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Pavlovian

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798131/pavlovian-conditioning-induced-hallucinations-result-from-overweighting-of-perceptual-priors
#1
A R Powers, C Mathys, P R Corlett
Some people hear voices that others do not, but only some of those people seek treatment. Using a Pavlovian learning task, we induced conditioned hallucinations in four groups of people who differed orthogonally in their voice-hearing and treatment-seeking statuses. People who hear voices were significantly more susceptible to the effect. Using functional neuroimaging and computational modeling of perception, we identified processes that differentiated voice-hearers from non-voice-hearers and treatment-seekers from non-treatment-seekers and characterized a brain circuit that mediated the conditioned hallucinations...
August 11, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790898/differences-between-dorsal-and-ventral-striatum-in-the-sensitivity-of-tonically-active-neurons-to-rewarding-events
#2
Kevin Marche, Anne-Caroline Martel, Paul Apicella
Within the striatum, cholinergic interneurons, electrophysiologically identified as tonically active neurons (TANs), represent a relatively homogeneous group in terms of their functional properties. They display typical pause in tonic firing in response to rewarding events which are of crucial importance for reinforcement learning. These responses are uniformly distributed throughout the dorsal striatum (i.e., motor and associative striatum), but it is unknown, at least in monkeys, whether differences in the modulation of TAN activity exist in the ventral striatum (i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775269/hipp-neurons-in-the-dentate-gyrus-mediate-the-cholinergic-modulation-of-background-context-memory-salience
#3
Syed Ahsan Raza, Anne Albrecht, Gürsel Çalışkan, Bettina Müller, Yunus Emre Demiray, Susann Ludewig, Susanne Meis, Nicolai Faber, Roland Hartig, Burkhart Schraven, Volkmar Lessmann, Herbert Schwegler, Oliver Stork
Cholinergic neuromodulation in the hippocampus controls the salience of background context memory acquired in the presence of elemental stimuli predicting an aversive reinforcement. With pharmacogenetic inhibition we here demonstrate that hilar perforant path-associated (HIPP) cells of the dentate gyrus mediate the devaluation of background context memory during Pavlovian fear conditioning. The salience adjustment is sensitive to reduction of hilar neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression via dominant negative CREB expression in HIPP cells and to acute blockage of NPY-Y1 receptors in the dentate gyrus during conditioning...
August 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771019/inhibitory-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer-in-humans
#4
Stephanie L Quail, Vincent Laurent, Bernard W Balleine
Although there has been extensive research in both humans and rodents regarding the influence of excitatory predictions on action selection, the influence of inhibitory reward predictions is less well understood. We used a feature-negative conditioned inhibition procedure to generate Pavlovian excitors and inhibitors, predicting the presence or absence of specific outcomes, and assessed their influence on action selection using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer test. Inhibitors predicting the absence of a specific outcome reversed the bias in action selection elicited by outcome-specific excitors; whereas excitors promoted responding on the action associated with the same outcome as the cue, inhibitors shifted responding away from such actions and toward other actions...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763064/strong-seduction-impulsivity-and-the-impact-of-contextual-cues-on-instrumental-behavior-in-alcohol-dependence
#5
C Sommer, M Garbusow, E Jünger, S Pooseh, N Bernhardt, J Birkenstock, D J Schad, B Jabs, T Glöckler, Q M Huys, A Heinz, M N Smolka, U S Zimmermann
Alcohol-related cues acquire incentive salience through Pavlovian conditioning and then can markedly affect instrumental behavior of alcohol-dependent patients to promote relapse. However, it is unclear whether similar effects occur with alcohol-unrelated cues. We tested 116 early-abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 91 healthy controls who completed a delay discounting task to assess choice impulsivity, and a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm employing both alcohol-unrelated and alcohol-related stimuli...
August 1, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757250/optogenetic-activation-of-amygdala-projections-to-nucleus-accumbens-can-arrest-conditioned-and-unconditioned-alcohol-consummatory-behavior
#6
E Zayra Millan, H Amy Kim, Patricia H Janak
Following a Pavlovian-pairing procedure, alcohol-paired cues come to elicit behavioral responses that lead to alcohol consumption. Here we used an optogenetic approach to activate basolateral amygdala (BLA) axonal terminals targeting the shell of nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) and investigated a possible influence over cue-conditioned alcohol seeking and alcohol drinking, based on the demonstrated roles of these areas in behavioral responding to Pavlovian cues and in feeding behavior. Rats were trained to anticipate alcohol or sucrose following the onset of a discrete conditioned stimulus (CS)...
July 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747623/anterior-cingulate-is-a-source-of-valence-specific-information-about-value-and-uncertainty
#7
Ilya E Monosov
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is thought to control a wide range of reward, punishment, and uncertainty-related behaviors. However, how it does so is unclear. Here, in a Pavlovian procedure in which monkeys displayed a diverse repertoire of reward-related, punishment-related, and uncertainty-related behaviors, we show that many ACC-neurons represent expected value and uncertainty in a valence-specific manner, signaling value or uncertainty predictions about either rewards or punishments. Other ACC-neurons signal prediction information about rewards and punishments by displaying excitation to both (rather than excitation to one and inhibition to the other)...
July 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743727/basolateral-amygdala-to-orbitofrontal-cortex-projections-enable-cue-triggered-reward-expectations
#8
Nina T Lichtenberg, Zachary T Pennington, Sandra M Holley, Venuz Y Greenfield, Carlos Cepeda, Michael S Levine, Kate M Wassum
To make an appropriate decision one must anticipate potential future rewarding events, even when they are not readily observable. These expectations are generated by using observable information (e.g., stimuli or available actions) to retrieve often quite detailed memories of available rewards. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are two reciprocally-connected key nodes in the circuitry supporting such outcome-guided behaviors. But there is much unknown about the contribution of this circuit to decision making, and almost nothing known about the whether any contribution is via direct, monosynaptic projections, or the direction of information transfer...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736133/knockdown-of-zif268-in-the-posterior-dorsolateral-striatum-does-not-enduringly-disrupt-a-response-memory-of-a-rewarded-t-maze-task
#9
Emma N Cahill, George H Vousden, Marc T J Exton-McGuinness, Ian R C Beh, Casey B Swerner, Matej Macak, Sameera Abas, Cameron C Cole, Brian F Kelleher, Barry J Everitt, Amy L Milton
Under certain conditions pavlovian memories undergo reconsolidation, whereby the reactivated memory can be disrupted by manipulations such as knockdown of zif268. For instrumental memories, reconsolidation disruption is less well established. Our previous, preliminary data identified that there was an increase in Zif268 in the posterior dorsolateral striatum (pDLS) after expression of an instrumental habit-like 'response' memory, but not an instrumental goal-directed 'place' memory on a T-maze task. Here, the requirement for Zif268 in the reconsolidation of a response memory was tested by knockdown of Zif268, using antisense oligodeoxynucleotide infusion into the pDLS, at memory reactivation...
July 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729826/sleep-dependent-oscillatory-synchronization-a-role-in-fear-memory-consolidation
#10
Michael S Totty, Logan A Chesney, Phillip A Geist, Subimal Datta
Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation through the facilitation of neuronal plasticity; however, how sleep accomplishes this remains to be completely understood. It has previously been demonstrated that neural oscillations are an intrinsic mechanism by which the brain precisely controls neural ensembles. Inter-regional synchronization of these oscillations is also known to facilitate long-range communication and long-term potentiation (LTP). In the present study, we investigated how the characteristic rhythms found in local field potentials (LFPs) during non-REM and REM sleep play a role in emotional memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725282/addiction-and-the-brain-development-not-disease
#11
Marc Lewis
I review the brain disease model of addiction promoted by medical, scientific, and clinical authorities in the US and elsewhere. I then show that the disease model is flawed because brain changes in addiction are similar to those generally observed when recurrent, highly motivated goal seeking results in the development of deep habits, Pavlovian learning, and prefrontal disengagement. This analysis relies on concepts of self-organization, neuroplasticity, personality development, and delay discounting. It also highlights neural and behavioral parallels between substance addictions, behavioral addictions, normative compulsive behaviors, and falling in love...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716712/effects-of-chemogenetic-excitation-or-inhibition-of-the-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray-on-the-acquisition-and-extinction-of-pavlovian-fear-conditioning
#12
Carolyn Arico, Elena E Bagley, Pascal Carrive, Neda Assareh, Gavan P McNally
The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been implicated in the generation and transmission of a prediction error signal that instructs amygdala-based fear and extinction learning. However, the PAG also plays a key role in the expression of conditioned fear responses. The evidence for a role of the PAG in fear learning and extinction learning has been obtained almost exclusively using PAG-dependent fear responses. It is less clear whether the PAG regulates fear learning when other measures of learned fear are used...
July 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712684/cerebellar-perineuronal-nets-in-cocaine-induced-pavlovian-memory-site-matters
#13
Maria Carbo-Gas, Josep Moreno-Rius, Julian Guarque-Chabrera, Dolores Vazquez-Sanroman, Isis Gil-Miravet, Daniela Carulli, Freek Hoebeek, Chris De Zeeuw, Carla Sanchis-Segura, Marta Miquel
One of the key mechanisms for the stabilization of synaptic changes near the end of critical periods for experience-dependent plasticity is the formation of specific lattice extracellular matrix structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). The formation of drug memories depends on local circuits in the cerebellum, but it is unclear to what extent it may also relate to changes in their PNN. Here, we investigated changes in the PNNs of the cerebellum following cocaine-induced preference conditioning. The formation of cocaine-related preference memories increased expression of PNN-related proteins surrounding Golgi inhibitory interneurons as well as that of cFos in granule cells at the apex of the cerebellar cortex...
July 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699296/long-lasting-contribution-of-dopamine-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-but-not-dorsal-lateral-striatum-to-sign-tracking
#14
Kurt M Fraser, Patricia H Janak
The attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues is dependent on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC). These dopamine signals conform to traditional reward-prediction error signals and have been shown to diminish with time. Here we examined whether the diminishing dopamine signal in the NAcC has functional implications for the expression of sign-tracking, a Pavlovian conditioned response indicative of the attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues. Food-restricted male Sprague Dawley rats were trained in a Pavlovian paradigm in which an insertable lever predicted delivery of food reward in a nearby food cup...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693706/cognitive-techniques-and-language-a-return-to-behavioral-origins
#15
María X Froján Parga, Miguel Núñez de Prado Gordillo, Ricardo de Pascual Verdú
BACKGROUND: the main purpose of this study is to offer an alternative explanatory account of the functioning of cognitive techniques that is based on the principles of associative learning and highlights their verbal nature. The traditional accounts are questioned and analyzed in the light of the situation of psychology in the 1970s. METHOD: conceptual analysis is employed to revise the concepts of language, cognition and behavior. Several operant- and Pavlovian-based approaches to these phenomena are presented, while particular emphasis is given to Mowrer’s (1954) approach and Ryle (1949) and Wittgenstein’s (1953) philosophical contributions to the field...
August 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686533/associative-learning-of-social-value-in-dynamic-groups
#16
Oriel FeldmanHall, Joseph E Dunsmoor, Marijn C W Kroes, Sandra Lackovic, Elizabeth A Phelps
Although humans live in societies that regularly demand engaging with multiple people simultaneously, little is known about social learning in group settings. In two experiments, we combined a Pavlovian learning framework with dyadic economic games to test whether blocking mechanisms support value-based social learning in the gain (altruistic dictators) and loss (greedy robbers) domains. Subjects first learned about an altruistic dictator, who subsequently made altruistic splits collectively with a partner...
August 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683271/distinct-roles-for-the-amygdala-and-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-representing-the-relative-amount-of-expected-reward
#17
Rebecca A Saez, Alexandre Saez, Joseph J Paton, Brian Lau, C Daniel Salzman
The same reward can possess different motivational meaning depending upon its magnitude relative to other rewards. To study the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating assignment of motivational meaning, we recorded the activity of neurons in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of monkeys during a Pavlovian task in which the relative amount of liquid reward associated with one conditioned stimulus (CS) was manipulated by changing the reward amount associated with a second CS. Anticipatory licking tracked relative reward magnitude, implying that monkeys integrated information about recent rewards to adjust the motivational meaning of a CS...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679796/the-ol1mpiad-concordance-of-behavioural-faculties-of-stage-1-and-stage-3-drosophila-larvae
#18
Maria J Almeida-Carvalho, Dimitri Berh, Andreas Braun, Yi-Chun Chen, Katharina Eichler, Claire Eschbach, Pauline M J Fritsch, Bertram Gerber, Nina Hoyer, Xiaoyi Jiang, Jörg Kleber, Christian Klämbt, Christian König, Matthieu Louis, Birgit Michels, Anton Miroschnikow, Christen Mirth, Daisuke Miura, Thomas Niewalda, Nils Otto, Emmanouil Paisios, Michael J Pankratz, Meike Petersen, Noel Ramsperger, Nadine Randel, Benjamin Risse, Timo Saumweber, Philipp Schlegel, Michael Schleyer, Peter Soba, Simon G Sprecher, Teiichi Tanimura, Andreas S Thum, Naoko Toshima, Jim W Truman, Ayse Yarali, Marta Zlatic
Mapping brain function to brain structure is a fundamental task for neuroscience. For such an endeavour, the Drosophila larva is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to be interesting. It features about 10,000 neurons and is capable of various taxes, kineses and Pavlovian conditioning. All its neurons are currently being mapped into a light-microscopical atlas, and Gal4 strains are being generated to experimentally access neurons one at a time. In addition, an electron microscopic reconstruction of its nervous system seems within reach...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676746/regulation-of-fear-extinction-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-by-dopamine-d2-receptors-accompanied-by-altered-glur1-glur1-ser845-and-nr2b-levels
#19
Yan-Wei Shi, Bu-Fang Fan, Li Xue, Jia-Ling Wen, Hu Zhao
The amygdala, a critical structure for both Pavlovian fear conditioning and fear extinction, receives sparse but comprehensive dopamine innervation and contains dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Fear extinction, which involves learning to suppress the expression of a previously learned fear, appears to require the dopaminergic system. The specific roles of D2 receptors in mediating associative learning underlying fear extinction require further study. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusions of a D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole, and a D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride, prior to fear extinction and extinction retention were tested 24 h after fear extinction training for long-term memory (LTM)...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675116/acute-alcohol-effects-on-explicit-and-implicit-motivation-to-drink-alcohol-in-socially-drinking-adolescents
#20
Elisabeth Jünger, Amir-Homayoun Javadi, Corinde E Wiers, Christian Sommer, Maria Garbusow, Nadine Bernhardt, Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Michael N Smolka, Ulrich S Zimmermann
Alcohol-related cues can evoke explicit and implicit motivation to drink alcohol. Concerning the links between explicit and implicit motivation, there are mixed findings. Therefore, we investigated both concepts in 51 healthy 18- to 19-year-old males, who are less affected by neuropsychological deficits in decision-making that are attributed to previous alcohol exposure than older participants. In a randomized crossover design, adolescents were infused with either alcohol or placebo. Self-ratings of alcohol desire, thirst, well-being and alcohol effects comprised our explicit measures of motivation...
July 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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