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Pavlovian

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324797/sex-dependent-impact-of-early-life-stress-and-adult-immobilization-in-the-attribution-of-incentive-salience-in-rats
#1
Silvia Fuentes, Javier Carrasco, Abigail Hatto, Juan Navarro, Antonio Armario, Manel Monsonet, Jordi Ortiz, Roser Nadal
Early life stress (ELS) induces long-term effects in later functioning and interacts with further exposure to other stressors in adulthood to shape our responsiveness to reward-related cues. The attribution of incentive salience to food-related cues may be modulated by previous and current exposures to stressors in a sex-dependent manner. We hypothesized from human data that exposure to a traumatic (severe) adult stressor will decrease the attribution of incentive salience to reward-associated cues, especially in females, because these effects are modulated by previous ELS...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323515/suboptimal-choice-reward-predictive-signals-and-temporal-information
#2
Paul J Cunningham, Timothy A Shahan
Suboptimal choice refers to preference for an alternative offering a low probability of food (suboptimal alternative) over an alternative offering a higher probability of food (optimal alternative). Numerous studies have found that stimuli signaling probabilistic food play a critical role in the development and maintenance of suboptimal choice. However, there is still much debate about how to characterize how these stimuli influence suboptimal choice. There is substantial evidence that the temporal information conveyed by a food-predictive signal governs its function as both a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus and as an instrumental conditioned reinforcer...
January 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315659/the-role-of-glutamate-signaling-in-incentive-salience-second-by-second-glutamate-recordings-in-awake-sprague-dawley-rats
#3
Seth R Batten, Francois Pomerleau, Jorge Quintero, Greg A Gerhardt, Joshua S Beckmann
The attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli has been shown to be associated with substance abuse-like behavior such as increased drug taking. Evidence suggests that glutamate neurotransmission and sequential N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) activation are involved in the attribution of incentive salience. Here we further explore the role of second-by-second glutamate neurotransmission in the attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli by measuring sign-tracking behavior during a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure using ceramic-based microelectrode arrays configured for sensitive measures of extracellular glutamate in awake behaving Sprague Dawley rats...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313238/proactive-interference-by-cues-presented-without-outcomes-differences-in-context-specificity-of-latent-inhibition-and-conditioned-inhibition
#4
Gonzalo Miguez, Bridget McConnell, Cody W Polack, Ralph R Miller
This report is part of a larger project examining associative interference as a function of the nature of the interfering and target associations. Lick suppression experiments with rats assessed the effects of context shifts on proactive outcome interference by latent inhibition (LI) and Pavlovian conditioned inhibition (CI) treatments on subsequently trained Pavlovian conditioned excitation treatment. LI and CI were trained in Context A during Phase 1, and then excitation treatment was administered in Context B during Phase 2, followed by tests for conditioned excitation in Contexts A, B, or C...
January 8, 2018: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313106/neural-correlates-of-instrumental-responding-in-the-context-of-alcohol-related-cues-index-disorder-severity-and-relapse-risk
#5
Daniel J Schad, Maria Garbusow, Eva Friedel, Christian Sommer, Miriam Sebold, Claudia Hägele, Nadine Bernhardt, Stephan Nebe, Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Shuyan Liu, Uta Eichmann, Anne Beck, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Henrik Walter, Philipp Sterzer, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Michael N Smolka, Florian Schlagenhauf, Quentin J M Huys, Andreas Heinz, Michael A Rapp
The influence of Pavlovian conditioned stimuli on ongoing behavior may contribute to explaining how alcohol cues stimulate drug seeking and intake. Using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer task, we investigated the effects of alcohol-related cues on approach behavior (i.e., instrumental response behavior) and its neural correlates, and related both to the relapse after detoxification in alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-one recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 24 healthy controls underwent instrumental training, where approach or non-approach towards initially neutral stimuli was reinforced by monetary incentives...
January 8, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311651/identification-of-a-novel-gene-regulating-amygdala-mediated-fear-extinction
#6
Ozge Gunduz-Cinar, Emma Brockway, Lauren Lederle, Troy Wilcox, Lindsay R Halladay, Ying Ding, Hyunjung Oh, Erica F Busch, Katie Kaugars, Shaun Flynn, Aaron Limoges, Olena Bukalo, Kathryn P MacPherson, Sophie Masneuf, Courtney Pinard, Etienne Sibille, Elissa J Chesler, Andrew Holmes
Recent years have seen advances in our understanding of the neural circuits associated with trauma-related disorders, and the development of relevant assays for these behaviors in rodents. Although inherited factors are known to influence individual differences in risk for these disorders, it has been difficult to identify specific genes that moderate circuit functions to affect trauma-related behaviors. Here, we exploited robust inbred mouse strain differences in Pavlovian fear extinction to uncover quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with this trait...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291424/enhanced-incentive-motivation-in-obesity-prone-rats-is-mediated-by-nac-core-cp-ampars
#7
Rifka C Derman, Carrie R Ferrario
Studies in humans suggest that stronger incentive motivational responses to Pavlovian food cues may drive over-consumption leading to and maintaining obesity, particularly in susceptible individuals. However, whether this enhanced incentive motivation emerges as a consequence of obesity or rather precedes obesity is unknown. Moreover, while human imaging studies have provided important information about differences in striatal responsiveness between susceptible and non-susceptible individuals, the neural mechanisms mediating these behavioral differences are unknown...
December 29, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285634/transient-inactivation-of-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-enhances-cue-induced-reinstatement-in-goal-trackers-but-not-sign-trackers
#8
Brittany N Kuhn, Marin S Klumpner, Ignacio R Covelo, Paolo Campus, Shelly B Flagel
RATIONALE: The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) has been shown to mediate cue-motivated behaviors, such as sign- and goal-tracking, as well as reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. However, the role of the PVT in mediating individual variation in cue-induced drug-seeking behavior remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine if inactivation of the PVT differentially mediates cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in sign-trackers and goal-trackers...
December 28, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278696/individual-differences-in-incentive-salience-attribution-are-not-related-to-suboptimal-choice-in-rats
#9
Paulina López, Rodrigo Alba, Vladimir Orduña
Previous research has shown great variation in the extent to which individual rats attribute incentive salience to stimuli that are predictors of reinforcement. When using the Pavlovian Conditioned Approach procedure, in which a discrete stimulus is presented contingently before the delivery of reinforcement, the attribution of incentive salience is demonstrated by sign-tracking behavior (responses directed toward the stimulus predictor of reinforcement), while an absence of this attribution is reflected by goal-tracking behavior (responses directed toward the source of reinforcement)...
December 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274377/associative-versus-predictive-processes-in-pavlovian-conditioning
#10
Jérémie Jozefowiez
While learning and memory are basically the same thing for the layman, they are considered distinct entities in psychology. The concept of association, which is central both to the field of conditioning and to that of retrieval and forgetting, could be used to bridge the gap between the two concepts. However, the concept is quite different in the fields of learning and memory, a situation for which this article argues that the Rescorla-Wagner model is mainly to blame. By viewing Pavlovian conditioning as the outcome of a predictive process but using the traditional associative language developed in memory studies to describe this process, it has introduced an unnecessary confusion between memory and prediction within the field of learning...
December 20, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248689/pattern-of-access-determines-influence-of-junk-food-diet-on-cue-sensitivity-and-palatability
#11
Alisa R Kosheleff, Jingwen Araki, Jennifer Hsueh, Andrew Le, Kevin Quizon, Sean B Ostlund, Nigel T Maidment, Niall P Murphy
AIMS: Like drug addiction, cues associated with palatable foods can trigger food-seeking, even when sated. However, whether susceptibility to the motivating influence of food-related cues is a predisposing factor in overeating or a consequence of poor diet is difficult to determine in humans. Using a rodent model, we explored whether a highly palatable 'junk food' diet impacts responses to reward-paired cues in a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer test, using sweetened condensed milk (SCM) as the reward...
December 14, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246977/temporal-specificity-in-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer
#12
Matthew S Matell, Rebecca B Della Valle
Presentation of a previously trained Pavlovian conditioned stimulus while an organism is engaged in operant responding can moderate the rate of responding, a phenomenon known as Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer. Although it is well known that Pavlovian contingencies will generate conditioned behavior that is temporally organized with respect to the arrival of the predicted outcome, little work has examined the temporal dynamics of responding during Pavlovian-instrumental transfer. We trained rats using a fixed time 60-sec, fixed time 120-sec, or random time 60-sec schedule in an appetitive Pavlovian task, and found that presentation of the conditioned stimulus potentiated operant responding in a manner that reflected these previously established temporal expectancies...
January 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244641/pavlovian-control-of-escape-and-avoidance
#13
Alexander J Millner, Samuel J Gershman, Matthew K Nock, Hanneke E M den Ouden
To survive in complex environments, animals need to have mechanisms to select effective actions quickly, with minimal computational costs. As perhaps the computationally most parsimonious of these systems, Pavlovian control accomplishes this by hardwiring specific stereotyped responses to certain classes of stimuli. It is well documented that appetitive cues initiate a Pavlovian bias toward vigorous approach; however, Pavlovian responses to aversive stimuli are less well understood. Gaining a deeper understanding of aversive Pavlovian responses, such as active avoidance, is important given the critical role these behaviors play in several psychiatric conditions...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244620/calming-cycle-theory-and-the-co-regulation-of-oxytocin
#14
Martha G Welch, Robert J Ludwig
The biological functions of oxytocin in attachment and bonding between mother and infant in parturition and breastfeeding and between adults have been studied extensively. However, most current authors have proposed that infant attachment to the mother is learned through operant conditioning mechanisms via the infant's brain and central nervous system. We propose that oxytocin levels in the mother and infant are co-regulated by emotional connection or disconnection, and that the autonomic co-conditioning learning mechanism can be exploited to change a negative physiological and behavioral response between mother and infant into a positive one...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243588/dynamic-modulation-of-activity-in-cerebellar-nuclei-neurons-during-pavlovian-eyeblink-conditioning-in-mice
#15
Michiel Manuel Ten Brinke, Shane Heiney, Xiaolu Wang, Martina Proietti-Onori, Henk-Jan Boele, Jacob Bakermans, Javier F Medina, Zhenyu Gao, Chris I De Zeeuw
While research on the cerebellar cortex is crystallizing our understanding of its function in learning behavior, many questions surrounding its downstream targets remain. Here, we evaluate the dynamics of cerebellar interpositus nucleus (IpN) neurons over the course of Pavlovian eyeblink conditioning. A diverse range of learning-induced neuronal responses was observed, including increases and decreases in activity during the generation of conditioned blinks. Trial-by-trial correlational analysis and optogenetic manipulation demonstrate that facilitation in the IpN drives the eyelid movements...
December 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237242/enhanced-cognition-and-dysregulated-hippocampal-synaptic-physiology-in-mice-with-a-heterozygous-deletion-of-psd-95
#16
Alexa E Horner, Catherine L McLaughlin, Nurudeen O Afinowi, Timothy J Bussey, Lisa M Saksida, Noboru H Komiyama, Seth G N Grant, Maksym V Kopanitsa
PSD-95 is one of the most abundant proteins of the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. It functions as the backbone of protein supercomplexes that mediate signalling between membrane glutamate receptors and intracellular pathways. Homozygous deletion of the Dlg4 gene encoding PSD-95 was previously found to cause a profound impairment in operant and Pavlovian conditioning in Dlg4-/- mice studied in touchscreen chambers that precluded evaluation of PSD-95's role in shaping more subtle forms of learning and memory...
December 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225043/neurogranin-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-regulates-nmda-receptor-tolerance-and-motivation-for-ethanol-seeking
#17
Ashlie N Reker, Alfredo Oliveros, John M Sullivan, Lailun Nahar, David J Hinton, Taehyun Kim, Robert C Bruner, Doo-Sup Choi, Nicholas E Goeders, Hyung W Nam
Dysfunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Neurogranin (Ng), a calmodulin-binding protein, is exclusively expressed in the post-synapse, and mediates NMDAR driven synaptic plasticity by regulating the calcium-calmodulin (Ca2+-CaM) pathway. To study the functional role of Ng in AUD, we administrated behavior tests including Pavlovian instrument transfer (PIT), operant conditioning, and rotarod test using Ng null mice (Ng-/- mice)...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222129/visual-associative-learning-in-wood-ants
#18
A Sofia D Fernandes, C L Buckley, J E Niven
Wood ants are a model system for studying visual learning and navigation. They can forage for food and navigate to their nests effectively by forming memories of visual features in their surrounding environment. Previous studies of freely behaving ants have revealed many of the behavioural strategies and environmental features necessary for successful navigation. However, little is known about the exact visual properties of the environment that animals learn or the neural mechanisms that allow them to achieve this...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203422/pavlovian-conditioned-diminution-of-the-neurobehavioral-response-to-threat
#19
REVIEW
Adam M Goodman, Nathaniel G Harnett, David C Knight
An important function of emotion is that it motivates us to respond more effectively to threats in our environment. Accordingly, healthy emotional function depends on the ability to appropriately avoid, escape, or defend against threats we encounter. Thus, from a functional perspective, it is important to understand the emotional response to threat. However, prior work has largely focused on the emotional response in anticipation of threat, rather than the emotional response to the threat itself. The current review is focused on recent behavioral, psychophysiological, and neural findings from Pavlovian conditioning research that is centered on the expression and regulation of the emotional response to threat...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197982/dissociation-of-place-preference-and-tolerance-responses-to-sucrose-using-a-dopamine-antagonist-in-the-planarian
#20
Rafat A Mohammed Jawad, Claire V Hutchinson, Jose Prados
In rodents, sucrose has been found to elicit addictive-like behaviours like the development of tolerance and the association with cues present at the time of consumption. Furthermore, the neurochemical response to sucrose binges is equivalent to the one observed in response to the abuse of addictive substances like cocaine. The experiments reported here address the effects of sucrose on an invertebrate model, the Platyhelminth brown planarian. The animals exposed to a 10% sucrose solution in one context developed a conditioned place preference (CPP) which was subsequently extinguished in the absence of the rewarding agent...
December 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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