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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446868/triggering-avoidance-dissociable-influences-of-aversive-pavlovian-conditioned-stimuli-on-human-instrumental-behavior
#1
Sara Garofalo, Trevor W Robbins
The present study investigates human aversive Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) and possible influences of outcome devaluation and instrumental overtraining on this effect. PIT measures the extent to which a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) can increase instrumental responses independently paired with the same (outcome-specific transfer) or a different (general transfer) reinforcer. Two measures of PIT were obtained: the percentage of instrumental responses and the vigor of such responses. Thirty-eight volunteers performed a standard PIT task sequence...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444823/dissociable-corticostriatal-circuits-underlie-goal-directed-versus-cue-elicited-habitual-food-seeking-after-satiation-evidence-from-a-multimodal-mri-study
#2
Henk van Steenbergen, Poppy Watson, Reinout W Wiers, Bernhard Hommel, Sanne de Wit
The present multimodal MRI study advances our understanding of the corticostriatal circuits underlying goal-directed versus cue-driven, habitual food seeking. To this end, we employed a computerized Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm. During the test phase, participants were free to perform learnt instrumental responses (left and right key presses) for popcorn and Smarties outcomes. Importantly, prior to this test half of the participants had been sated on popcorn and the other half on Smarties - resulting in a reduced desirability of those outcomes...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418405/adenosine-a2a-receptor-and-erk-driven-impulsivity-potentiates-hippocampal-neuroblast-proliferation
#3
A Oliveros, C H Cho, A Cui, S Choi, D Lindberg, D Hinton, M-H Jang, D-S Choi
Dampened adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) function has been implicated in addiction through enhancement of goal-directed behaviors. However, the contribution of the A2AR to the control of impulsive reward seeking remains unknown. Using mice that were exposed to differential reward of low rate (DRL) schedules during Pavlovian-conditioning, second-order schedule discrimination, and the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), we demonstrate that deficits of A2AR function promote impulsive responses. Antagonism of the A2AR lowered ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation in the dorsal hippocampus (dHip) and potentiated impulsivity during Pavlovian-conditioning and the 5-CSRTT...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417164/individual-differences-in-voluntary-alcohol-intake-in-rats-relationship-with-impulsivity-decision-making-and-pavlovian-conditioned-approach
#4
Marcia Spoelder, Jacques P Flores Dourojeanni, Kathy C G de Git, Annemarie M Baars, Heidi M B Lesscher, Louk J M J Vanderschuren
RATIONALE: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been associated with suboptimal decision making, exaggerated impulsivity, and aberrant responses to reward-paired cues, but the relationship between AUD and these behaviors is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess decision making, impulsivity, and Pavlovian-conditioned approach in rats that voluntarily consume low (LD) or high (HD) amounts of alcohol. METHODS: LD and HD were tested in the rat gambling task (rGT) or the delayed reward task (DRT)...
April 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412771/drug-cue-reactivity-involves-hierarchical-instrumental-learning-evidence-from-a-biconditional-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer-task
#5
Lorna Hardy, Chris Mitchell, Tina Seabrooke, Lee Hogarth
RATIONALE: Drug cue reactivity plays a crucial role in addiction, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. According to the binary associative account, drug stimuli retrieve an expectation of the drug outcome, which, in turn, elicits the associated drug-seeking response (S-O-R). By contrast, according to the hierarchical account, drug stimuli retrieve an expectation that the contingency between the drug-seeking response and the drug outcome is currently more effective, promoting performance of the drug-seeking response (S:R-O)...
April 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408411/active-avoidance-neural-mechanisms-and-attenuation-of-pavlovian-conditioned-responding
#6
Emily A Boeke, Justin Moscarello, Joseph E LeDoux, Elizabeth A Phelps, Catherine A Hartley
Patients with anxiety disorders often experience a relapse in symptoms after exposure therapy. Similarly, threat responses acquired during Pavlovian threat conditioning often return after extinction learning. Accordingly, there is a need for alternative methods to persistently reduce threat responding. Studies in rodents have suggested that exercising behavioral control over an aversive stimulus can persistently diminish threat responses, and that these effects are mediated by the amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and striatum...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402515/oxytocin-differentially-modulates-pavlovian-cue-and-context-fear-acquisition
#7
Juliana Cavalli, Michaela Ruttorf, Mario Rosero Pahi, Francesca Zidda, Herta Flor, Frauke Nees
Background: Fear acquisition and extinction have been demonstrated as core mechanisms for the development and maintenance of mental disorders, with different contributions of processing cues versus contexts. The hypothalamic peptide oxytocin (OXT) may have a prominent role in this context, as it has been shown to affect fear learning. However, investigations have focused on cue conditioning, and fear extinction. Its differential role for cue and context fear acquisition is still not known...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392213/the-acquisition-extinction-and-spontaneous-recovery-of-pavlovian-drug-conditioning-induced-by-post-trial-dopaminergic-stimulation-inhibition
#8
Breno Garone Santos, Robert J Carey, Marinete Pinheiro Carrera
In contextual drug conditioning, the onset of the drug treatment is contiguous with the contextual cues. Evidence suggests that drug conditioning also can occur if there is a discontinuity between the onset of the drug effect and offset of the contextual cues. Here we examine whether post-trial contextual drug conditioning conforms to several Pavlovian conditioning tenets namely: acquisition, extinction and spontaneous recovery. Six groups of rats received apomorphine (0.05 or 2.0mg/kg) and vehicle immediately or after a 15min delay following a 5min non-drug exposure to an open-field during three successive days (conditioning phase)...
April 7, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391115/pavlovian-disgust-conditioning-as-a-model-for-contamination-based-ocd-evidence-from-an-analogue-study
#9
Thomas Armstrong, Bunmi O Olatunji
Pavlovian fear conditioning provides a model for anxiety-related disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, disgust is the predominant emotional response to contamination, which is a common theme in OCD. The present study sought to identify disgust conditioning abnormalities that may underlie excessive contamination concerns relevant to OCD. Individuals high and low in contamination concern (HCC, n = 32; LCC, n = 30) completed an associative learning task in which one neutral face (conditioned stimulus; CS+) was followed by a disgusting image (unconditioned stimulus; US) and another neutral face (CS-) was unreinforced...
June 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387990/cdh13-and-adipoq-gene-knockout-alters-instrumental-and-pavlovian-drug-conditioning
#10
Christopher P King, Leah Militello, Amy Hart, Celine L St Pierre, Emily Leung, Cassandra L Versaggi, Nathaniel Roberson, James Catlin, Abraham A Palmer, Jerry B Richards, Paul J Meyer
Genome-wide association studies in humans have suggested that variants of the cadherin-13 (CDH13) gene are associated with substance use disorder, subjective response to amphetamine, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To examine the role of the Cdh13 and its peptide ligand adiponectin (AdipoQ) in addiction-related behaviors, we assessed Cdh13 knock-out rats and AdipoQ knock-out mice using intravenous cocaine self-administration and conditioned place preference paradigms. During intravenous cocaine self-administration, male Cdh13 heterozygous (+/-) and knock-out (-/-) rats showed increased cue-induced reinstatement compared to wild-type rats when presented with a cocaine-paired stimulus, whereas female Cdh13 rats showed no differences across genotype...
April 7, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386075/pavlovian-conditioning-demonstrated-with-neuromorphic-memristive-devices
#11
Zheng-Hua Tan, Xue-Bing Yin, Rui Yang, Shao-Bo Mi, Chun-Lin Jia, Xin Guo
Pavlovian conditioning, a classical case of associative learning in a biological brain, is demonstrated using the Ni/Nb-SrTiO3/Ti memristive device with intrinsic forgetting properties in the framework of the asymmetric spike-timing-dependent plasticity of synapses. Three basic features of the Pavlovian conditioning, namely, acquisition, extinction and recovery, are implemented in detail. The effects of the temporal relation between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli as well as the time interval between individual training trials on the Pavlovian conditioning are investigated...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377046/the-convergence-of-psychology-and-neurobiology-in-flavor-nutrient-learning
#12
Kevin P Myers
Flavor evaluation is influenced by learning from experience with foods. One main influence is flavor-nutrient learning (FNL), a Pavlovian process whereby a flavor acts as a conditioned stimulus (CS) that becomes associated with the postingestive effects of ingested nutrients (the US). As a result that flavor becomes preferred and intake typically increases. This learning powerfully influences food choice and meal patterning. This paper summarizes how research elucidating the physiological and neural substrates of FNL has progressed in parallel with work characterizing how FNL affects perception, motivation, and behavior...
April 2, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373691/blocking-human-fear-memory-with-the-matrix-metalloproteinase-inhibitor-doxycycline
#13
D R Bach, A Tzovara, J Vunder
Learning to predict threat is a fundamental ability of many biological organisms, and a laboratory model for anxiety disorders. Interfering with such memories in humans would be of high clinical relevance. On the basis of studies in cell cultures and slice preparations, it is hypothesised that synaptic remodelling required for threat learning involves the extracellular enzyme matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9. However, in vivo evidence for this proposal is lacking. Here we investigate human Pavlovian fear conditioning under the blood-brain barrier crossing MMP inhibitor doxycyline in a pre-registered, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
April 4, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366897/revolutionizing-cuban-psychiatry-the-freud-wars-1955-1970
#14
Jennifer Lynn Lambe
This article traces the battle over Freud within Cuban psychiatry from its pre-1959 origins through the "disappearance" of Freud by the early 1970s. It devotes particular attention to the visit of two Soviet psychiatrists to Cuba in the early 1960s as part of a broader campaign to promote Pavlov. The decade-long controversy over Freud responded to both theoretical and political concerns. If for some Freud represented political conservatism and theoretical mystification, Pavlov held out the promise of a dialectical materialist future...
2017: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366433/intentions-matter-avoidance-intentions-regulate-anxiety-via-outcome-expectancy
#15
Anuja Ng, Peter F Lovibond
Intentions prospectively correlate with behaviour (e.g., Ajzen, 1991) but there is little research on whether they play a role in regulating emotion. Two experiments investigated whether avoidance intentions, mediated by expectancy, play a role in reducing anxiety. In Experiment 1, participants performed either an instrumental avoidance response that cancelled the shock signalled by a Pavlovian stimulus; a control response that had no effect on shock; or no response. Prior to this, they indicated their intention to respond or not respond on a form...
March 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352111/motivational-neural-circuits-underlying-reinforcement-learning
#16
Bruno B Averbeck, Vincent D Costa
Reinforcement learning (RL) is the behavioral process of learning the values of actions and objects. Most models of RL assume that the dopaminergic prediction error signal drives plasticity in frontal-striatal circuits. The striatum then encodes value representations that drive decision processes. However, the amygdala has also been shown to play an important role in forming Pavlovian stimulus-outcome associations. These Pavlovian associations can drive motivated behavior via the amygdala projections to the ventral striatum or the ventral tegmental area...
March 29, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343989/social-interaction-food-scent-or-toys-a-formal-assessment-of-domestic-pet-and-shelter-cat-felis-silvestris-catus-preferences
#17
Kristyn R Vitale Shreve, Lindsay R Mehrkam, Monique A R Udell
Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) engage in a variety of relationships with humans and can be conditioned to engage in numerous behaviors using Pavlovian and operant methods Increasingly cat cognition research is providing evidence of their complex socio-cognitive and problem solving abilities. Nonetheless, it is still common belief that cats are not especially sociable or trainable. This disconnect may be due, in part, to a lack of knowledge of what stimuli cats prefer, and thus may be most motivated to work for...
March 23, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343697/modeling-avoidance-in-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-using-reinforcement-learning
#18
Anahit Mkrtchian, Jessica Aylward, Peter Dayan, Jonathan P Roiser, Oliver J Robinson
BACKGROUND: Serious and debilitating symptoms of anxiety are the most common mental health problem worldwide, accounting for around 5% of all adult years lived with disability in the developed world. Avoidance behavior-avoiding social situations for fear of embarrassment, for instance-is a core feature of such anxiety. However, as for many other psychiatric symptoms the biological mechanisms underlying avoidance remain unclear. METHODS: Reinforcement learning models provide formal and testable characterizations of the mechanisms of decision making; here, we examine avoidance in these terms...
February 8, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321129/cerebellar-granule-cells-encode-the-expectation-of-reward
#19
Mark J Wagner, Tony Hyun Kim, Joan Savall, Mark J Schnitzer, Liqun Luo
The human brain contains approximately 60 billion cerebellar granule cells, which outnumber all other brain neurons combined. Classical theories posit that a large, diverse population of granule cells allows for highly detailed representations of sensorimotor context, enabling downstream Purkinje cells to sense fine contextual changes. Although evidence suggests a role for the cerebellum in cognition, granule cells are known to encode only sensory and motor context. Here, using two-photon calcium imaging in behaving mice, we show that granule cells convey information about the expectation of reward...
April 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294944/the-computational-nature-of-memory-modification
#20
Samuel J Gershman, Marie-H Monfils, Kenneth A Norman, Yael Niv
Retrieving a memory can modify its influence on subsequent behavior. We develop a computational theory of memory modification, according to which modification of a memory trace occurs through classical associative learning, but which memory trace is eligible for modification depends on a structure learning mechanism that discovers the units of association by segmenting the stream of experience into statistically distinct clusters (latent causes). New memories are formed when the structure learning mechanism infers that a new latent cause underlies current sensory observations...
March 15, 2017: ELife
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