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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321129/cerebellar-granule-cells-encode-the-expectation-of-reward
#1
Mark J Wagner, Tony Hyun Kim, Joan Savall, Mark J Schnitzer, Liqun Luo
The human brain contains approximately 60 billion cerebellar granule cells, which outnumber all other brain neurons combined. Classical theories posit that a large, diverse population of granule cells allows for highly detailed representations of sensorimotor context, enabling downstream Purkinje cells to sense fine contextual changes. Although evidence suggests a role for the cerebellum in cognition, granule cells are known to encode only sensory and motor context. Here, using two-photon calcium imaging in behaving mice, we show that granule cells convey information about the expectation of reward...
March 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294944/the-computational-nature-of-memory-modification
#2
Samuel J Gershman, Marie-H Monfils, Kenneth A Norman, Yael Niv
Retrieving a memory can modify its influence on subsequent behavior. We develop a computational theory of memory modification, according to which modification of a memory trace occurs through classical associative learning, but which memory trace is eligible for modification depends on a structure learning mechanism that discovers the units of association by segmenting the stream of experience into statistically distinct clusters (latent causes). New memories are formed when the structure learning mechanism infers that a new latent cause underlies current sensory observations...
March 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294355/conditioned-stimulus-form-does-not-explain-failures-to-see-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer-with-ethanol-paired-conditioned-stimuli
#3
Richard J Lamb, Brett C Ginsburg, Charles W Schindler
BACKGROUND: Pavlovian-Instrumental-Transfer (PIT) examines the effects of associative learning upon instrumental responding. Previous studies examining PIT with ethanol-maintained responding showed increases in responding following presentation of an ethanol-paired Conditioned Stimulus (CS). Recently, we conducted two studies examining PIT with an ethanol-paired CS. One of these found increases in responding, while the other did not. This less robust demonstration of PIT may have resulted from the form of the CS used, as we used a 120-s light stimulus as a CS, while the previous studies used either a 120-s auditory stimulus or a 10-s light stimulus...
March 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293212/strength-of-excitation-is-negatively-associated-with-aggressive-behavior-after-interpersonal-rejection
#4
Joanna Rajchert, Mikołaj Winiewski
This study explored how the Pavlovian temperamental traits strength of excitation (SE) and strength of inhibition (SI) were related to rejection and aggression. We predicted that rejection would increase aggression, but that higher SE and SI would mitigate this effect. Participants (n = 117) completed Strelau and Zawadzki's (1998) Pavlovian Temperament Survey. A week later they were told that a peer wanted (acceptance) or did not want (rejection) to work with them and they were given a chance to react aggressively by damaging that person's chance of getting a job...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288832/distinct-recruitment-of-basolateral-amygdala-medial-prefrontal-cortex-pathways-across-pavlovian-appetitive-conditioning
#5
Sara E Keefer, Gorica D Petrovich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285994/midbrain-dopamine-neurons-signal-belief-in-choice-accuracy-during-a-perceptual-decision
#6
Armin Lak, Kensaku Nomoto, Mehdi Keramati, Masamichi Sakagami, Adam Kepecs
Central to the organization of behavior is the ability to predict the values of outcomes to guide choices. The accuracy of such predictions is honed by a teaching signal that indicates how incorrect a prediction was ("reward prediction error," RPE). In several reinforcement learning contexts, such as Pavlovian conditioning and decisions guided by reward history, this RPE signal is provided by midbrain dopamine neurons. In many situations, however, the stimuli predictive of outcomes are perceptually ambiguous...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284795/coordinating-associative-and-ecological-accounts-of-learning-in-the-garden-snail-cornu-aspersum
#7
I Loy, B Álvarez, E C Strempler-Rubio, M Rodríguez
Pavlovian conditioning of tentacle lowering in the snail, Cornu aspersum, as an instance of associative learning, has proven effective to show evidence of paradigmatic associative phenomena (e.g., blocking) explained by current models of conditioning. Nevertheless, the available literature questions the biological function of the conditioned response (i.e., tentacle lowering) in snails since no advantages in terms of food finding had been observed. Ecological accounts of learning claim that learning abilities contribute to the adaptation to the environmental demands, and there is experimental evidence supporting this reported in several species (e...
March 8, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275342/prefrontal-dopaminergic-mechanisms-of-extinction-in-adolescence-compared-to-adulthood-in-rats
#8
Isabel C Zbukvic, Chun Hui J Park, Despina E Ganella, Andrew J Lawrence, Jee Hyun Kim
Adolescents with anxiety disorders attain poorer outcomes following extinction-based treatment compared to adults. Extinction deficit during adolescence has been identified to involve immaturity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Findings from adult rodents suggest extinction involves dopamine signaling in the mPFC. This system changes dramatically during adolescence, but its role in adolescent extinction is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the role of prefrontal dopamine in extinction using Pavlovian fear conditioning in adolescent and adult rats...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274824/extinction-after-fear-memory-reactivation-fails-to-eliminate-renewal-in-rats
#9
Travis D Goode, Crystal M Holloway-Erickson, Stephen Maren
Retrieving fear memories just prior to extinction has been reported to effectively erase fear memories and prevent fear relapse. The current study examined whether the type of retrieval procedure influences the ability of extinction to impair fear renewal, a form of relapse in which responding to a conditional stimulus (CS) returns outside of the extinction context. Rats first underwent Pavlovian fear conditioning with an auditory CS and footshock unconditional stimulus (US); freezing behavior served as the index of conditioned fear...
March 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265059/neural-basis-of-impaired-safety-signaling-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Claire M Gillan, Naomi A Fineberg, Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
The ability to assign safety to stimuli in the environment is integral to everyday functioning. A key brain region for this evaluation is the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). To investigate the importance of vmPFC safety signaling, we used neuroimaging of Pavlovian fear reversal, a paradigm that involves flexible updating when the contingencies for a threatening (CS+) and safe (CS-) stimulus reverse, in a prototypical disorder of inflexible behavior influenced by anxiety, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225816/bayesian-prediction-of-placebo-analgesia-in-an-instrumental-learning-model
#11
Won-Mo Jung, Ye-Seul Lee, Christian Wallraven, Younbyoung Chae
Placebo analgesia can be primarily explained by the Pavlovian conditioning paradigm in which a passively applied cue becomes associated with less pain. In contrast, instrumental conditioning employs an active paradigm that might be more similar to clinical settings. In the present study, an instrumental conditioning paradigm involving a modified trust game in a simulated clinical situation was used to induce placebo analgesia. Additionally, Bayesian modeling was applied to predict the placebo responses of individuals based on their choices...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225752/prefrontal-cortex-output-circuits-guide-reward-seeking-through-divergent-cue-encoding
#12
James M Otis, Vijay M K Namboodiri, Ana M Matan, Elisa S Voets, Emily P Mohorn, Oksana Kosyk, Jenna A McHenry, J Elliott Robinson, Shanna L Resendez, Mark A Rossi, Garret D Stuber
The prefrontal cortex is a critical neuroanatomical hub for controlling motivated behaviours across mammalian species. In addition to intra-cortical connectivity, prefrontal projection neurons innervate subcortical structures that contribute to reward-seeking behaviours, such as the ventral striatum and midline thalamus. While connectivity among these structures contributes to appetitive behaviours, how projection-specific prefrontal neurons encode reward-relevant information to guide reward seeking is unknown...
February 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221836/mimicry-among-unequally-defended-prey-should-be-mutualistic-when-predators-sample-optimally
#13
Thomas G Aubier, Mathieu Joron, Thomas N Sherratt
Understanding the conditions under which moderately defended prey evolve to resemble better-defended prey and whether this mimicry is parasitic (quasi-Batesian) or mutualistic (Müllerian) is central to our understanding of warning signals. Models of predator learning generally predict quasi-Batesian relationships. However, predators' attack decisions are based not only on learning alone but also on the potential future rewards. We identify the optimal sampling strategy of predators capable of classifying prey into different profitability categories and contrast the implications of these rules for mimicry evolution with a classical Pavlovian model based on conditioning...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221081/threat-intensity-widens-fear-generalization-gradients
#14
Joseph E Dunsmoor, Marijn C W Kroes, Stephen H Braren, Elizabeth A Phelps
Research in nonhuman animals reveals threat-sensitive generalization of defensive behavior that favors widespread generalization when threat intensity is high and limited generalization (i.e., specificity) when threat intensity is low. Here, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning to systematically investigate whether threat intensity widens behavioral generalization gradients to stimuli that decreasingly resemble a learned threat cue. Using a between-subjects design, volunteers underwent fear conditioning with a tone paired with either a high-intensity or low-intensity aversive stimulus prior to a test of fear generalization to novel tones...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210781/adolescent-cocaine-exposure-enhances-goal-tracking-behavior-and-impairs-hippocampal-cell-genesis-selectively-in-adult-bred-low-responder-rats
#15
M Julia García-Fuster, Aram Parsegian, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil, Shelly B Flagel
RATIONALE: Environmental challenges during adolescence, such as drug exposure, can cause enduring behavioral and molecular changes that contribute to life-long maladaptive behaviors, including addiction. Selectively bred high-responder (bHR) and low-responder (bLR) rats represent a unique model for assessing the long-term impact of adolescent environmental manipulations, as they inherently differ on a number of addiction-related traits. bHR rats are considered "addiction-prone," whereas bLR rats are "addiction-resilient," at least under baseline conditions...
February 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202715/updating-of-aversive-memories-after-temporal-error-detection-is-differentially-modulated-by-mtor-across-development
#16
Lucille Tallot, Lorenzo Diaz-Mataix, Rosemarie E Perry, Kira Wood, Joseph E LeDoux, Anne-Marie Mouly, Regina M Sullivan, Valérie Doyère
The updating of a memory is triggered whenever it is reactivated and a mismatch from what is expected (i.e., prediction error) is detected, a process that can be unraveled through the memory's sensitivity to protein synthesis inhibitors (i.e., reconsolidation). As noted in previous studies, in Pavlovian threat/aversive conditioning in adult rats, prediction error detection and its associated protein synthesis-dependent reconsolidation can be triggered by reactivating the memory with the conditioned stimulus (CS), but without the unconditioned stimulus (US), or by presenting a CS-US pairing with a different CS-US interval than during the initial learning...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197550/sexually-dimorphic-risk-mitigation-strategies-in-rats
#17
Blake A Pellman, Bryan P Schuessler, Mohini Tellakat, Jeansok J Kim
The scientific understanding of fear and anxiety-in both normal and pathological forms-is presently limited by a predominance of studies that use male animals and Pavlovian fear conditioning-centered paradigms that restrict and assess specific behaviors (e.g., freezing) over brief sampling periods and overlook the broader contributions of the spatiotemporal context to an animal's behavioral responses to threats. Here, we use a risky "closed economy" system, in which the need to acquire food and water and the need to avoid threats are simultaneously integrated into the lives of rats, to examine sex differences in mitigating threat risk while foraging...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196273/sex-and-adolescent-ethanol-exposure-influence-pavlovian-conditioned-approach
#18
Aric C Madayag, Sierra J Stringfield, Kathryn J Reissner, Charlotte A Boettiger, Donita L Robinson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use among adolescents is widespread and a growing concern due to long-term behavioral deficits, including altered Pavlovian behavior, that potentially contribute to addiction vulnerability. We tested the hypothesis that adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters Pavlovian behavior in males and females as measured by a shift from goal-tracking to sign-tracking. Additionally, we investigated GLT-1, an astrocytic glutamate transporter, as a potential contributor to a sign-tracking phenotype...
February 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193693/unresponsive-choline-transporter-as-a-trait-neuromarker-and-a-causal-mediator-of-bottom-up-attentional-biases
#19
Ajeesh Koshy Cherian, Aaron Kucinski, Kyle Pitchers, Brittney Yegla, Vinay Parikh, Youngsoo Kim, Paulina Valuskova, Sarika Gurnani, Craig W Lindsley, Randy D Blakely, Martin Sarter
Some rats [sign-trackers (STs)] are prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, which can manifest as a propensity to approach and contact pavlovian cues, and for addiction-like behavior. STs also exhibit poor attentional performance, relative to goal-trackers (GTs), which is associated with attenuated acetylcholine (ACh) levels in prefrontal cortex (Paolone et al., 2013). Here, we demonstrate a cellular mechanism, linked to ACh synthesis, that accounts for attenuated cholinergic capacity in STs. First, we found that electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain increased cortical choline transporter (CHT)-mediated choline transport in GTs, paralleled by a redistribution of CHTs to the synaptic plasma membrane...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182526/hippocampal-processing-of-ambiguity-enhances-fear-memory
#20
Ugwechi Amadi, Seh Hong Lim, Elizabeth Liu, Michael V Baratta, Ki A Goosens
Despite the ubiquitous use of Pavlovian fear conditioning as a model for fear learning, the highly predictable conditions used in the laboratory do not resemble real-world conditions, in which dangerous situations can lead to unpleasant outcomes in unpredictable ways. In the current experiments, we varied the timing of aversive events after predictive cues in rodents and discovered that temporal ambiguity of aversive events greatly enhances fear. During fear conditioning with unpredictably timed aversive events, pharmacological inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus or optogenetic silencing of cornu ammonis 1 cells during aversive negative prediction errors prevented this enhancement of fear without affecting fear learning for predictable events...
February 2017: Psychological Science
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