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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210781/adolescent-cocaine-exposure-enhances-goal-tracking-behavior-and-impairs-hippocampal-cell-genesis-selectively-in-adult-bred-low-responder-rats
#1
M Julia García-Fuster, Aram Parsegian, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil, Shelly B Flagel
RATIONALE: Environmental challenges during adolescence, such as drug exposure, can cause enduring behavioral and molecular changes that contribute to life-long maladaptive behaviors, including addiction. Selectively bred high-responder (bHR) and low-responder (bLR) rats represent a unique model for assessing the long-term impact of adolescent environmental manipulations, as they inherently differ on a number of addiction-related traits. bHR rats are considered "addiction-prone," whereas bLR rats are "addiction-resilient," at least under baseline conditions...
February 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202715/updating-of-aversive-memories-after-temporal-error-detection-is-differentially-modulated-by-mtor-across-development
#2
Lucille Tallot, Lorenzo Diaz-Mataix, Rosemarie E Perry, Kira Wood, Joseph E LeDoux, Anne-Marie Mouly, Regina M Sullivan, Valérie Doyère
The updating of a memory is triggered whenever it is reactivated and a mismatch from what is expected (i.e., prediction error) is detected, a process that can be unraveled through the memory's sensitivity to protein synthesis inhibitors (i.e., reconsolidation). As noted in previous studies, in Pavlovian threat/aversive conditioning in adult rats, prediction error detection and its associated protein synthesis-dependent reconsolidation can be triggered by reactivating the memory with the conditioned stimulus (CS), but without the unconditioned stimulus (US), or by presenting a CS-US pairing with a different CS-US interval than during the initial learning...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197550/sexually-dimorphic-risk-mitigation-strategies-in-rats
#3
Blake A Pellman, Bryan P Schuessler, Mohini Tellakat, Jeansok J Kim
The scientific understanding of fear and anxiety-in both normal and pathological forms-is presently limited by a predominance of studies that use male animals and Pavlovian fear conditioning-centered paradigms that restrict and assess specific behaviors (e.g., freezing) over brief sampling periods and overlook the broader contributions of the spatiotemporal context to an animal's behavioral responses to threats. Here, we use a risky "closed economy" system, in which the need to acquire food and water and the need to avoid threats are simultaneously integrated into the lives of rats, to examine sex differences in mitigating threat risk while foraging...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196273/sex-and-adolescent-ethanol-exposure-influence-pavlovian-conditioned-approach
#4
Aric C Madayag, Sierra J Stringfield, Kathryn J Reissner, Charlotte A Boettiger, Donita L Robinson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use among adolescents is widespread and a growing concern due to long-term behavioral deficits, including altered Pavlovian behavior, that potentially contribute to addiction vulnerability. We tested the hypothesis that adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters Pavlovian behavior in males and females as measured by a shift from goal-tracking to sign-tracking. Additionally, we investigated GLT-1, an astrocytic glutamate transporter, as a potential contributor to a sign-tracking phenotype...
February 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193693/unresponsive-choline-transporter-as-a-trait-neuromarker-and-a-causal-mediator-of-bottom-up-attentional-biases
#5
Ajeesh Koshy Cherian, Aaron Kucinski, Kyle Pitchers, Brittney Yegla, Vinay Parikh, Youngsoo Kim, Paulina Valuskova, Sarika Gurnani, Craig W Lindsley, Randy D Blakely, Martin Sarter
Some rats (sign-trackers; STs) are prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, which can manifest as a propensity to approach and contact Pavlovian cues, and for addiction-like behavior. STs also exhibit poor attentional performance, relative to goal-trackers (GTs), which is associated with attenuated acetylcholine (ACh) levels in prefrontal cortex (Paolone et al., 2013). Here, we demonstrate a cellular mechanism, linked to ACh synthesis, that accounts for attenuated cholinergic capacity in STs. First, we found that electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain increased cortical choline transporter (CHT)-mediated choline transport in GTs, paralleled by a redistribution of CHTs to the synaptic plasma membrane...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182526/hippocampal-processing-of-ambiguity-enhances-fear-memory
#6
Ugwechi Amadi, Seh Hong Lim, Elizabeth Liu, Michael V Baratta, Ki A Goosens
Despite the ubiquitous use of Pavlovian fear conditioning as a model for fear learning, the highly predictable conditions used in the laboratory do not resemble real-world conditions, in which dangerous situations can lead to unpleasant outcomes in unpredictable ways. In the current experiments, we varied the timing of aversive events after predictive cues in rodents and discovered that temporal ambiguity of aversive events greatly enhances fear. During fear conditioning with unpredictably timed aversive events, pharmacological inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus or optogenetic silencing of cornu ammonis 1 cells during aversive negative prediction errors prevented this enhancement of fear without affecting fear learning for predictable events...
February 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131759/acoustic-startle-response-in-rats-predicts-inter-individual-variation-in-fear-extinction
#7
Amanda S Russo, Ryan G Parsons
Although a large portion of the population is exposed to a traumatic event at some point, only a small percentage of the population develops post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), suggesting the presence of predisposing factors. Abnormal acoustic startle response (ASR) has been shown to be associated with PTSD, implicating it as a potential predictor of the development of PTSD-like behavior. Since poor extinction and retention of extinction learning are characteristic of PTSD patients, it is of interest to determine if abnormal ASR is predictive of development of such deficits...
January 25, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119015/heterosexual-experience-prevents-the-development-of-conditioned-same-sex-partner-preference-in-male-rats
#8
Rodrigo Ramírez-Rodríguez, Miriam B Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Victor X Díaz-Estrada, Florencia Chena-Becerra, Deissy Herrera-Covarrubias, Pedro Paredes-Ramos, Jorge Manzo, Luis I Garcia, Genaro A Coria-Avila
Sexual partner preferences can be strengthened, weakened or even drastically modified via Pavlovian conditioning. For example, conditioned same-sex partner preference develops in sexually-naïve male rats that undergo same-sex cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Here, we assessed the effect of prior heterosexual experience on the probability to develop a conditioned same-sex preference. Naïve or Sexually-experienced males received either Saline or QNP and cohabited during 24h with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus...
January 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108345/reinstatement-after-human-feature-positive-discrimination-learning
#9
REVIEW
Mathijs Franssen, Nathalie Claes, Bram Vervliet, Tom Beckers, Dirk Hermans, Frank Baeyens
In two experiments, using an online conditioned suppression task, we investigated the possibility of reinstatement of extinguished feature-target compound presentations after sequential feature-positive discrimination training in humans. Furthermore, given a hierarchical account of Pavlovian modulation (e.g., Bonardi, 1998; Bonardi and Jennings, 2009), we predicted A-US reinstatement to be stronger than US-only reinstatement. In Experiment 1, participants learned a sequential feature-positive discrimination (X→A(+)|A(-)), which was subsequently extinguished (X→A(-))...
January 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104355/allopregnanolone-induces-state-dependent-fear-via-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis
#10
Gillian M Acca, Abel S Mathew, Jingji Jin, Stephen Maren, Naomi Nagaya
Gonadal steroids and their metabolites have been shown to be important modulators of emotional behavior. Allopregnanolone (ALLO), for example, is a metabolite of progesterone that has been linked to anxiety-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. In rodents, it has been shown to reduce anxiety in a number of behavioral paradigms including Pavlovian fear conditioning. We have recently found that expression of conditioned contextual (but not auditory) freezing in rats can be suppressed by infusion of ALLO into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)...
January 16, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094321/the-reference-frame-of-the-tilt-aftereffect-measured-by-differential-pavlovian-conditioning
#11
Yusuke Nakashima, Yoichi Sugita
We used a differential Pavlovian conditioning paradigm to measure tilt aftereffect (TAE) strength. Gabor patches, rotated clockwise and anticlockwise, were used as conditioned stimuli (CSs), one of which (CS+) was followed by the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), whereas the other (CS-) appeared alone. The UCS was an air puff delivered to the left eye. In addition to the CS+ and CS-, the vertical test patch was also presented for the clockwise and anticlockwise adapters. The vertical patch was not followed by the UCS...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093566/estrogen-dependent-association-of-hdac4-with-fear-in-female-mice-and-women-with-ptsd
#12
S A Maddox, V Kilaru, J Shin, T Jovanovic, L M Almli, B G Dias, S D Norrholm, N Fani, V Michopoulos, Z Ding, K N Conneely, E B Binder, K J Ressler, A K Smith
Women are at increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a traumatic event. Recent studies suggest that this may be mediated, in part, by circulating estrogen levels. This study evaluated the hypothesis that individual variation in response to estrogen levels contributes to fear regulation and PTSD risk in women. We evaluated DNA methylation from blood of female participants in the Grady Trauma Project and found that serum estradiol levels associates with DNA methylation across the genome...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087764/accumulation-of-polyribosomes-in-dendritic-spine-heads-but-not-bases-and-necks-during-memory-consolidation-depends-on-cap-dependent-translation-initiation
#13
Linnaea E Ostroff, Benjamin Botsford, Sofya Gindina, Kiriana K Cowansage, Joseph E LeDoux, Eric Klann, Charles Hoeffer
: Translation in dendrites is believed to support synaptic changes during memory consolidation. Although translational control mechanisms are fundamental mediators of memory, little is known about their role in local translation. We previously found that polyribosomes accumulate in dendritic spines of the adult rat lateral amygdala (LA) during consolidation of aversive Pavlovian conditioning, and that this memory requires cap-dependent initiation, a primary point of translational control in eukaryotic cells...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067224/updating-temporal-expectancy-of-an-aversive-event-engages-striatal-plasticity-under-amygdala-control
#14
Glenn Dallérac, Michael Graupner, Jeroen Knippenberg, Raquel Chacon Ruiz Martinez, Tatiane Ferreira Tavares, Lucille Tallot, Nicole El Massioui, Anna Verschueren, Sophie Höhn, Julie Boulanger Bertolus, Alex Reyes, Joseph E LeDoux, Glenn E Schafe, Lorenzo Diaz-Mataix, Valérie Doyère
Pavlovian aversive conditioning requires learning of the association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned, aversive stimulus (US) but also involves encoding the time interval between the two stimuli. The neurobiological bases of this time interval learning are unknown. Here, we show that in rats, the dorsal striatum and basal amygdala belong to a common functional network underlying temporal expectancy and learning of a CS-US interval. Importantly, changes in coherence between striatum and amygdala local field potentials (LFPs) were found to couple these structures during interval estimation within the lower range of the theta rhythm (3-6 Hz)...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065844/effects-of-the-chronic-restraint-stress-induced-depression-on-reward-related-learning-in-rats
#15
Pan Xu, Kezhu Wang, Cong Lu, Liming Dong, Yixi Chen, Qiong Wang, Zhe Shi, Yanyan Yang, Shanguang Chen, Xinmin Liu
Chronic mild or unpredictability stress produces a persistent depressive-like state. The main symptoms of depression include weight loss, despair, anhedonia, diminished motivation and mild cognition impairment, which could influence the ability of reward-related learning. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic restraint stress on the performance of reward-related learning of rats. We used the exposure of repeated restraint stress (6h/day, for 28days) to induce depression-like behavior in rats...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061973/the-melatonergic-system-in-anxiety-disorders-and-the-role-of-melatonin-in-conditional-fear
#16
F Huang, Z Yang, C-Q Li
BACKGROUND: Resistance to extinction of certain conditioned responses forms the basis of anxieties, phobias, and compulsions. There has been an available effective means of extinction-based exposure psychotherapy for the treatment of anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that has been hypothesized to result from impaired extinction of fear memory. PTSD is considered as a memory disorder within a Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction framework. Therefore, the aim of this review was to report the preclinical profile of melatonin, a pineal gland hormone, as a potential pharmacological option in the treatment of anxiety disorders such as PTSD, tested with the Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045295/superior-ambiguous-occasion-setting-with-visual-than-temporal-feature-stimuli
#17
Andrew R Delamater, Rifka C Derman, Justin A Harris
Three experiments with rats compared the relative ease with which different sets of visual or temporal cues could participate in Pavlovian learning. In Experiment 1, 1 group was trained to discriminate between visual cues (Light vs. Dark), whereas the other group learned to discriminate between temporal cues (early [10 s] vs. late [90 s]). Both groups learned to distinguish food-paired from nonpaired periods equally well. In Experiment 2, 2 groups were trained on an ambiguous occasion setting task. For Group Visual, a 2-min Light period signaled that 1 10-s auditory conditioned stimulus, CS1, was reinforced with 1 unconditioned stimulus, US1, but that CS2 was not reinforced; whereas a 2-min dark period signaled that CS1 was not reinforced, but CS2 was reinforced with US2 (i...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045292/time-trials-and-extinction
#18
Justin A Harris, Benjamin J Andrew
Four experiments investigated the effect of number of trials and total duration of nonreinforced exposure to the conditioned stimulus (CS) on extinction of Pavlovian conditioning. Rats were first trained in a magazine approach paradigm with multiple CSs, each paired with the unconditioned stimulus (US) on a variable CS-US interval. During subsequent extinction, CSs would differ in the number and length of their extinction trials but would be matched for the total duration of exposure (e.g., 1 CS would have 20 trials per session with a mean length of 5 s; another CS would have 5 trials per session with a mean length of 20 s)...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040541/cognitive-emotion-regulation-modulates-the-balance-of-competing-influences-on-ventral-striatal-aversive-prediction-error-signals
#19
Satja Mulej Bratec, Xiyao Xie, Yijun Wang, Leonhard Schilbach, Claus Zimmer, Afra M Wohlschläger, Valentin Riedl, Christian Sorg
Cognitive emotion regulation (CER) is a critical human ability to face aversive emotional stimuli in a flexible way, via recruitment of specific prefrontal brain circuits. Animal research reveals a central role of ventral striatum in emotional behavior, for both aversive conditioning, with striatum signaling aversive prediction errors (aPE), and for integrating competing influences of distinct striatal inputs from regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, hippocampus and ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039580/roles-of-context-in-acquisition-of-human-instrumental-learning-implications-for-the-understanding-of-the-mechanisms-underlying-context-switch-effects
#20
A Matías Gámez, Samuel P León, Juan M Rosas
Four experiments in human instrumental learning explored the associations involving the context that develop after three trials of training on simple discriminations. Experiments 1 and 4 found a deleterious effect of switching the learning context that cannot be explained by the context-outcome binary associations commonly used to explain context-switch effects after short training in human predictive learning and in animal Pavlovian conditioning. Evidence for context-outcome (Experiment 2), context-discriminative stimulus (Experiment 3), and context-instrumental response (Experiment 4) binary associations was found within the same training paradigm, suggesting that contexts became associated with all the elements of the situation, regardless of whether those associations played a role in a specific context-switch effect detected on performance...
December 30, 2016: Learning & Behavior
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