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N C Byrom, R M Msetfi, R A Murphy
Latent inhibition (LI) is a startlingly simple effect in which preexposure of a stimulus without consequence retards subsequent responding to a stimulus-consequence relation. The effect was first demonstrated with Pavlovian conditioning in animals and was later suggested to be a marker of human psychopathology such as schizophrenia. Individual differences in LI has supported the continued use of animal models to understand human mental health. In this review, we ask whether there is sufficient evidence to support the continued application of LI from animal models to human psychopathology because of the weak evidence for LI in humans...
March 19, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Adam M Goodman, Nathaniel G Harnett, Muriah D Wheelock, Danielle R Hurst, Tyler R Orem, Ethan W Gossett, Chelsea A Dunaway, Sylvie Mrug, David C Knight
Excessive stress exposure often leads to emotional dysfunction, characterized by disruptions in healthy emotional learning, expression, and regulation processes. A prefrontal cortex (PFC)-amygdala circuit appears to underlie these important emotional processes. However, limited human neuroimaging research has investigated whether these brain regions underlie the altered emotional function that develops with stress. Therefore, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate stress-induced changes in PFC-amygdala function during Pavlovian fear conditioning...
March 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Rifka C Derman, Carrie R Ferrario
Efforts to stem the global rise in obesity have been minimally effective, perhaps in part because our understanding of the psychological and behavioral drivers of obesity is limited. It is well established that stimuli that are paired with palatable foods can powerfully influence food-seeking and feeding behaviors. However, how consumption of sugary, fatty "junk-foods" affects these motivational responses to food cues is poorly understood. Here, we determined the effects of short- and long-term "junk-food" consumption on the expression of cue potentiated feeding and conditioned food cup approach to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CS)...
March 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Sabrina Jones, Camille H Sample, Sara L Hargrave, Terry L Davidson
While previous research has identified a number of metabolic, neural, and hormonal events that could serve as potential satiety signals, the mechanisms that enable satiety signals to suppress food-seeking and eating behavior remain poorly specified. Here we investigate the idea that the inhibitory power of satiety signals is derived, at least in part, from their ability to signal that foods and food-related stimuli will not be followed by reinforcing postingestive consequences. Viewed in this way, the signaling relationship in which satiety cues are embedded defines what is known in Pavlovian conditioning as a "serial feature negative" (sFN) discrimination problem...
March 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Karina R O'Malley, Allison M Waters
Exposure therapy is a key component of efficacious treatment for anxiety. Biases in the allocation of attention towards versus away from threat assessed prior to exposure-based treatments such as cognitive-behavioural therapy differentially predict treatment outcomes. However, it is unclear whether monitoring versus avoiding threat stimuli influences learning during exposure. Extinction paradigms are the experimental analogue of exposure therapy. Therefore, manipulating attention towards versus away from threat during extinction trials may shed light on the role of attention during exposure therapy...
March 6, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Chisato Mine, Jun Saiki
Feature-reward association elicits value-driven attentional capture (VDAC) regardless of the task relevance of associated features. What are the necessary conditions for feature-reward associations in VDAC? Recent studies claim that VDAC is based on Pavlovian conditioning. In this study, we manipulated the temporal relationships among feature, response, and reward in reward learning to elucidate the necessary components of VDAC. We presented reward-associated features in a variety of locations in a flanker task to form a color-reward association (training phase) and then tested VDAC in a subsequent visual search task (test phase)...
March 14, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Mantas Mikaitis, Garibaldi Pineda García, James C Knight, Steve B Furber
SpiNNaker is a digital neuromorphic architecture, designed specifically for the low power simulation of large-scale spiking neural networks at speeds close to biological real-time. Unlike other neuromorphic systems, SpiNNaker allows users to develop their own neuron and synapse models as well as specify arbitrary connectivity. As a result SpiNNaker has proved to be a powerful tool for studying different neuron models as well as synaptic plasticity-believed to be one of the main mechanisms behind learning and memory in the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Masanori Nomoto, Kaoru Inokuchi
Behavioral tagging is the transformation of a short-term memory induced by a weak experience into a long-term memory through temporal association with a novel experience. This phenomenon was discovered to recapitulate synaptic tagging and capture at the behavioral level. Significant progress has been made in determining the molecular machinery associated with synaptic tagging and capture and behavioral tagging theories. However, the tag setting and recruitment of plasticity-related proteins that occur within the spatiotemporally constrained cell ensemble at the network level (cellular tagging) in the brain where multimodal sensory information is input are just beginning to be understood...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Yoann Stussi, Sylvain Delplanque, Seline Coraj, Gilles Pourtois, David Sander
Despite its evolutionary and clinical significance, appetitive conditioning has been rarely investigated in humans. It has been proposed that this discrepancy might stem from the difficulty in finding suitable appetitive stimuli that elicit strong physiological responses. However, this might also be due to a possible lack of sensitivity of the psychophysiological measures commonly used to index human appetitive conditioning. Here, we investigated whether the postauricular reflex-a vestigial muscle microreflex that is potentiated by pleasant stimuli relative to neutral and unpleasant stimuli-may provide a valid psychophysiological indicator of appetitive conditioning in humans...
March 9, 2018: Psychophysiology
Verena Vogel, Ines Kollei, Theodora Duka, Jan Snagowski, Matthias Brand, Astrid Müller, Sabine Loeber
At present, there is a considerable lack of human studies that investigated the impact of conditioned cues on instrumental responding although these processes are considered as core mechanisms contributing to the development and maintenance of addictive behaviours. No studies are available that assessed these processes with regard to Internet gaming or Internet shopping applications. We thus developed a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT)-Paradigm implementing appetitive stimuli related to Internet gaming and Internet shopping applications and investigated whether an outcome-specific PIT-Effect is observed...
March 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Patrick Anselme, Onur Güntürkün
Food uncertainty has the effect of invigorating food-related responses. Psychologists have noted that mammals and birds respond more to a conditioned stimulus that unreliably predicts food delivery, and ecologists have shown that animals (especially small passerines) consume and/or hoard more food and can get fatter when access to that resource is unpredictable. Are these phenomena related? We think they are. Psychologists have proposed several mechanistic interpretations, while ecologists have suggested a functional interpretation: the effect of unpredictability on fat reserves and hoarding behavior is an evolutionary strategy acting against the risk of starvation when food is in short supply...
March 8, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Iris M Engelhard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Excessive avoidance towards non-dangerous cues is a key diagnostic criterion across anxiety-related disorders. Despite current therapies being successful in reducing such avoidance, relapse rates remain high. Based on recent findings, according to which learned fear responses were reduced after the presentation of the fear stimulus with a novel-neutral event (novel-based extinction), we tested whether novel-based extinction could diminish conditioned avoidance...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Abigail K Rose, Kyle Brown, James MacKillop, Matt Field, Lee Hogarth
RATIONALE: Substance-related behaviour is often viewed as an appetitive behaviour, motivated by the reinforcing effects of the drug. However, there are various indices of substance motivation (e.g. attentional bias, behavioural economic demand, craving) and it is unclear how these are related or whether they play an important role in all types of substance-related behaviour. OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine the effect of alcohol devaluation on several indices of alcohol motivation and goal-directed and cue-elicited alcohol behaviour...
February 26, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Douglas W Barrett, F Gonzalez-Lima
This study is a new analysis to obtain novel metabolic data on the functional connectivity of prefrontal-limbic regions in Pavlovian fear acquisition and extinction of tone-footshock conditioning. Mice were analyzed with the fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiographic method to metabolically map regional brain activity. New FDG data were sampled from the nuclei of the habenula and other regions implicated in aversive conditioning, such as infralimbic cortex, amygdala and periaqueductal gray regions. The activity patterns among these regions were inter-correlated during acquisition, extinction or pseudorandom training to develop a functional connectivity model...
February 22, 2018: Neuroscience
Andrew R Delamater, Brandon Chen, Helen Nasser, Karim Elayouby
Two experiments with Long-Evans rats examined the potential independence of learning about different features of food reward, namely, "what" reward is to be expected and "when" it will occur. This was examined by investigating the effects of selective reward devaluation upon responding in an instrumental peak timing task in Experiment 1 and by exploring the effects of pre-training lesions targeting the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the selective reward devaluation effect and interval timing in a Pavlovian peak timing task in Experiment 2...
February 22, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Genaro A Coria-Avila, Tamara Cibrian-Llanderal, Victor X Díaz-Estrada, Luis I García, Rebeca Toledo-Cárdenas, James G Pfaus, Jorge Manzo
Sexual preferences can be strongly modified by Pavlovian learning. For instance, olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference can occur when a sexually naïve male cohabits with an scented male during repeated periods under the effects of enhanced D2-type activity. Preference is observed days later via social and sexual behaviors. Herein we explored brain activity related to learned same-sex preference (Fos-Immunoreactivity, IR) following exposure to a conditioned odor paired with same-sex preference. During conditioning trials males received either saline or the D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) and cohabitated during 24 h with a stimulus male that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus...
February 16, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Micah Amd, Marlon A de Oliveira, Denise A Passarelli, Livia C Balog, Julio C de Rose
A recent report by Amd and colleagues (2017) demonstrated that orienting towards successively presented stimulus-stimulus pairs yielded significantly more transitive relations then when those same pairs were differentially reinforced following training for three, 3-member stimulus sets. We build on that work in four important ways. First, transitivity yields produced by Pavlovian and instrumental procedures were compared following training for three 5-member sets (A1-B1-C1-D1-E1, A2-B2-C2-D2-E2, A3-B3-C3-D3-E3), where the 'A' stimuli were emotional faces and all remaining stimuli were nonsense words...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Felipe Alfaro, Jorge Mallea, Mario A Laborda, Aracelli Cañete, Gonzalo Miguez
An occasion setter (OS) is a stimulus or context with the capacity to disambiguate an ambiguous conditioned stimulus (CS). Previous research has shown that OSs share some features with regular Pavlovian CSs. Amongst them, research has shown that OSs are subject to blocking; that is, a new OS exerts reduced behavioral control after training in compound with a previously established OS. Of additional interest, in Pavlovian blocking, it has been reported that a blocked CS comes to elicit conditioned responding after the extinction of the blocking CS...
February 11, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Andrew T Marshall, Briac Halbout, Angela T Liu, Sean B Ostlund
Cues signaling the availability of palatable food acquire the ability to potentiate food seeking and consumption. The current study employed a combination of behavioral, pharmacological, and analytical techniques to probe the role of Pavlovian incentive motivation in cue-potentiated feeding. We show that a cue paired with sucrose solution (CS+) can transfer its control over feeding to stimulate sucrose consumption at a new receptacle, and that this effect depends on activation of D1 dopamine receptors, which is known to modulate other forms of cue-motivated behavior but not taste palatability...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Robert G W Kirk, Edmund Ramsden
Seeking a scientific basis for understanding and treating mental illness, and inspired by the work of Ivan Pavlov, American physiologists, psychiatrists and psychologists in the 1920s turned to nonhuman animals. This paper examines how new constructs such as "experimental neurosis" emerged as tools to enable psychiatric comparison across species. From 1923 to 1962, the Cornell "Behavior Farm" was a leading interdisciplinary research center pioneering novel techniques to experimentally study nonhuman psychopathology...
February 7, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
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