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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905069/pavlovian-reward-learning-underlies-value-driven-attentional-capture
#1
Berno Bucker, Jan Theeuwes
Recent evidence shows that distractors that signal high compared to low reward availability elicit stronger attentional capture, even when this is detrimental for task-performance. This suggests that simply correlating stimuli with reward administration, rather than their instrumental relationship with obtaining reward, produces value-driven attentional capture. However, in previous studies, reward delivery was never response independent, as only correct responses were rewarded, nor was it completely task-irrelevant, as the distractor signaled the magnitude of reward that could be earned on that trial...
November 30, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903825/synthetic-biology-routes-to-bio-artificial-intelligence
#2
REVIEW
Darren N Nesbeth, Alexey Zaikin, Yasushi Saka, M Carmen Romano, Claudiu V Giuraniuc, Oleg Kanakov, Tetyana Laptyeva
The design of synthetic gene networks (SGNs) has advanced to the extent that novel genetic circuits are now being tested for their ability to recapitulate archetypal learning behaviours first defined in the fields of machine and animal learning. Here, we discuss the biological implementation of a perceptron algorithm for linear classification of input data. An expansion of this biological design that encompasses cellular 'teachers' and 'students' is also examined. We also discuss implementation of Pavlovian associative learning using SGNs and present an example of such a scheme and in silico simulation of its performance...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897675/mediofrontal-negativity-signals-unexpected-timing-of-salient-outcomes
#3
Sara Garofalo, Christopher Timmermann, Simone Battaglia, Martin E Maier, Giuseppe di Pellegrino
The medial pFC (mPFC) and ACC have been consistently implicated in learning predictions of future outcomes and signaling prediction errors (i.e., unexpected deviations from such predictions). A computational model of ACC/mPFC posits that these prediction errors should be modulated by outcomes occurring at unexpected times, even if the outcomes themselves are predicted. However, unexpectedness per se is not the only variable that modulates ACC/mPFC activity, as studies reported its sensitivity to the salience of outcomes...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890591/circadian-waveform-bifurcation-but-not-phase-shifting-leaves-cued-fear-memory-intact
#4
E M Harrison, S A Carmack, C L Block, J Sun, S G Anagnostaras, M R Gorman
In mammals, memory acquisition and retrieval can be affected by time of day, as well as by manipulations of the light/dark cycle. Under bifurcation, a manipulation of circadian waveform, two subjective days and nights are experimentally induced in rodents. We examined the effect of bifurcation on Pavlovian fear conditioning, a prominent model of learning and memory. Here we demonstrate that bifurcation of the circadian waveform produces a small deficit in acquisition, but not on retrieval of fear memory. In contrast, repeated phase-shifting in a simulated jet-lag protocol impairs retrieval of memory for cued fear...
November 24, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890590/can-cleanerfish-overcome-temptation-a-selective-role-for-dopamine-influence-on-cooperative-based-decision-making
#5
Marta C Soares, Sónia C Cardoso, João T Malato, João P M Messias
Evidence suggests that animals are selected to make accurate choices and prioritize goals within the constraints of a given social environment to maximize fitness. These decisions are mostly based on complex processes in which value is linked to reward and cues may carry variable incentive salience. However, the level in which the incentive elicited by a cue is able to shift individual choices should differ between individuals and neurophysiological states. Here we used a notorious cooperative cleanerfish species Labroides dimidiatus to probe for differences in the incentive motivational valences given to food cues and then tested for the role of the dopaminergic system in the appraisal of such cues...
November 24, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884768/intact-renewal-after-extinction-of-conditioned-suppression-with-lesions-of-either-the-retrosplenial-cortex-or-dorsal-hippocampus
#6
Travis P Todd, Matthew Y Jiang, Nicole E DeAngeli, David J Bucci
Extinction of fear to a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) is known to be context-specific. When the CS is tested outside the context of extinction, fear returns, or renews. Several studies have demonstrated that renewal depends upon the hippocampus, although there are also studies where renewal was not impacted by hippocampal damage, suggesting that under some conditions context encoding and/or retrieval of extinction depends upon other regions. One candidate region is the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), which is known to contribute to contextual and spatial learning and memory...
November 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875379/the-decision-neuroscience-perspective-on-suicidal-behavior-evidence-and-hypotheses
#7
Alexandre Y Dombrovski, Michael N Hallquist
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suicide attempts are usually regretted by people who survive them. Furthermore, addiction and gambling are over-represented among people who attempt or die by suicide, raising the question whether their decision-making is impaired. Advances in decision neuroscience have enabled us to investigate decision processes in suicidal people and to elucidate putative neural substrates of disadvantageous decision-making. RECENT FINDINGS: Early studies have linked attempted suicide to poor performance on gambling tasks...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870107/stimulus-reinforcer-relations-established-during-training-determine-resistance-to-extinction-and-relapse-via-reinstatement
#8
John Y H Bai, C K Jonas Chan, Douglas Elliffe, Christopher A Podlesnik
The baseline rate of a reinforced target response decreases with the availability of response-independent sources of alternative reinforcement; however, resistance to disruption and relapse increases. Because many behavioral treatments for problem behavior include response-dependent reinforcement of alternative behavior, the present study assessed whether response-dependent alternative reinforcement also decreases baseline response rates but increases resistance to extinction and relapse. We reinforced target responding at equal rates across two components of a multiple schedule with pigeons...
November 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862489/amygdala-mu-opioid-receptors-mediate-the-motivating-influence-of-cue-triggered-reward-expectations
#9
Nina T Lichtenberg, Kate M Wassum
Environmental reward-predictive stimuli can retrieve from memory a specific reward expectation that allows them to motivate action and guide choice. This process requires the basolateral amygdala (BLA), but little is known about the signaling systems necessary within this structure. Here we examined the role of the neuromodulatory opioid receptor system in the BLA in such cue-directed action using the outcome-specific Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) test in rats. Inactivation of BLA mu-, but not delta-opioid receptors was found to dose-dependently attenuate the ability of a reward-predictive cue to selectively invigorate the performance of actions directed at the same unique predicted reward (i...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837333/individual-differences-in-food-cue-responsivity-are-associated-with-acute-and-repeated-cocaine-induced-vocalizations-but-not-cue-induced-vocalizations
#10
Jordan A Tripi, Micheal L Dent, Paul J Meyer
RATIONALE: Individuals prone to attribute incentive salience to food-associated stimuli ("cues") are also more sensitive to cues during drug seeking and drug taking. This may be due in part to a difference in sensitivity to the affective or other stimulus properties of the drug. In rats, these properties are associated with 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), in that they are elicited during putative positive affective and motivational states, including in response to drugs of abuse...
November 11, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834390/varenicline-reduces-context-induced-relapse-to-alcohol-seeking-through-actions-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#11
F Lacroix, A Pettorelli, J-Mn Maddux, A Heidari-Jam, N Chaudhri
Varenicline, a pharmacotherapy for tobacco addiction, reduces alcohol consumption in humans and rodents. The therapeutic potential of varenicline would escalate if it also diminished conditioned responses elicited by alcohol-predictive cues, which can precipitate relapse in abstinent individuals. We investigated this application, along with the underlying neural substrates, using a robust preclinical assay in which relapse to alcohol-seeking was triggered by re-exposure to an alcohol-associated environmental context...
November 11, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832071/approach-induced-biases-in-human-information-sampling
#12
Laurence T Hunt, Robb B Rutledge, W M Nishantha Malalasekera, Steven W Kennerley, Raymond J Dolan
Information sampling is often biased towards seeking evidence that confirms one's prior beliefs. Despite such biases being a pervasive feature of human behavior, their underlying causes remain unclear. Many accounts of these biases appeal to limitations of human hypothesis testing and cognition, de facto evoking notions of bounded rationality, but neglect more basic aspects of behavioral control. Here, we investigated a potential role for Pavlovian approach in biasing which information humans will choose to sample...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818625/molecular-mechanisms-of-stress-induced-increases-in-fear-memory-consolidation-within-the-amygdala
#13
Antonio V Aubry, Peter A Serrano, Nesha S Burghardt
Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815865/video-based-data-acquisition-system-for-use-in-eye-blink-classical-conditioning-procedures-in-sheep
#14
Kelsey Nation, Adam Birge, Emily Lunde, Timothy Cudd, Charles Goodlett, Shannon Washburn
Pavlovian eye blink conditioning (EBC) has been extensively studied in humans and laboratory animals, providing one of the best-understood models of learning in neuroscience. EBC has been especially useful in translational studies of cerebellar and hippocampal function. We recently reported a novel extension of EBC procedures for use in sheep, and now describe new advances in a digital video-based system. The system delivers paired presentations of conditioned stimuli (CSs; a tone) and unconditioned stimuli (USs; an air puff to the eye), or CS-alone "unpaired" trials...
November 4, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813263/modulation-of-cue-triggered-reward-seeking-by-cholinergic-signaling-in-the-dorsomedial-striatum
#15
Sean B Ostlund, Angela T Liu, Kate M Wassum, Nigel T Maidment
The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) has been strongly implicated in flexible, outcome-based decision making, including the outcome-specific Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer effect (PIT), which measures the tendency for a reward-predictive cue to preferentially motivate actions that have been associated with the predicted reward over actions associated with different rewards. Although the neurochemical underpinnings of this effect are not well understood, there is growing evidence that striatal acetylcholine signaling may play an important role...
November 4, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807605/learning-to-experience-side-effects-after-antidepressant-intake-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-study
#16
Julia Rheker, Alexander Winkler, Bettina K Doering, Winfried Rief
BACKGROUND: Side effects play a key role in patients' failure to take antidepressants. There is evidence that verbal suggestions and informed consent elicit expectations that can in turn trigger the occurrence of side effects. Prior experience or learning mechanisms are also assumed to contribute to the development of side effects, although their role has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we examined whether an antidepressant's side effects can be learned via Pavlovian conditioning...
November 2, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797550/the-cognitive-architecture-of-anxiety-like-behavioral-inhibition
#17
Dominik R Bach
The combination of reward and potential threat is termed approach/avoidance conflict and elicits specific behaviors, including passive avoidance and behavioral inhibition (BI). Anxiety-relieving drugs reduce these behaviors, and a rich psychological literature has addressed how personality traits dominated by BI predispose for anxiety disorders. Yet, a formal understanding of the cognitive inference and planning processes underlying anxiety-like BI is lacking. Here, we present and empirically test such formalization in the terminology of reinforcement learning...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793779/a-food-predictive-cue-attributed-with-incentive-salience-engages-subcortical-afferents-and-efferents-of-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-thalamus
#18
Joshua L Haight, Zachary L Fuller, Kurt M Fraser, Shelly B Flagel
The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) has been implicated in behavioral responses to reward-associated cues. However, the precise role of the PVT in these behaviors has been difficult to ascertain since Pavlovian-conditioned cues can act as both predictive and incentive stimuli. The "sign-tracker/goal-tracker" rat model has allowed us to further elucidate the role of the PVT in cue-motivated behaviors, identifying this structure as a critical component of the neural circuitry underlying individual variation in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787196/dopamine-neurons-learn-relative-chosen-value-from-probabilistic-rewards
#19
Armin Lak, William R Stauffer, Wolfram Schultz
Economic theories posit reward probability as one of the factors defining reward value. Individuals learn the value of cues that predict probabilistic rewards from experienced reward frequencies. Building on the notion that responses of dopamine neurons increase with reward probability and expected value, we asked how dopamine neurons in monkeys acquire this value signal that may represent an economic decision variable. We found in a Pavlovian learning task that reward probability-dependent value signals arose from experienced reward frequencies...
October 27, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786508/a-theoretical-note-in-interpretation-of-the-redundancy-effect-in-associative-learning
#20
Edgar H Vogel, Allan R Wagner
In a recent series of papers, Pearce and colleagues (e.g., Pearce, Dopson, Haselgrove, & Esber, 2012) have demonstrated a so-called "redundancy effect" in Pavlovian conditioning, which is the finding of more conditioned responding to a redundant cue trained as part of a blocking procedure (A+AX+) than to a redundant cue trained as part of a simple discrimination procedure (BY+CY-). This phenomenon presents a serious challenge for those theories of conditioning that compute learning through a global error-term...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
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