keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Pavlovian

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716712/effects-of-chemogenetic-excitation-or-inhibition-of-the-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray-on-the-acquisition-and-extinction-of-pavlovian-fear-conditioning
#1
Carolyn Arico, Elena E Bagley, Pascal Carrive, Neda Assareh, Gavan P McNally
The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been implicated in the generation and transmission of a prediction error signal that instructs amygdala-based fear and extinction learning. However, the PAG also plays a key role in the expression of conditioned fear responses. The evidence for a role of the PAG in fear learning and extinction learning has been obtained almost exclusively using PAG-dependent fear responses. It is less clear whether the PAG regulates fear learning when other measures of learned fear are used...
July 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712684/cerebellar-perineuronal-nets-in-cocaine-induced-pavlovian-memory-site-matters
#2
Maria Carbo-Gas, Josep Moreno-Rius, Julian Guarque-Chabrera, Dolores Vazquez-Sanroman, Isis Gil-Miravet, Daniela Carulli, Freek Hoebeek, Chris De Zeeuw, Carla Sanchis-Segura, Marta Miquel
One of the key mechanisms for the stabilization of synaptic changes near the end of critical periods for experience-dependent plasticity is the formation of specific lattice extracellular matrix structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). The formation of drug memories depends on local circuits in the cerebellum, but it is unclear to what extent it may also relate to changes in their PNN. Here, we investigated changes in the PNNs of the cerebellum following cocaine-induced preference conditioning. The formation of cocaine-related preference memories increased expression of PNN-related proteins surrounding Golgi inhibitory interneurons as well as that of cFos in granule cells at the apex of the cerebellar cortex...
July 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699296/long-lasting-contribution-of-dopamine-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-but-not-dorsal-lateral-striatum-to-sign-tracking
#3
Kurt M Fraser, Patricia H Janak
The attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues is dependent on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core. These dopamine signals conform to traditional reward-prediction error signals and have been shown to diminish with time. Here we examined if the diminishing dopamine signal in the nucleus accumbens core has functional implications for the expression of sign-tracking, a Pavlovian conditioned response indicative of the attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues. Food-restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a Pavlovian paradigm in which an insertable lever predicted delivery of food reward in a nearby food cup...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693706/cognitive-techniques-and-language-a-return-to-behavioral-origins
#4
María X Froján Parga, Miguel Núñez de Prado Gordillo, Ricardo de Pascual Verdú
BACKGROUND: the main purpose of this study is to offer an alternative explanatory account of the functioning of cognitive techniques that is based on the principles of associative learning and highlights their verbal nature. The traditional accounts are questioned and analyzed in the light of the situation of psychology in the 1970s. METHOD: conceptual analysis is employed to revise the concepts of language, cognition and behavior. Several operant- and Pavlovian-based approaches to these phenomena are presented, while particular emphasis is given to Mowrer’s (1954) approach and Ryle (1949) and Wittgenstein’s (1953) philosophical contributions to the field...
August 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686533/associative-learning-of-social-value-in-dynamic-groups
#5
Oriel FeldmanHall, Joseph E Dunsmoor, Marijn C W Kroes, Sandra Lackovic, Elizabeth A Phelps
Although humans live in societies that regularly demand engaging with multiple people simultaneously, little is known about social learning in group settings. In two experiments, we combined a Pavlovian learning framework with dyadic economic games to test whether blocking mechanisms support value-based social learning in the gain (altruistic dictators) and loss (greedy robbers) domains. Subjects first learned about an altruistic dictator, who subsequently made altruistic splits collectively with a partner...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683271/distinct-roles-for-the-amygdala-and-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-representing-the-relative-amount-of-expected-reward
#6
Rebecca A Saez, Alexandre Saez, Joseph J Paton, Brian Lau, C Daniel Salzman
The same reward can possess different motivational meaning depending upon its magnitude relative to other rewards. To study the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating assignment of motivational meaning, we recorded the activity of neurons in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of monkeys during a Pavlovian task in which the relative amount of liquid reward associated with one conditioned stimulus (CS) was manipulated by changing the reward amount associated with a second CS. Anticipatory licking tracked relative reward magnitude, implying that monkeys integrated information about recent rewards to adjust the motivational meaning of a CS...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679796/the-ol1mpiad-concordance-of-behavioural-faculties-of-stage-1-and-stage-3-drosophila-larvae
#7
Maria J Almeida-Carvalho, Dimitri Berh, Andreas Braun, Yi-Chun Chen, Katharina Eichler, Claire Eschbach, Pauline M J Fritsch, Bertram Gerber, Nina Hoyer, Xiaoyi Jiang, Jörg Kleber, Christian Klämbt, Christian König, Matthieu Louis, Birgit Michels, Anton Miroschnikow, Christen Mirth, Daisuke Miura, Thomas Niewalda, Nils Otto, Emmanouil Paisios, Michael J Pankratz, Meike Petersen, Noel Ramsperger, Nadine Randel, Benjamin Risse, Timo Saumweber, Philipp Schlegel, Michael Schleyer, Peter Soba, Simon G Sprecher, Teiichi Tanimura, Andreas S Thum, Naoko Toshima, Jim W Truman, Ayse Yarali, Marta Zlatic
Mapping brain function to brain structure is a fundamental task for neuroscience. For such an endeavour, the Drosophila larva is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to be interesting. It features about 10,000 neurons and is capable of various taxes, kineses and Pavlovian conditioning. All its neurons are currently being mapped into a light-microscopical atlas, and Gal4 strains are being generated to experimentally access neurons one at a time. In addition, an electron microscopic reconstruction of its nervous system seems within reach...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676746/regulation-of-fear-extinction-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-by-dopamine-d2-receptors-accompanied-by-altered-glur1-glur1-ser845-and-nr2b-levels
#8
Yan-Wei Shi, Bu-Fang Fan, Li Xue, Jia-Ling Wen, Hu Zhao
The amygdala, a critical structure for both Pavlovian fear conditioning and fear extinction, receives sparse but comprehensive dopamine innervation and contains dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Fear extinction, which involves learning to suppress the expression of a previously learned fear, appears to require the dopaminergic system. The specific roles of D2 receptors in mediating associative learning underlying fear extinction require further study. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusions of a D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole, and a D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride, prior to fear extinction and extinction retention were tested 24 h after fear extinction training for long-term memory (LTM)...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675116/acute-alcohol-effects-on-explicit-and-implicit-motivation-to-drink-alcohol-in-socially-drinking-adolescents
#9
Elisabeth Jünger, Amir-Homayoun Javadi, Corinde E Wiers, Christian Sommer, Maria Garbusow, Nadine Bernhardt, Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Michael N Smolka, Ulrich S Zimmermann
Alcohol-related cues can evoke explicit and implicit motivation to drink alcohol. Concerning the links between explicit and implicit motivation, there are mixed findings. Therefore, we investigated both concepts in 51 healthy 18- to 19-year-old males, who are less affected by neuropsychological deficits in decision-making that are attributed to previous alcohol exposure than older participants. In a randomized crossover design, adolescents were infused with either alcohol or placebo. Self-ratings of alcohol desire, thirst, well-being and alcohol effects comprised our explicit measures of motivation...
July 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670608/neurobiological-basis-of-individual-variation-in-stimulus-reward-learning
#10
Shelly B Flagel, Terry E Robinson
Cues in the environment can guide behavior in adaptive ways, leading one towards valuable resources such as food, water, or a potential mate. However, cues in the environment may also serve as powerful motivators that lead to maladaptive patterns of behavior, such as addiction. Importantly, and central to this article, there is considerable individual variation in the extent to which reward cues gain motivational control over behavior. Here we describe an animal model that captures this individual variation, allowing us to better understand the psychological and neurobiological processes that contribute to cue-evoked behaviors...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659281/diverse-roads-to-relapse-a-discriminative-cue-signaling-cocaine-availability-is-more-effective-in-renewing-cocaine-seeking-in-goal-trackers-than-sign-trackers-and-depends-on-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-activity
#11
Kyle K Pitchers, Kyra B Phillips, Jonte L Jones, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
Stimuli associated with taking drugs are notorious instigators of relapse. There is, however, considerable variation in the motivational properties of such stimuli, both as a function of the individual and the nature of the stimulus. The behavior of some individuals (sign-trackers, STs) is especially influenced by cues paired with reward delivery, perhaps because they are prone to process information via dopamine-dependent, cue-driven, incentive salience systems. Other individuals (goal-trackers, GTs) are better able to incorporate higher-order contextual information, perhaps because of better executive/attentional control over behavior, which requires frontal cortical cholinergic activity...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657172/asic1a-in-neurons-is-critical-for-fear-related-behaviors
#12
R J Taugher, Y Lu, R Fan, A Ghobbeh, C J Kreple, F M Faraci, J A Wemmie
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) have been implicated in fear-, addiction-, and depression-related behaviors in mice. While these effects have been attributed to ASIC1A in neurons, it has been reported that ASICs may also function in non-neuronal cells. To determine if ASIC1A in neurons is indeed required, we generated neuron-specific knockout mice with floxed Asic1a alleles disrupted by Cre recombinase driven by the neuron-specific synapsin I promoter (SynAsic1a KO mice). We confirmed that Cre expression occurred in neurons, but not all neurons, and not in non-neuronal cells including astrocytes...
June 28, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656985/-the-psychological-profile-of-pilots-of-passenger-planes-analysis-of-temperamental-traits-aggression-and-risk
#13
Ryszard Makarowski, Andrzej Piotrowski
BACKGROUND: Over the years it has been assumed, that the greater the number of pilot flight hours, the better the development of problem-solving skills among pilots. Research suggests, however, that the problem is more complex than that. Not only one's experience is of importance - temperament, aggression and risk may also affect the decision-making process under stressful conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined 97 male pilots of passenger planes, who had flew ATRs, Boeings, Airbuses, Embraers, and Saabs...
June 28, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650315/transient-acidosis-while-retrieving-a-fear-related-memory-enhances-its-lability
#14
Jianyang Du, Margaret P Price, Rebecca J Taugher, Daniel Grigsby, Jamison J Ash, Austin C Stark, Md Zubayer Hossain Saad, Kritika Singh, Juthika Mandal, John A Wemmie, Michael J Welsh
Attenuating the strength of fearful memories could benefit people disabled by memories of past trauma. Pavlovian conditioning experiments indicate that a retrieval cue can return a conditioned aversive memory to a labile state. However, means to enhance retrieval and render a memory more labile are unknown. We hypothesized that augmenting synaptic signaling during retrieval would increase memory lability. To enhance synaptic transmission, mice inhaled CO2 to induce an acidosis and activate acid sensing ion channels...
June 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648649/selective-inhibition-of-amygdala-neuronal-ensembles-encoding-nicotine-associated-memories-inhibits-nicotine-preference-and-relapse
#15
Yan-Xue Xue, Ya-Yun Chen, Li-Bo Zhang, Li-Qun Zhang, Geng-Di Huang, Shi-Chao Sun, Jia-Hui Deng, Yi-Xiao Luo, Yan-Ping Bao, Ping Wu, Ying Han, Bruce T Hope, Yavin Shaham, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
BACKGROUND: Nicotine craving and relapse often occurs after reactivation of nicotine reward memories. We recently developed a memory retrieval-reconsolidation interference procedure in which reactivating nicotine reward memories by acute exposure to nicotine (the unconditioned stimulus [UCS]) and then pharmacologically interfering with memory reconsolidation decreased relapse to nicotine seeking in rats and nicotine craving in smokers. Here, we investigated underlying mechanisms. METHODS: In the first series of experiments, we trained rats for nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) or nicotine self-administration and ventricularly microinjected them with the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin immediately after UCS-induced memory retrieval...
May 11, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641601/the-impact-of-traumatic-stress-on-pavlovian-biases
#16
O T Ousdal, Q J Huys, A M Milde, A R Craven, L Ersland, T Endestad, A Melinder, K Hugdahl, R J Dolan
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in Pavlovian valuation systems are reported to follow traumatic stress exposure. However, motivated decisions are also guided by instrumental mechanisms, but to date the effect of traumatic stress on these instrumental systems remain poorly investigated. Here, we examine whether a single episode of severe traumatic stress influences flexible instrumental decisions through an impact on a Pavlovian system. METHODS: Twenty-six survivors of the 2011 Norwegian terror attack and 30 matched control subjects performed an instrumental learning task in which Pavlovian and instrumental associations promoted congruent or conflicting responses...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628005/emergence-of-visually-evoked-reward-expectation-signals-in-dopamine-neurons-via-the-superior-colliculus-in-v1-lesioned-monkeys
#17
Norihiro Takakuwa, Rikako Kato, Peter Redgrave, Tadashi Isa
Responses of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons reflecting expected reward from sensory cues are critical for reward-based associative learning. However, critical pathways by which reward-related visual information is relayed to DA neurons remain unclear. To address this question, we investigated Pavlovian conditioning in macaque monkeys with unilateral primary visual cortex (V1) lesions (an animal model of 'blindsight'). Anticipatory licking responses to obtain juice drops were elicited in response to visual conditioned stimuli (CS) in the affected visual field...
June 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627906/evidence-of-a-goal-directed-process-in-human-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer
#18
Tina Seabrooke, Mike E Le Pelley, Lee Hogarth, Chris J Mitchell
Cues that signal rewards can motivate reward-seeking behaviors, even for outcomes that are not currently desired. Three experiments examined this phenomenon, using an outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) design and an outcome devaluation procedure. In Experiment 1, participants learned to perform one response to earn crisps points and another response to earn popcorn points. One outcome was then devalued by adulterating it to make it taste unpleasant. On test, overall response choice was biased toward the outcome that had not been devalued, indicating goal-directed control...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617449/assessment-of-social-transmission-of-threats-in-humans-using-observational-fear-conditioning
#19
Jan Haaker, Armita Golkar, Ida Selbing, Andreas Olsson
Across the human life span, fear is often acquired indirectly by observation of the emotional expressions of others. The observational fear conditioning protocol was previously developed as a laboratory model for investigating socially acquired threat responses. This protocol serves as a suitable alternative to the widely used Pavlovian fear conditioning, in which threat responses are acquired through direct experiences. In the observational fear conditioning protocol, the participant (observer) watches a demonstrator being presented with a conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US)...
July 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612645/associative-mechanisms-involved-in-specific-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer-pit-in-human-learning-tasks
#20
Daniel E Alarcón, Charlotte Bonardi, Andrew R Delamater
Four experiments compared the effect of forward and backward conditioning procedures on the ability of conditioned stimuli (CSs) to elevate instrumental responding in a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) task. Two responses were each trained with one distinct outcome (R1->O1, R2->O2), either concurrently (Experiment 1) or separately (Experiments 2, 3 and 4). Then, in Experiments 1 and 2, four CSs were either followed or preceded by one outcome (A-->O1, B->O2,O1->C, O2->D). In Experiment 3 each CS was preceded and followed by an outcome: for one group of participants both outcomes were identical (e...
June 14, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
keyword
keyword
23604
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"