keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Pavlovian

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777527/limiting-motor-skill-knowledge-via-incidental-training-protects-against-choking-under-pressure
#1
Taraz G Lee, Daniel E Acuña, Konrad P Kording, Scott T Grafton
The paradoxical harmful effects of motivation and incentives on skilled performance ("choking under pressure") are observed in a wide variety of motor tasks. Two theories of this phenomenon suggest that choking under pressure occurs due to maladaptive attention and top-down control, either through distraction away from the task or interference via an overreliance on controlled processing of a skilled task. A third theory, overmotivation (or overarousal), suggests that under pressure, "instinctive" or Pavlovian approach/withdrawal responses compete with the desired response...
May 18, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773974/orexin-a-differentially-influences-the-extinction-retention-of-recent-and-remote-fear-memory
#2
Le Shi, Wenhao Chen, Jiahui Deng, Sijing Chen, Ying Han, Muhammad Z Khan, Jiajia Liu, Jianyu Que, Yanping Bao, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Recently the role of the orexin system in the learning and memory, especially orexin A, which could enhance fear memory through regulating the activity of amygdala, has drawn considerable attention. However, the relationship between orexin A and extinction memory remains unclear. To investigate the effect of orexin A on extinction memory in humans, we recruited 43 male subjects and divided them into a recent group and remote group. After acquiring Pavlovian fear conditioning, individuals in recent group experienced fear extinction 24 h after acquisition, and remote group underwent extinction 2 weeks later...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752468/foraging-for-foundations-in-decision-neuroscience-insights-from-ethology
#3
REVIEW
Dean Mobbs, Pete C Trimmer, Daniel T Blumstein, Peter Dayan
Modern decision neuroscience offers a powerful and broad account of human behaviour using computational techniques that link psychological and neuroscientific approaches to the ways that individuals can generate near-optimal choices in complex controlled environments. However, until recently, relatively little attention has been paid to the extent to which the structure of experimental environments relates to natural scenarios, and the survival problems that individuals have evolved to solve. This situation not only risks leaving decision-theoretic accounts ungrounded but also makes various aspects of the solutions, such as hard-wired or Pavlovian policies, difficult to interpret in the natural world...
May 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749116/neonatal-pain-and-stress-disrupts-later-life-pavlovian-fear-conditioning-and-sensory-function-in-rats-evidence-for-a-two-hit-model
#4
Seth M Davis, Makaela Rice, Jacob Rudlong, Victoria Eaton, Tamara King, Michael A Burman
Early life trauma has been linked to increased risks for anxiety, depression, and chronic pain. We used rodent models of acute and inflammatory neonatal pain to explore effects on fear conditioning and somatosensory function. Hindpaw needle pricks or handling on postnatal days (PNDs) 1-7 caused lasting impacts on affective and somatosensory function when assessed at later ages, PNDs 24 (postweaning), 45 (adolescence), or 66 (adulthood). First, auditory, but not contextual, freezing was mildly disrupted regardless of age...
May 10, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740595/dynamic-encoding-of-incentive-salience-in-the-ventral-pallidum-dependence-on-the-form-of-the-reward-cue
#5
Allison M Ahrens, Lindsay M Ferguson, Terry E Robinson, J Wayne Aldridge
Some rats are especially prone to attribute incentive salience to a cue (conditioned stimulus, CS) paired with food reward (sign-trackers, STs), but the extent they do so varies as a function of the form of the CS. Other rats respond primarily to the predictive value of a cue (goal-trackers, GTs), regardless of its form. Sign-tracking is associated with greater cue-induced activation of mesolimbic structures than goal-tracking; however, it is unclear how the form of the CS itself influences activity in neural systems involved in incentive salience attribution...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740293/role-played-by-the-passage-of-time-in-reversal-learning
#6
Estelle H F Goarin, Nura W Lingawi, Vincent Laurent
Reversal learning is thought to involve an extinction-like process that inhibits the expression of the initial learning. However, behavioral evidence for this inhibition remains difficult to interpret as various procedures have been employed to study reversal learning. Here, we used a discrimination task in rats to examine whether the inhibition produced by reversal learning is as sensitive to the passage of time as the inhibition produced by extinction. Experiment 1 showed that when tested immediately after reversal training, rats were able to use the reversed contingencies to solve the discrimination task in an outcome-specific manner...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740282/muscarinic-m4-receptors-on-cholinergic-and-dopamine-d1-receptor-expressing-neurons-have-opposing-functionality-for-positive-reinforcement-and-influence-impulsivity
#7
Anna M Klawonn, Daniel B Wilhelms, Sarah H Lindström, Anand Kumar Singh, Maarit Jaarola, Jürgen Wess, Michael Fritz, David Engblom
The neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been implicated in reward learning and drug addiction. However, the roles of the various cholinergic receptor subtypes on different neuron populations remain elusive. Here we study the function of muscarinic M4 receptors (M4Rs) in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) expressing neurons and cholinergic neurons (expressing choline acetyltransferase; ChAT), during various reward-enforced behaviors and in a "waiting"-impulsivity test. We applied cell-type-specific gene deletions targeting M4Rs in D1RCre or ChATCre mice...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690872/identification-of-a-neuronal-population-in-the-telencephalon-essential-for-fear-conditioning-in-zebrafish
#8
Pradeep Lal, Hideyuki Tanabe, Maximiliano L Suster, Deepak Ailani, Yuri Kotani, Akira Muto, Mari Itoh, Miki Iwasaki, Hironori Wada, Emre Yaksi, Koichi Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning is a form of learning essential for animal survival and used as a behavioral paradigm to study the mechanisms of learning and memory. In mammals, the amygdala plays a crucial role in fear conditioning. In teleost, the medial zone of the dorsal telencephalon (Dm) has been postulated to be a homolog of the mammalian amygdala by anatomical and ablation studies, showing a role in conditioned avoidance response. However, the neuronal populations required for a conditioned avoidance response via the Dm have not been functionally or genetically defined...
April 25, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683697/inhibition-and-mediated-activation-between-conditioned-stimuli-parallels-between-perceptual-learning-and-associative-conditioning
#9
Cody W Polack, Ralph R Miller
This series examines the associative basis of inhibitory perceptual learning. Four experiments demonstrate that inhibitory perceptual learning, like Pavlovian conditioned inhibition, is affected by manipulating the number of training trials. Specifically, many interspersed XB/AB training trials (in which letters represent initially neutral stimuli such as tones, clicks, and flashing lights) followed by A-US pairings caused X to act like a conditioned inhibitor (Experiment 1), which is presumed to suggest that an inhibitory association between conditioned stimuli X and A had been formed (i...
April 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667304/inhibition-of-alpha7-nicotinic-receptors-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-selectively-attenuates-reinstatement-of-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-and-associated-changes-in-ampa-receptor-binding
#10
Victoria L Wright, Polymnia Georgiou, Alexis Bailey, David J Heal, Christopher P Bailey, Susan Wonnacott
Recurrent relapse is a major problem in treating opiate addiction. Pavlovian conditioning plays a role in recurrent relapse whereby exposure to cues learned during drug intake can precipitate relapse to drug taking. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been implicated in attentional aspects of cognition and mechanisms of learning and memory. In this study we have investigated the role of α7 nAChRs in morphine-conditioned place preference (morphine-CPP). CPP provides a model of associative learning that is pertinent to associative aspects of drug dependence...
April 17, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663595/adult-neurogenesis-affects-motivation-to-obtain-weak-but-not-strong-reward-in-operant-tasks
#11
Rose-Marie Karlsson, Alice S Wang, Anup N Sonti, Heather A Cameron
Decreased motivation to seek rewards is a key feature of mood disorders that correlates with severity and treatment outcome. This anhedonia, or apathy, likely reflects impairment in reward circuitry, but the specific neuronal populations controlling motivation are unclear. Granule neurons generated in the adult hippocampus have been implicated in mood disorders, but are not generally considered as part of reward circuits. We investigated a possible role of these new neurons in motivation to work for food and sucrose rewards in operant conditioning tasks using GFAP-TK pharmacogenetic ablation of adult neurogenesis in both rats and mice...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661965/neural-activity-in-ventral-medial-prefrontal-cortex-is-modulated-more-before-approach-than-avoidance-during-reinforced-and-extinction-trial-blocks
#12
Ronny N Gentry, Matthew R Roesch
Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is thought to provide regulatory control over Pavlovian fear responses and has recently been implicated in appetitive approach behavior, but much less is known about its role in contexts where appetitive and aversive outcomes can be obtained and avoided, respectively. To address this issue, we recorded from single neurons in vmPFC while male rats performed our combined approach and avoidance task under reinforced and non-reinforced (extinction) conditions. Surprisingly, we found that cues predicting reward modulated cell firing in vmPFC more often and more robustly than cues preceding avoidable shock; additionally, firing of vmPFC neurons was both response (press or no-press) and outcome (reinforced or extinction) selective...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661835/sexual-differentiation-of-contextual-fear-responses
#13
Lorianna Colon, Natalie Odynocki, Anthony Santarelli, Andrew M Poulos
Development and sex differentiation impart an organizational influence on the neuroanatomy and behavior of mammalian species. Prior studies suggest that brain regions associated with fear motivated defensive behavior undergo a protracted and sex-dependent development. Outside of adult animals, evidence for developmental sex differences in conditioned fear is sparse. Here, we examined in male and female Long-Evans rats how developmental age and sex affect the long-term retention and generalization of Pavlovian fear responses...
May 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626741/prescription-opioid-misusing-chronic-pain-patients-exhibit-dysregulated-context-dependent-associations-investigating-associative-learning-in-addiction-with-the-cue-primed-reactivity-task
#14
Eric L Garland, Craig J Bryan, Lydia Kreighbaum, Yoshio Nakamura, Matthew O Howard, Brett Froeliger
BACKGROUND: Associative learning undergirds the development of addiction, such that drug-related cues serve as conditioned stimuli to elicit drug-seeking responses. Plausibly, among opioid misusing chronic pain patients, pain-related information may serve as a conditioned stimulus to magnify opioid cue-elicited autonomic and craving responses through a process of second-order conditioning. METHODS: We utilized a novel psychophysiological probe of pain-opioid conditioned associations, the Cue-Primed Reactivity (CPR) task...
March 27, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602178/ethanol-exposure-history-and-alcoholic-reward-differentially-alter-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-to-a-reward-predictive-cue
#15
Amanda M Fiorenza, Tatiana A Shnitko, Kaitlin M Sullivan, Sudheer R Vemuru, Alexander Gomez-A, Julie Y Esaki, Charlotte A Boettiger, Claudio Da Cunha, Donita L Robinson
BACKGROUND: Conditioned stimuli (CS) that predict reward delivery acquire the ability to induce phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. This dopamine release may facilitate conditioned approach behavior, which often manifests as approach to the site of reward delivery (called 'goal-tracking') or to the CS itself (called 'sign-tracking'). Previous research has linked sign-tracking in particular to impulsivity and drug self-administration, and addictive drugs may promote the expression of sign-tracking...
March 30, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601060/revealing-neurocomputational-mechanisms-of-reinforcement-learning-and-decision-making-with-the-hbayesdm-package
#16
Woo-Young Ahn, Nathaniel Haines, Lei Zhang
Reinforcement learning and decision-making (RLDM) provide a quantitative framework and computational theories with which we can disentangle psychiatric conditions into the basic dimensions of neurocognitive functioning. RLDM offer a novel approach to assessing and potentially diagnosing psychiatric patients, and there is growing enthusiasm for both RLDM and computational psychiatry among clinical researchers. Such a framework can also provide insights into the brain substrates of particular RLDM processes, as exemplified by model-based analysis of data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or electroencephalography (EEG)...
October 2017: Comput Psychiatr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593511/noradrenergic-modulation-of-fear-conditioning-and-extinction
#17
REVIEW
Thomas F Giustino, Stephen Maren
The locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) system plays a broad role in learning and memory. Here we begin with an overview of the LC-NE system. We then consider how both direct and indirect manipulations of the LC-NE system affect cued and contextual aversive learning and memory. We propose that NE dynamically modulates Pavlovian conditioning and extinction, either promoting or impairing learning aversive processes under different levels of behavioral arousal. We suggest that under high levels of stress (e...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580129/bidirectional-influence-of-amygdala-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptors-blockade-on-cannabinoid-signaling-in-contextual-and-auditory-fear-memory
#18
Mohammad Nasehi, Saman Shahbazzadeh, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a major target and modulator of stress and has a critical role in the neural circuitry presenting learned fear behaviors. On the other hand, both the endocannabinoid and noradrenergic systems may be involved in regulating the stress responses, fear, and anxiety. Considering the aforementioned, we have investigated the involvement of the BLA β1 -adrenoceptors in conditioned fear responses induced by ACPA, a CB1 receptor (CB1R) agonist. In adult male NMRI mice, freezing responses to context and cue were measured using a Pavlovian fear conditioning apparatus...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578033/propranolol-produces-short-term-facilitation-of-extinction-in-a-rabbit-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#19
Lauren B Burhans, Carrie A Smith-Bell, Bernard G Schreurs
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a learning-based anxiety disorder with significant public health challenges due to difficulties in treating the complex, multiple symptomology. We have developed an animal model of PTSD, based on Pavlovian eyeblink conditioning in rabbits, that addresses two key features: conditioned responses (CRs) to cues associated with an aversive event and a form of conditioned hyperarousal referred to as conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM). We have found previously that unpaired extinction is ideal for reducing both CRs and CRM simultaneously and shows sensitivity to systemic serotonergic and glutamatergic manipulations...
March 22, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577783/chasing-as-a-model-of-psychogenic-stress-characterization-of-physiological-and-behavioral-responses
#20
Ji-Hye Lee, Sunwhi Kimm, Jung-Soo Han, June-Seek Choi
Being chased by a predator or a dominant conspecific can induce significant stress. However, only a limited number of laboratory studies have employed chasing by itself as a stressor. In this study, we developed a novel stress paradigm in which rats were chased by a fast-moving object in an inescapable maze. In Experiment 1, defensive behaviors and stress hormone changes induced by chasing stress were measured. During the chasing stress, the chasing-stress group (n = 9) froze and emitted 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), but the no-chasing control group (n = 10) did not...
March 25, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
keyword
keyword
23604
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"