drug that has been shown to inhibit AQP4 expression and in this study we investigate the drug as a therapeutic to mitigate the extent of mTBI induced cellular edema...
2016: Scientific Reports
Duck-Ho Goh, Sung-Chul Jin, Hae Woong Jeong, Sam Yeol Ha
PURPOSE: Mechanical thrombectomy using a Solitaire stent has been associated with a high recanalization rate and favorable clinical outcome in intra-arterial thrombolysis. To achieve a higher recanalization rate for mechanical Solitaire thrombectomy, we used an intra-arterial low-dose booster tirofiban injection into the occluded segment after stent deployment. We report the safety and recanalization rates for mechanical Solitaire thrombectomy with a low-dose booster tirofiban injection...
September 2016: Neurointervention
Dustin M Simon, Hamid Charkhkar, Conan St John, Sakthi Rajendran, Tong Kang, Radu Reit, David Arreaga-Salas, Daniel G McHail, Gretchen L Knaack, Andrew Sloan, Dane Grasse, Theodore C Dumas, Robert L Rennaker, Joseph J Pancrazio, Walter E Voit
Intracortical probe technology, consisting of arrays of microelectrodes, offers a means of recording the bioelectrical activity from neural tissue. A major limitation of existing intracortical probe technology pertains to limited lifetime of 6 months to a year of recording after implantation. A major contributor to device failure is widely believed to be the interfacial mechanical mismatch of conventional stiff intracortical devices and the surrounding brain tissue. We describe the design, development and demonstration of a novel functional intracortical probe technology that has a tunable Young's modulus from ∼2 GPa to ∼50 MPa...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Hemanshu Prabhakar, Gyaninder Pal Singh, Charu Mahajan, Indu Kapoor, Mani Kalaivani, Vidhu Anand
BACKGROUND: Brain tumour surgery usually is carried out with the patient under general anaesthesia. Over past years, both intravenous and inhalational anaesthetic agents have been used, but the superiority of one agent over the other is a topic of ongoing debate. Early and rapid emergence from anaesthesia is desirable for most neurosurgical patients. With the availability of newer intravenous and inhalational anaesthetic agents, all of which have inherent advantages and disadvantages, we remain uncertain as to which technique may result in more rapid early recovery from anaesthesia...
September 9, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Qiang Shen, Lora Tally Watts, Wei Li, Timothy Q Duong
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in the USA. Common causes of TBI include falls, violence, injuries from wars, and vehicular and sporting accidents. The initial direct mechanical damage in TBI is followed by progressive secondary injuries such as brain swelling, perturbed cerebral blood flow (CBF), abnormal cerebrovascular reactivity (CR), metabolic dysfunction, blood-brain-barrier disruption, inflammation, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity, among others. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the means to noninvasively probe many of these secondary injuries...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Cristiane N Soares, Patrícia Brasil, Raquel Medialdea Carrera, Patricia Sequeira, Ana Bispo de Filippis, Vitor A Borges, Fernando Theophilo, Mark A Ellul, Tom Solomon
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) was first identified in the Americas in 2015, when an outbreak of an exanthematous illness occurred in Brazil. Subsequentely, there was an increase of microcephaly cases, suggesting an association between ZIKV and this neurological complication. Currently, ZIKV has been recognised as causing a wide range of neurological complications including Guillain Barré syndrome, and myelitis. OBJECTIVES: In this report, we describe the first fatal case of encephalitis in a 47 years old non pregnant woman, infected during the Brazilian zika epidemic of 2016...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Bora Gürer, Hayri Kertmen, Erdal Reşit Yilmaz, Habibullah Dolgun, Aşkın Esen Hastürk, Zeki Şekerci
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the surgical outcome and the prognostic importance of clinical and radiological data of patients operated emergently upon for an extraaxial hematoma causing brain herniation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study comprised 108 adult patients who were operated due to herniated traumatic extraaxial hematomas from January 2000 to January 2013. RESULTS: Of 108 patients, 63 patients (58.3%) were diagnosed as subdural hematoma (SDH), 45 patients (41...
December 7, 2015: Turkish Neurosurgery
A C N Phillips, S R Reichley, C Ware, M J Griffin
In response to a mortality event, seven Pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) were submitted to the University of the West Indies, School of Veterinary Medicine, Trinidad and Tobago, for diagnostic evaluation. These fish were part of a consignment that arrived from Kolkata two weeks earlier. Fish presented with perianal haemorrhage and blister-like swellings on the skin which ruptured to leave ulcers. Edwardsiella ictaluri was consistently recovered from the brain and skin. Repetitive sequence-mediated PCR analysis revealed genetic fingerprints consistent with E...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
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