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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108345/reinstatement-after-human-feature-positive-discrimination-learning
#1
REVIEW
Mathijs Franssen, Nathalie Claes, Bram Vervliet, Tom Beckers, Dirk Hermans, Frank Baeyens
In two experiments, using an online conditioned suppression task, we investigated the possibility of reinstatement of extinguished feature-target compound presentations after sequential feature-positive discrimination training in humans. Furthermore, given a hierarchical account of Pavlovian modulation (e.g., Bonardi, 1998; Bonardi and Jennings, 2009), we predicted A-US reinstatement to be stronger than US-only reinstatement. In Experiment 1, participants learned a sequential feature-positive discrimination (X→A(+)|A(-)), which was subsequently extinguished (X→A(-))...
January 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104355/allopregnanolone-induces-state-dependent-fear-via-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis
#2
Gillian M Acca, Abel S Mathew, Jingji Jin, Stephen Maren, Naomi Nagaya
Gonadal steroids and their metabolites have been shown to be important modulators of emotional behavior. Allopregnanolone (ALLO), for example, is a metabolite of progesterone that has been linked to anxiety-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. In rodents, it has been shown to reduce anxiety in a number of behavioral paradigms including Pavlovian fear conditioning. We have recently found that expression of conditioned contextual (but not auditory) freezing in rats can be suppressed by infusion of ALLO into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)...
January 16, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094321/the-reference-frame-of-the-tilt-aftereffect-measured-by-differential-pavlovian-conditioning
#3
Yusuke Nakashima, Yoichi Sugita
We used a differential Pavlovian conditioning paradigm to measure tilt aftereffect (TAE) strength. Gabor patches, rotated clockwise and anticlockwise, were used as conditioned stimuli (CSs), one of which (CS+) was followed by the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), whereas the other (CS-) appeared alone. The UCS was an air puff delivered to the left eye. In addition to the CS+ and CS-, the vertical test patch was also presented for the clockwise and anticlockwise adapters. The vertical patch was not followed by the UCS...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093566/estrogen-dependent-association-of-hdac4-with-fear-in-female-mice-and-women-with-ptsd
#4
S A Maddox, V Kilaru, J Shin, T Jovanovic, L M Almli, B G Dias, S D Norrholm, N Fani, V Michopoulos, Z Ding, K N Conneely, E B Binder, K J Ressler, A K Smith
Women are at increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a traumatic event. Recent studies suggest that this may be mediated, in part, by circulating estrogen levels. This study evaluated the hypothesis that individual variation in response to estrogen levels contributes to fear regulation and PTSD risk in women. We evaluated DNA methylation from blood of female participants in the Grady Trauma Project and found that serum estradiol levels associates with DNA methylation across the genome...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087764/accumulation-of-polyribosomes-in-dendritic-spine-heads-but-not-bases-and-necks-during-memory-consolidation-depends-on-cap-dependent-translation-initiation
#5
Linnaea E Ostroff, Benjamin Botsford, Sofya Gindina, Kiriana K Cowansage, Joseph E LeDoux, Eric Klann, Charles Hoeffer
: Translation in dendrites is believed to support synaptic changes during memory consolidation. Although translational control mechanisms are fundamental mediators of memory, little is known about their role in local translation. We previously found that polyribosomes accumulate in dendritic spines of the adult rat lateral amygdala (LA) during consolidation of aversive Pavlovian conditioning, and that this memory requires cap-dependent initiation, a primary point of translational control in eukaryotic cells...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067224/updating-temporal-expectancy-of-an-aversive-event-engages-striatal-plasticity-under-amygdala-control
#6
Glenn Dallérac, Michael Graupner, Jeroen Knippenberg, Raquel Chacon Ruiz Martinez, Tatiane Ferreira Tavares, Lucille Tallot, Nicole El Massioui, Anna Verschueren, Sophie Höhn, Julie Boulanger Bertolus, Alex Reyes, Joseph E LeDoux, Glenn E Schafe, Lorenzo Diaz-Mataix, Valérie Doyère
Pavlovian aversive conditioning requires learning of the association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned, aversive stimulus (US) but also involves encoding the time interval between the two stimuli. The neurobiological bases of this time interval learning are unknown. Here, we show that in rats, the dorsal striatum and basal amygdala belong to a common functional network underlying temporal expectancy and learning of a CS-US interval. Importantly, changes in coherence between striatum and amygdala local field potentials (LFPs) were found to couple these structures during interval estimation within the lower range of the theta rhythm (3-6 Hz)...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065844/effects-of-the-chronic-restraint-stress-induced-depression-on-reward-related-learning-in-rats
#7
Pan Xu, Kezhu Wang, Cong Lu, Liming Dong, Yixi Chen, Qiong Wang, Zhe Shi, Yanyan Yang, Shanguang Chen, Xinmin Liu
Chronic mild or unpredictability stress produces a persistent depressive-like state. The main symptoms of depression include weight loss, despair, anhedonia, diminished motivation and mild cognition impairment, which could influence the ability of reward-related learning. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic restraint stress on the performance of reward-related learning of rats. We used the exposure of repeated restraint stress (6h/day, for 28days) to induce depression-like behavior in rats...
January 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061973/the-melatonergic-system-in-anxiety-disorders-and-the-role-of-melatonin-in-conditional-fear
#8
F Huang, Z Yang, C-Q Li
BACKGROUND: Resistance to extinction of certain conditioned responses forms the basis of anxieties, phobias, and compulsions. There has been an available effective means of extinction-based exposure psychotherapy for the treatment of anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that has been hypothesized to result from impaired extinction of fear memory. PTSD is considered as a memory disorder within a Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction framework. Therefore, the aim of this review was to report the preclinical profile of melatonin, a pineal gland hormone, as a potential pharmacological option in the treatment of anxiety disorders such as PTSD, tested with the Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045295/superior-ambiguous-occasion-setting-with-visual-than-temporal-feature-stimuli
#9
Andrew R Delamater, Rifka C Derman, Justin A Harris
Three experiments with rats compared the relative ease with which different sets of visual or temporal cues could participate in Pavlovian learning. In Experiment 1, 1 group was trained to discriminate between visual cues (Light vs. Dark), whereas the other group learned to discriminate between temporal cues (early [10 s] vs. late [90 s]). Both groups learned to distinguish food-paired from nonpaired periods equally well. In Experiment 2, 2 groups were trained on an ambiguous occasion setting task. For Group Visual, a 2-min Light period signaled that 1 10-s auditory conditioned stimulus, CS1, was reinforced with 1 unconditioned stimulus, US1, but that CS2 was not reinforced; whereas a 2-min dark period signaled that CS1 was not reinforced, but CS2 was reinforced with US2 (i...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045292/time-trials-and-extinction
#10
Justin A Harris, Benjamin J Andrew
Four experiments investigated the effect of number of trials and total duration of nonreinforced exposure to the conditioned stimulus (CS) on extinction of Pavlovian conditioning. Rats were first trained in a magazine approach paradigm with multiple CSs, each paired with the unconditioned stimulus (US) on a variable CS-US interval. During subsequent extinction, CSs would differ in the number and length of their extinction trials but would be matched for the total duration of exposure (e.g., 1 CS would have 20 trials per session with a mean length of 5 s; another CS would have 5 trials per session with a mean length of 20 s)...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040541/cognitive-emotion-regulation-modulates-the-balance-of-competing-influences-on-ventral-striatal-aversive-prediction-error-signals
#11
Satja Mulej Bratec, Xiyao Xie, Yijun Wang, Leonhard Schilbach, Claus Zimmer, Afra M Wohlschläger, Valentin Riedl, Christian Sorg
Cognitive emotion regulation (CER) is a critical human ability to face aversive emotional stimuli in a flexible way, via recruitment of specific prefrontal brain circuits. Animal research reveals a central role of ventral striatum in emotional behavior, for both aversive conditioning, with striatum signaling aversive prediction errors (aPE), and for integrating competing influences of distinct striatal inputs from regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, hippocampus and ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
December 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039580/roles-of-context-in-acquisition-of-human-instrumental-learning-implications-for-the-understanding-of-the-mechanisms-underlying-context-switch-effects
#12
A Matías Gámez, Samuel P León, Juan M Rosas
Four experiments in human instrumental learning explored the associations involving the context that develop after three trials of training on simple discriminations. Experiments 1 and 4 found a deleterious effect of switching the learning context that cannot be explained by the context-outcome binary associations commonly used to explain context-switch effects after short training in human predictive learning and in animal Pavlovian conditioning. Evidence for context-outcome (Experiment 2), context-discriminative stimulus (Experiment 3), and context-instrumental response (Experiment 4) binary associations was found within the same training paradigm, suggesting that contexts became associated with all the elements of the situation, regardless of whether those associations played a role in a specific context-switch effect detected on performance...
December 30, 2016: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034445/higher-threat-avoidance-costs-reduce-avoidance-behaviour-which-in-turn-promotes-fear-extinction-in-humans
#13
Julina A Rattel, Stephan F Miedl, Jens Blechert, Frank H Wilhelm
Theoretical models specifying the underlying mechanisms of the development and maintenance of anxiety and related disorders state that fear responses acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning are maintained by repeated avoidance behaviour; thus, it is assumed that avoidance prevents fear extinction. The present study investigated behavioural avoidance decisions as a function of avoidance costs in a naturalistic fear conditioning paradigm. Ecologically valid avoidance costs - manipulated between participant groups - were represented via time-delays during a detour in a gamified computer task...
December 15, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012948/orbitofrontal-participation-in-sign-and-goal-tracking-conditioned-responses-effects-of-nicotine
#14
Sierra J Stringfield, Matthew I Palmatier, Charlotte A Boettiger, Donita L Robinson
Pavlovian conditioned stimuli can acquire incentive motivational properties, and this phenomenon can be measured in animals using Pavlovian conditioned approach behavior. Drugs of abuse can influence the expression of this behavior, and nicotine in particular exhibits incentive amplifying effects. Both conditioned approach behavior and drug abuse rely on overlapping corticolimbic circuitry. We hypothesize that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) regulates conditioned approach, and that one site of nicotine action is in the OFC where it reduces cortical output...
December 22, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011981/nicotine-induced-enhancement-of-pavlovian-alcohol-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#15
Jean-Marie N Maddux, Nadia Chaudhri
RATIONALE: Nicotine enhances responding elicited by Pavlovian cues that predict positive outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that nicotine acting at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) would augment Pavlovian alcohol-seeking. METHODS: Male, Long-Evans rats with unrestricted access to food and water were acclimated to drinking 15% ethanol in their home cages and then given Pavlovian conditioning sessions in which each trial of a 15-s conditioned stimulus (CS, 12 trials/session) was paired with 0...
December 23, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011174/predictive-but-not-emotional-value-of-pavlovian-stimuli-leads-to-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer
#16
Stephens Jeffs, Theodora Duka
Reward-predictive stimuli augment instrumental reward-seeking in humans, an effect denoted Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT), but the role of differential reward value of these stimuli and of emotional conditioned responses in PIT remains unknown. Fifty one participants experienced a Pavlovian phase that associated two stimuli with either 10p (CS10) or 50p (CS50). Next, participants underwent instrumental training for two responses reinforced with either 10p or 50p. Finally, the transfer phase continued as had instrumental training, now in the presence of the Pavlovian stimuli...
December 20, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008077/anxious-anticipation-and-pain-the-influence-of-instructed-vs-conditioned-threat-on-pain
#17
Philipp Reicherts, Julian Wiemer, Antje B M Gerdes, Stefan M Schulz, Paul Pauli, Matthias J Wieser
Negative emotions such as anxiety enhance pain perception. However, certain threat characteristics are discussed to have different or even divergent effects on pain (hypoalgesia vs hyperalgesia). In order to investigate the neurobiological basis of different threats, we compared the impact of conditioned threat (CT) vs instructed threat (IT) on pain using fMRI. In two groups, participants underwent either Pavlovian threat conditioning or an instructed threat procedure. Afterwards, in an identical test phase participants watched the same visual cues from the previous phase indicating potential threat or safety, and received painful thermal stimulation...
December 21, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992476/using-sub-network-combinations-to-scale-up-an-enumeration-method-for-determining-the-network-structures-of-biological-functions
#18
J Y Xi, Q Ouyang
Deduction of biological regulatory networks from their functions is one of the focus areas of systems biology. Among the different techniques used in this reverse-engineering task, one powerful method is to enumerate all candidate network structures to find suitable ones. However, this method is severely limited by calculation capability: due to the brute-force approach, it is infeasible for networks with large number of nodes to be studied using traditional enumeration method because of the combinatorial explosion...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960093/one-trial-overshadowing-evidence-for-fast-specific-fear-learning-in-humans
#19
Kim Haesen, Tom Beckers, Frank Baeyens, Bram Vervliet
Adaptive defensive actions necessitate a fear learning system that is both fast and specific. Fast learning serves to minimize the number of threat confrontations, while specific learning ensures that the acquired fears are tied to threat-relevant cues only. In Pavlovian fear conditioning, fear acquisition is typically studied via repetitive pairings of a single cue with an aversive experience, which is not optimal for the examination of fast specific fear learning. In this study, we adopted the one-trial overshadowing procedure from basic learning research, in which a combination of two visual cues is presented once and paired with an aversive electrical stimulation...
December 8, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940080/sex-specific-recruitment-of-a-medial-prefrontal-cortex-hippocampal-thalamic-system-during-context-dependent-renewal-of-responding-to-food-cues-in-rats
#20
Lauren C Anderson, Gorica D Petrovich
Renewal, or reinstatement, of responding to food cues after extinction may explain the inability to resist palatable foods and change maladaptive eating habits. Previously, we found sex differences in context-dependent renewal of extinguished Pavlovian conditioned responding to food cues. Context-induced renewal involves cue-food conditioning and extinction in different contexts and the renewal of conditioned behavior is induced by return to the conditioning context (ABA renewal). Male rats showed renewal of responding while females did not...
December 8, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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