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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674712/when-light-hurts-comparative-morphometry-of-human-brainstem-in-traumatic-photalgia
#1
Lora T Likova, Christopher W Tyler
Traumatic brain injury is an increasingly common affliction, although many of its serious repercussions are still underappreciated. A frequent consequence is the development of light-induced pain, or 'photalgia', which can often lead to prolonged debilitation. The mechanism underlying the sensitivity to light, however, remains unresolved. Since tissue oedema (swelling) is a common feature of traumatic brain injury, we propose that the brainstem oedema, in particular, might sensitize the brainstem trigeminal complex to signals from ocular mechanisms activated in bright light...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650593/human-neural-stem-cell-extracellular-vesicles-improve-recovery-in-a-porcine-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#2
Robin L Webb, Erin E Kaiser, Brian J Jurgielewicz, Samantha Spellicy, Shelley L Scoville, Tyler A Thompson, Raymond L Swetenburg, David C Hess, Franklin D West, Steven L Stice
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent work from our group suggests that human neural stem cell-derived extracellular vesicle (NSC EV) treatment improves both tissue and sensorimotor function in a preclinical thromboembolic mouse model of stroke. In this study, NSC EVs were evaluated in a pig ischemic stroke model, where clinically relevant end points were used to assess recovery in a more translational large animal model. METHODS: Ischemic stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and either NSC EV or PBS treatment was administered intravenously at 2, 14, and 24 hours post-MCAO...
April 12, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648981/glibenclamide-produces-region-dependent-effects-on-cerebral-edema-in-a-combined-injury-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock-in-mice
#3
Ruchira Jha, Bradley J Molyneaux, Travis C Jackson, Jessica Wallisch, Seo-Young Park, Samuel M Poloyac, Vincent A Vagni, Keri L Janesko-Feldman, Keito Hoshitsuki, Margaret Beth Minnigh, Patrick M Kochanek
Cerebral edema is critical to morbidity/mortality in TBI and is worsened by hypotension. Glibenclamide may reduce cerebral edema by inhibiting sulfonylurea receptor-1 (Sur1); its effect on diffuse cerebral edema exacerbated by hypotension/resuscitation is unknown. We aimed to determine if glibenclamide improves pericontusional and/or diffuse edema in controlled cortical impact (CCI, 5m/s, 1 mm-depth)+hemorrhagic shock (HS, 35 minutes), and compare its effects in CCI alone. C57/BL6 mice were divided into 5 groups (n=10/group): naïve, CCI+vehicle, CCI+glibenclamide, CCI+HS+vehicle, and CCI+HS+glibenclamide...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627628/early-administration-of-hypertonic-hyperoncotic-hydroxyethyl-starch-hyperhes-improves-cerebral-blood-flow-and-outcome-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#4
Nadine Lilla, Christoph Rinne, Judith Weiland, Thomas Linsenmann, Thomas Westermaier
OBJECTIVE: Early cytotoxic brain edema may be one decisive factor which maintains a vicious of cerebral malperfusion after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In addition, endothelial cell swelling may be an independent factor restricting cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a very early stage after SAH. Immediate and aggressive treatment may be able to restore CBF in this critical period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to SAH by the endovascular filament model and treated by a bolus of hyperoncotic-hypertonic hydroxyethyl starch (HyperHES 4 ml/kg body weight) immediately after vessel perforation and 150 min later (n = 12) or by the same amount of normal saline (n = 9)...
April 5, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623524/could-buerger-s-disease-cause-nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-a-rare-case-report
#5
Anil Korkmaz, Omer Karti, Dilek Top Karti, Bora Yüksel, Mehmet Ozgur Zengin, Tuncay Kusbeci
We present an interesting case with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) accompanied by Buerger's disease. A 43-year-old man was referred to our neuro-ophthalmology clinic with a complaint of visual deterioration in the left eye that started 5 days ago. He suffered from Buerger's disease, and he had acute pain in the right lower limb below the knee. His best corrected visual acuity was 10/10 in the right eye and 2/10 in the left eye by Snellen chart. There was a relative afferent pupil defect in the left eye...
April 5, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605485/a-camp-analog-attenuates-beta-amyloid-1-42-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-spatial-learning-and-memory-deficits
#6
Mehdi Aghsami, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Reza Sepand, Meysam Yazdankhah, Seyed Afshin Seyednejad, Jalal Pourahmad
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder in elderly, is indicated with deposition of Amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain and accompanied with cognitive impairment. Bucladesine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, may ameliorate AD's cognitive dysfunctions through mimicking the action of cAMP and raising its intracellular level. Here, we investigated the effects of bucladesine on Aβ-induced memory and learning impairment in a Morris water maze (MWM) model. Rats were injected with bucladesine (1 μl/side from a 100 μM stock solution) and Aβ (1 μl/side from a 100 μM stock solution) intra-hippocampally and after 19 days were trained for 4 successive days...
March 29, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604589/oncosis-like-cell-death-is-induced-by-berberine-through-erk1-2-mediated-impairment-of-mitochondrial-aerobic-respiration-in-gliomas
#7
Yuxue Sun, Jing Yu, Xinrui Liu, Chaochao Zhang, Junguo Cao, Guihong Li, Xingxing Liu, Yong Chen, Haiyan Huang
Gliomas, the most common primary malignant brain tumor, exhibit high metabolic activity. The targeting of metabolism alterations, particularly in mitochondria, is emerging as an efficient approach for curing cancers. Here, we showed that berberine, a natural compound that is used as an antibacterial agent, could reduce cellular viability and induce oncosis-like death, characterized by cell swelling, cytoplasmic vacuoles and plasma membrane blebbing, in gliomas, and that these effects were correlated with intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion...
March 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597065/modeling-cognitive-deficits-following-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-traumatic-brain-injuries-with-deep-convolutional-neural-networks
#8
Bethany Lusch, Jake Weholt, Pedro D Maia, J Nathan Kutz
The accurate diagnosis and assessment of neurodegenerative disease and traumatic brain injuries (TBI) remain open challenges. Both cause cognitive and functional deficits due to focal axonal swellings (FAS), but it is difficult to deliver a prognosis due to our limited ability to assess damaged neurons at a cellular level in vivo. We simulate the effects of neurodegenerative disease and TBI using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as our model of cognition. We utilize biophysically relevant statistical data on FAS to damage the connections in CNNs in a functionally relevant way...
March 26, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595192/blockade-of-the-swelling-induced-chloride-current-attenuates-the-mouse-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-vivo
#9
Raymond Wong, Ahmed Abussaud, Joseph Wh Leung, Bao-Feng Xu, Fei-Ya Li, Sammen Huang, Nai-Hong Chen, Guan-Lei Wang, Zhong-Ping Feng, Hong-Shuo Sun
Activation of swelling-induced Cl- current (ICl,swell ) during neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) may induce brain damage. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury causes chronic neurological morbidity in neonates as well as acute mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of ICl,swell in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury using a selective blocker, 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB). In primary cultured cortical neurons perfusion of a 30% hypotonic solution activated ICl,swell , which was completely blocked by the application of DCPIB (10 μmol/L)...
March 29, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593628/gray-matter-and-white-matter-abnormalities-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-with-and-without-hippocampal-sclerosis
#10
Iman Beheshti, Daichi Sone, Farnaz Farokhian, Norihide Maikusa, Hiroshi Matsuda
The presentation and distribution of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have been widely studied. Here, we investigated the GM and WM abnormalities in TLE patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in five groups of participants: healthy controls (HCs) ( n  = 28), right TLE patients with HS ( n  = 26), right TLE patients without HS ( n  = 30), left TLE patients with HS ( n  = 25), and left TLE patients without HS ( n  = 27). We performed a flexible factorial statistical test in a whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis to identify significant GM and WM abnormalities and analysis of variance of hippocampal and amygdala regions among the five groups using the FreeSurfer procedure...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574098/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore-opening-contributes-to-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-agonist-acea-induced-neuroprotection
#11
Lei Ma, Wen Niu, Shuai Yang, Junbin Tian, Hanlin Luan, Ming Cao, Wenbin Xi, Weifeng Tu, Ji Jia, Jianrui Lv
Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor agonist arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA) induces neuroprotection against brain ischemia, and the mechanism, however, is still elusive. In this study, we used bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in mice and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in primary cultured neurons to mimic brain ischemic injury, and hypothesized that cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist ACEA protects ischemic neurons via inhibiting the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP)...
March 21, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556959/neurogenic-inflammation-in-fibromyalgia
#12
REVIEW
Geoffrey Littlejohn, Emma Guymer
Fibromyalgia is a high impact chronic pain disorder with a well-defined and robust clinical phenotype. Key features include widespread pain and tenderness, high levels of sleep disturbance, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and emotional distress. Abnormal processing of pain and other sensory input occurs in the brain, spinal cord and periphery and is related to the processes of central and peripheral sensitization. As such, fibromyalgia is deemed to be one of the central sensitivity syndromes. There is increasing evidence of neurogenically derived inflammatory mechanisms occurring in the peripheral tissues, spinal cord and brain in fibromyalgia...
March 19, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556804/differential-degradation-rate-and-underlying-mechanism-of-a-collagen-chitosan-complex-in-subcutis-spinal-cord-and-brain-tissues-of-rat
#13
Feng Fu, Xiang Zhu, Zhe Qin, Jing-Jing Wang, Chao Xu, Li-Na Wang, Yue Tu, Sai Zhang, Rui-Xin Li, Xiao-Hong Li, Ming-Liang Zhao
Degradation rate is an important index for evaluating biomaterials. The authors' aim was to determine whether the degradation rate of biomaterials is different in distinct tissues and to clarify the underlying mechanism of degradation. The collagen-chitosan (CG-CS) composite scaffolds were prepared using freeze-drying technology. The porosity, water absorption and swelling ratio of the scaffolds were tested in vitro. The scaffolds were implanted into the subcutis, spinal cord and brain tissues of SD rats, the rate of degradation was assessed by continuous monitoring of weight loss, the pathological changes of target areas were observed by histological staining, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and lysozyme were detected at the rapid stage of degradation of the scaffolds...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536271/novel-rest-functions-revealed-by-conditional-gene-ablation
#14
REVIEW
Hitomi Aoki
Rest is a regulator of neuronal development and has been suggested to function in maintaining the pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs); however, this remains controversial. Since Rest null mice show embryonic lethality, we herein generated conditional Rest knockout (CKO) models to investigate Rest functions in more detail. Our results revealed that Rest was not necessary for maintaining the pluripotency of ESCs and instead promoted primitive endoderm differentiation. In contrast to the repressive role of Rest in vitro, including ESCs, neural stem cells, and fibroblasts, on the expression of target neural genes, Rest CKO did not affect the in vivo development of brain tissue...
March 13, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527912/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-modulates-intestinal-barrier-by-inhibiting-intestinal-epithelial-cells-apoptosis-in-mice
#15
Dong-Yan Zhao, Wen-Xue Zhang, Qing-Qing Qi, Xin Long, Xia Li, Yan-Bo Yu, Xiu-Li Zuo
We aimed to investigate the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and alterations of intestinal barrier integrity using BDNF knock-out mice model. Colonic tissues from BDNF(+/+) mice and BDNF(+/-) mice were prepared for this study. The integrity of colonic mucosa was evaluated by measuring trans-mucosa electrical resistance and tissue conductance in Ussing chamber. The colonic epithelial structure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527397/wolf-in-sheep-s-clothing-intracranial-actinomycosis-masquerading-as-en-plaque-meningioma
#16
Harsh Deora, Manish Beniwal, Shilpa Rao, K V L N Rao, V Vikas, Sampath Somanna
Background: Actinomycosis israeli is a gram-positive non-acid-fast bacterium and is the most common causative agent of actinomycosis. It usually presents as a brain abscess via a secondary spread from the cervicofacial region or lungs. However, presentation as an en-plaque lesion with bone involvement out of proportion to brain parenchyma is rare and needs to be acknowledged. Case Description: We report a case of intracranial en-plaque lesion in a 47-year-old female with restriction of mouth opening and right third nerve palsy for 1 year...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519969/-an-autopsy-case-of-meningoencephalitis-and-cerebral-infarction-that-developed-with-ramsay-hunt-syndrome-and-disseminated-herpes-zoster
#17
Nobuo Yamashiro, Takamura Nagasaka, Naoki Ooishi, Mai Tsuchiya, Ryusuke Takaki, Fumikazu Kobayashi, Kazumasa Shindo, Yoshihisa Takiyama
We report here the clinical presentation and subsequent autopsy of a 90-year-old man who developed small papules with pain and swelling in his right ear. On admission, he exhibited right facial nerve paralysis, neck stiffness and Kernig's sign. The cell count was elevated and the varicella-zoster virus-PCR was positive in the CSF. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense lesions in the left pons and left temporal lobe, in FLAIR images. We diagnosed the patient with Ramsay Hunt syndrome and meningoencephalitis due to varicella-zoster virus...
March 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516694/-effects-of-moxibustion-on-ventricular-mass-index-and-expression-of-apoptosis-related-proteins-in-myocardium-of-rats-with-chronic-heart-failure
#18
Dan Li, Qing-Ling Li, Qiang Ma, Na-Na Liu, Jia-Hui Yang, Yong-Lei Zeng, Ling He, Hui Tan, Xue-Zhao Jia, Jing Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of moxibustion on cardiac function and the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X (Bax), Fas, Fas ligand (FasL) in cardiomyocytes of chronic heart failure (CHF) rats, so as to explore its underlying mechanisms in preventing and treating CHF. METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into normal control, model, moxibustion, Captopril and moxibustion + Captopril (M+C) groups ( n =12 rats/group). The CHF model was established by intraperitoneal injection of Adriamycin (ADR, from 1 to 4 mg/kg, once every other day for 15 days)...
February 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513757/comparison-of-neuroprotective-efficacy-of-poly-arginine-r18-and-r18d-d-enantiomer-peptides-following-permanent-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-the-wistar-rat-and-in-vitro-toxicity-studies
#19
Diego Milani, Megan C Bakeberg, Jane L Cross, Vince W Clark, Ryan S Anderton, David J Blacker, Neville W Knuckey, Bruno P Meloni
We have previously demonstrated that arginine-rich and poly-arginine peptides possess potent neuroprotective properties, with poly-arginine peptide R18 identified as being highly effective at reducing infarct volume following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the Sprague Dawley rat. Since peptides synthesised using D-isoform amino acids have greater stability than L-isoform peptides due to increased resistance to proteolytic degradation, they represent potentially more effective peptide therapeutics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512783/therapeutic-window-for-yc%C3%A2-1-following-glutamate%C3%A2-induced-neuronal-damage-and-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#20
Shih-Huang Tai, Wei-Ting Lee, Ai-Chiang Lee, Yu-Wen Lin, Hsin-Yi Hung, Sheng-Yang Huang, Tian-Shung Wu, E-Jian Lee
3-(5'-Hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1), has been demonstrated to inhibit platelet aggregation, vascular contraction and hypoxia‑inducible factor 1 activity in vitro and in vivo. The present study investigated the neuroprotective efficacy of YC‑1 in cultured neurons exposed to glutamate‑induced excitotoxicity and in an animal model of stroke. In a cortical neuronal culture model, YC‑1 demonstrated neurotoxicity at a concentration >100 µM, and YC‑1 (10‑30 µM) achieved potent cytoprotection against glutamate‑induced neuronal damage...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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