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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128392/adrenergic-manipulation-inhibits-pavlovian-conditioned-approach-behaviors
#1
Kyle Z Pasquariello, Marina Han, Cagla Unal, Paul J Meyer
Environmental rewards and Pavlovian reward cues can acquire incentive salience, thereby eliciting incentive motivational states and instigate reward-seeking. In rats, the incentive salience of food cues can be measured during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm, in which rats engage in cue-directed approach ("sign-tracking") or approach the food delivery location ("goal-tracking"). While it has been shown that dopamine signaling is necessary for sign-tracking, some studies have suggested that norepinephrine is involved in learning to sign-track as well...
November 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124569/running-based-pica-and-taste-avoidance-in-rats
#2
Sadahiko Nakajima
Running in an activity wheel generates pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) in rats. Wheel running also results in Pavlovian conditioned avoidance of the taste solution consumed immediately before the running. Since pica has been considered a behavioral marker of nausea in rats, these findings suggest that wheel running induces nausea, which is the underlying physiological state for establishing taste avoidance. This article reports a replication of running-based pica in rats (Experiment 1) and concurrent demonstrations of running-based pica and taste avoidance in the same animals (Experiments 2 and 3)...
November 9, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111450/interpersonal-dysfunction-in-borderline-personality-a-decision-neuroscience-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Michael N Hallquist, Nathan T Hall, Alison M Schreiber, Alexandre Y Dombrovski
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by disadvantageous decisions that are often expressed in close relationships and associated with intense negative emotions. Although functional neuroimaging studies of BPD have described regions associated with altered social cognition and emotion processing, these correlates do not inform an understanding of how brain activity leads to maladaptive choices. Drawing on recent research, we argue that formal models of decision-making are crucial to elaborating theories of BPD that bridge psychological constructs, behavior, and neural systems...
September 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097594/aversive-learning-of-odor-heat-associations-in-ants
#4
Lucie Desmedt, David Baracchi, Jean-Marc Devaud, Martin Giurfa, Patrizia d'Ettorre
Ants have recently emerged as useful models for the study of olfactory learning. In this framework, the development of a protocol for the appetitive conditioning of the maxilla-labium extension response (MaLER) provided the possibility of studying Pavlovian odor-food learning in a controlled environment. Here we extend these studies by introducing the first Pavlovian aversive learning protocol for harnessed ants in the laboratory. We worked with carpenter ants Camponotus aethiops and first determined the capacity of different temperatures applied to the body surface to elicit the typical aversive mandible opening response (MOR)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083203/brief-optogenetic-inhibition-of-rat-lateral-or-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray-augments-the-acquisition-of-pavlovian-fear-conditioning
#5
Neda Assareh, Elena E Bagley, Pascal Carrive, Gavan P McNally
The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) coordinates the expression and topography of defensive behaviors to threat and also plays an important role in Pavlovian fear learning itself. Whereas the role of PAG in the expression of defensive behavior is well understood, the relationship between the activity of PAG neurons and fear learning, the exact timing of PAG contributions to learning during the conditioning trial, and the contributions of different PAG columns to fear learning are poorly understood. We assessed the effects of optogenetic inhibition of lateral (LPAG) and ventrolateral PAG (VLPAG) neurons on fear learning...
October 30, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081007/interplay-of-prefrontal-cortex-and-amygdala-during-extinction-of-drug-seeking
#6
Valeria Oliva, Emilio Cartoni, Emanuele Claudio Latagliata, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Gianluca Baldassarre
Extinction of Pavlovian conditioning is a complex process that involves brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the amygdala and the locus coeruleus. In particular, noradrenaline (NA) coming from the locus coeruleus has been recently shown to play a different role in two subregions of the mPFC, the prelimbic (PL) and the infralimbic (IL) regions. How these regions interact in conditioning and subsequent extinction is an open issue. We studied these processes using two approaches: computational modelling and NA manipulation in a conditioned place preference paradigm (CPP) in mice...
October 28, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071299/noradrenergic-regulation-of-central-amygdala-in-aversive-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer
#7
Vincent D Campese, Jose M Soroeta, Elena M Vazey, Gary Aston-Jones, Joseph E LeDoux, Robert M Sears
The neural mechanisms through which a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) elicits innate defense responses are well understood. But a Pavlovian CS can also invigorate ongoing instrumental responding, as shown by studies of aversive Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT). While the neural circuitry of appetitive PIT has been studied extensively, little is known about the brain mechanisms of aversive PIT. We recently showed the central amygdala (CeA) is essential for aversive PIT. In the current studies, using pharmacology and designer receptors in rodents, we demonstrate that noradrenergic (NE) activity negatively regulates PIT via brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) activity and LC projections to CeA...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066971/the-sigma-2-receptor-selective-agonist-siramesine-lu-28-179-decreases-cocaine-reinforced-pavlovian-learning-and-alters-glutamatergic-and-dopaminergic-input-to-the-striatum
#8
Anna M Klawonn, Anna Nilsson, Carl F Rådberg, Sarah H Lindström, Mia Ericson, Björn Granseth, David Engblom, Michael Fritz
Drug addiction is a chronic, debilitating disease that affects millions of people around the world causing a substantial societal burden. Despite decades of research efforts, treatment possibilities remain limited and relapse represents the most treatment-resistant element. Neurosteroid sigma-1 receptors have been meticulously studied in psychostimulant reinforced Pavlovian learning, while the sigma-2 receptor subtype has remained unexplored. Recent development of selective sigma-2 receptor ligands have now made it possible to investigate if the sigma-2 receptor system is a potential target to treat drug addiction...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054742/failing-to-pay-heed-to-health-warnings-in-a-food-associated-environment
#9
Aukje A C Verhoeven, Poppy Watson, Sanne de Wit
People often fail to adhere to food-related health information. Increasing evidence suggests that environmental stimuli interfere with good intentions by triggering choices relatively automatically. Using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) task, we examined whether food-associated stimuli reduce health warnings' effectiveness. We expected that people adhere to health warnings in the absence, but not presence, of food-associated stimuli. In addition, we examined timing effects, i.e., whether health warnings are more effective when they are given prior to associative learning rather than afterwards...
January 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045570/optogenetic-activation-of-the-infralimbic-cortex-suppresses-the-return-of-appetitive-pavlovian-conditioned-responding-following-extinction
#10
Franz R Villaruel, Franca Lacroix, Christian Sanio, Daniel W Sparks, C Andrew Chapman, Nadia Chaudhri
The infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (IL) is important for suppressing learned behavior after extinction, but whether this function extends to responses acquired through appetitive Pavlovian conditioning is unclear. We trained male, Long-Evans rats to associate a white-noise conditional stimulus (CS; 10 s; 14 presentations per session) with 10% liquid sucrose (0.2 mL per CS presentation), and recorded entries into the fluid port during the CS. The CS was presented without sucrose in subsequent extinction and test sessions...
October 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044780/-hot-vs-cold-behavioural-cognitive-styles-motivationaldopaminergic-vs-cognitive-cholinergic-processing-of-a-pavlovian-cocaine-cue-in-sign-and-goal-tracking-rats
#11
Kyle K Pitchers, Louisa F Kane, Youngsoo Kim, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
Discrete Pavlovian reward cues acquire more potent incentive motivational properties (incentive salience) in some animals (sign-trackers; STs) compared to others (goal-trackers; GTs). Conversely, GTs appear to be better than STs in processing more complex contextual cues, perhaps reflecting their relatively greater bias for goal-directed cue processing. Here, we investigated the activity of two major prefrontal neuromodulatory input systems, dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh), in response to a discrete Pavlovian cue that was previously paired with cocaine administration in STs and GTs...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038219/the-l-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channel-cav1-2-mediates-fear-extinction-and-modulates-synaptic-tone-in-the-lateral-amygdala
#12
Stephanie J Temme, Geoffrey G Murphy
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCCs) have been implicated in both the formation and the reduction of fear through Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. Despite the implication of LVGCCs in fear learning and extinction, studies of the individual LVGCC subtypes, CaV1.2 and CaV1.3, using transgenic mice have failed to find a role of either subtype in fear extinction. This discontinuity between the pharmacological studies of LVGCCs and the studies investigating individual subtype contributions could be due to the limited neuronal deletion pattern of the CaV1...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037660/nmda-receptor-blockade-specifically-impedes-the-acquisition-of-incentive-salience-attribution
#13
Jonathan J Chow, Joshua S Beckmann
Glutamatergic signaling plays an important role in learning and memory. Using Pavlovian conditioned approach procedures, the mechanisms that drive stimulus-reward learning and memory have been investigated. However, there are instances where reward-predictive stimuli can function beyond being solely predictive and can be attributed with "motivational value" or incentive salience. Using a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure consisting of two different but equally predictive stimuli (lever vs. tone) we investigated the role NMDA receptor function has in the attribution of incentive salience...
February 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036632/mapping-compulsivity-in-the-dsm-5-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders-cognitive-domains-neural-circuitry-and-treatment
#14
Naomi A Fineberg, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, M Matilde Vaghi, Paula Banca, Claire M Gillan, Valerie Voon, Samuel R Chamberlain, Cinosi Eduardo, Reid Jemma, Sonia Shahper, Edward T Bullmore, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
Compulsions are repetitive, stereotyped thoughts and behaviors designed to reduce harm. Growing evidence suggests that the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating behavioural inhibition (motor inhibition, cognitive inflexibility) reversal learning and habit formation (shift from goal-directed to habitual responding) contribute toward compulsive activity in a broad range of disorders. In obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), distributed network perturbation appears focussed around the pre-frontal cortex, caudate, putamen and associated neuro-circuitry...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030297/impaired-extinction-of-cued-fear-memory-and-abnormal-dendritic-morphology-in-the-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-cortices-in-vpac2-receptor-vipr2-deficient-mice
#15
Yukio Ago, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Takuya Kawanai, Ryosuke Yamauchi, Shuto Takeuchi, Jesse D Cushman, Abha K Rajbhandari, Michael S Fanselow, Hitoshi Hashimoto, James A Waschek
The structurally related neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) have been implicated in stress regulation and learning and memory. Several bodies of research have shown the impact of the PACAP specific receptor PAC1 on fear memory, but the roles of other PACAP receptors in regulating fear stress responses remain to be elucidated. Here we aimed to investigate the effects of genetic deletion of VIPR2 encoding the VPAC2 receptor, which binds both VIP and PACAP, on fear-related memory and on dendritic morphology in the brain regions of the fear circuitry...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025687/serine-racemase-and-d-serine-in-the-amygdala-are-dynamically-involved-in-fear-learning
#16
Darrick T Balu, Kendall Taylor Presti, Cathy C Y Huang, Kevin Muszynski, Inna Radzishevsky, Herman Wolosker, Guia Guffanti, Kerry J Ressler, Joseph T Coyle
BACKGROUND: The amygdala is a central component of the neural circuitry that underlies fear learning. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent plasticity in the amygdala is required for pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation requires the binding of a coagonist, D-serine, which is synthesized from L-serine by the neuronal enzyme serine racemase (SR). However, little is known about SR and D-serine function in the amygdala. METHODS: We used immunohistochemical methods to characterize the cellular localization of SR and D-serine in the mouse and human amygdala...
August 26, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993726/pavlovian-extinction-and-recovery-effects-in-aversive-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer
#17
Vincent D Campese, Ian T Kim, Gerardo Rojas, Joseph E LeDoux
Three studies explored the sensitivity of aversive Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) to Pavlovian extinction in rodents. Rats underwent Pavlovian conditioning prior to avoidance training. The PIT test then involved assessment of the effects of the Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) on the performance of the avoidance response (AR). Conducting extinction prior to avoidance training and transfer testing, allowed spontaneous recovery and shock reinstatement of extinguished motivation, whereas conducting extinction following avoidance training and just prior to PIT testing successfully reduced transfer effects...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993129/separating-the-agony-from-ecstasy-r-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-has-prosocial-and-therapeutic-like-effects-without-signs-of-neurotoxicity-in-mice
#18
Daniel W Curry, Matthew B Young, Andrew N Tran, Georges E Daoud, Leonard L Howell
S,R(+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (SR-MDMA) is an amphetamine derivative with prosocial and putative therapeutic effects. Ongoing clinical trials are investigating it as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other conditions. However, its potential for adverse effects such as hyperthermia and neurotoxicity may limit its clinical viability. We investigated the hypothesis that one of the two enantiomers of SR-MDMA, R-MDMA, would retain the prosocial and therapeutic effects but with fewer adverse effects...
October 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987515/does-exercise-augment-operant-and-pavlovian-extinction-a-meta-analysis
#19
Rheall F Roquet, Marie-H Monfils
BACKGROUND: Exposure therapy, a behavioral approach to reduce symptomology in fear, anxiety, and drug-related psychiatric disorders, is based on learning and memory principles of extinction, and is subject to relapse. As such, it is important to find ways to enhance outcomes. One such way is through exercise. OBJECTIVES: Identify if exercise augments extinction behavior, and whether this depends on the experimental paradigm used (i.e. operant or Pavlovian) and/or stimulus (i...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986462/the-lateral-habenula-and-its-input-to-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus-mediates-outcome-specific-conditioned-inhibition
#20
Vincent Laurent, Felix L Wong, Bernard W Balleine
Animals can readily learn that stimuli predict the absence of specific appetitive outcomes; however, the neural substrates underlying such outcome-specific conditioned inhibition remain largely unexplored. Here, we examined the involvement of the lateral habenula (LHb) and of its inputs onto the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) in inhibitory learning using female and male rats as subjects. In these experiments, we used backward conditioning and contingency reversal to establish outcome-specific conditioned inhibitors for two distinct appetitive outcomes, and then assessed the effects of manipulations of the LHb and the LHb-RMTg pathway on that inhibitory encoding using the Pavlovian-instrumental transfer paradigm...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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