keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Pavlovian

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924006/the-neural-basis-of-aversive-pavlovian-guidance-during-planning
#1
Níall Lally, Quentin J M Huys, Neir Eshel, Paul Faulkner, Peter Dayan, Jonathan P Roiser
Important real-world decisions are often arduous as they frequently involve sequences of choices, with initial selections affecting future options. Evaluating every possible combination of choices is computationally intractable, particularly for longer multi-step decisions. Therefore, humans frequently employ heuristics to reduce the complexity of decisions. We recently used a goal-directed planning task to demonstrate the profound behavioral influence and ubiquity of one such shortcut, namely aversive pruning, a reflexive Pavlovian process that involves neglecting parts of the decision space residing beyond salient negative outcomes...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910125/threat-of-shock-and-aversive-inhibition-induced-anxiety-modulates-pavlovian-instrumental-interactions
#2
Anahit Mkrtchian, Jonathan P Roiser, Oliver J Robinson
Anxiety can be an adaptive response to potentially threatening situations. However, if experienced in inappropriate contexts, it can also lead to pathological and maladaptive anxiety disorders. Experimentally, anxiety can be induced in healthy individuals using the threat of shock (ToS) paradigm. Accumulating work with this paradigm suggests that anxiety promotes harm-avoidant mechanisms through enhanced inhibitory control. However, the specific cognitive mechanisms underlying anxiety-linked inhibitory control are unclear...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905678/negative-emotional-appraisal-selectively-disrupts-retrieval-of-expected-outcome-values-required-for-goal-directed-instrumental-choice
#3
Tanya L Pritchard, Gabrielle Weidemann, Lee Hogarth
Stress induction reduces people's ability to modify their instrumental choices following changes in the value of outcomes, but the mechanisms underpinning this effect have not been specified because previous studies have lacked crucial control conditions. To address this, the current study had participants learn two instrumental responses for food and water, respectively, before water was devalued by specific satiety. Choice between these two responses was then measured in extinction, reacquisition and Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) tests...
September 14, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888667/preimmunization-with-a-heat-killed-preparation-of-mycobacterium-vaccae-enhances-fear-extinction-in-the-fear-potentiated-startle-paradigm
#4
James H Fox, James E Hassell, Philip H Siebler, Mathew R Arnold, Andrew K Lamb, David G Smith, Heidi E W Day, Tessa M Smith, Emma M Simmerman, Alexander A Outzen, Kaley S Holmes, Christopher J Brazell, Christopher A Lowry
The hygiene hypothesis or "Old Friends" hypothesis proposes that inflammatory diseases are increasing in modern urban societies, due in part to reduced exposure to microorganisms that drive immunoregulatory circuits, and a failure to terminate inappropriate inflammatory responses. Inappropriate inflammation is also emerging as a risk factor for trauma-related, anxiety, and affective disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is characterized as persistent re-experiencing of the trauma after a traumatic experience...
September 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883499/a-reminder-before-extinction-strengthens-episodic-memory-via-reconsolidation-but-fails-to-disrupt-generalized-threat-responses
#5
Marijn C W Kroes, Joseph E Dunsmoor, Qi Lin, Michael Evans, Elizabeth A Phelps
A reminder can temporarily renew flexibility of consolidated memories, referred to as reconsolidation. Pavlovian threat-conditioning studies suggest that a reminder can renew flexibility of threat responses but that episodic memories remain stable. In contrast, outside the threat-conditioning domain, studies testing memory for word lists or stories find that a reminder can renew flexibility of episodic memory. This discrepancy in findings leaves it unclear if episodic memories reconsolidate, or only Pavlovian responses...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882695/effects-of-an-acute-therapeutic-or-rewarding-dose-of-amphetamine-on-acquisition-of-pavlovian-autoshaping-and-ventral-striatal-dopamine-signaling
#6
D R Schuweiler, J M Athens, J M Thompson, S T Vazhayil, P A Garris
Rewarding doses of amphetamine increase the amplitude, duration, and frequency of dopamine transients in the ventral striatum. Debate continues at the behavioral level about which component of reward, learning or incentive salience, is signaled by these dopamine transients and thus altered in addiction. The learning hypothesis proposes that rewarding drugs result in pathological overlearning of drug-predictive cues, while the incentive sensitization hypothesis suggests that rewarding drugs result in sensitized attribution of incentive salience to drug-predictive cues...
September 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870644/how-unpredictable-access-to-food-increases-the-body-fat-of-small-passerines-a-mechanistic-approach
#7
Patrick Anselme, Tobias Otto, Onur Güntürkün
Unpredictable rewards increase the vigor of responses in autoshaping (a Pavlovian conditioning procedure) and are preferred to predictable rewards in free-choice tasks involving fixed- versus variable-delay schedules. The significance those behavioral properties may have in field conditions is currently unknown. However, it is noticeable that when exposed to unpredictable food, small passerines - such as robins, titmice, and starlings - get fatter than when food is abundant. In functional terms, fattening is viewed as an evolutionary strategy acting against the risk of starvation when food is in short supply...
September 1, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821671/learning-and-stress-shape-the-reward-response-patterns-of-serotonin-neurons
#8
Zhong Weixin, Yi Li, Qiru Feng, Minmin Luo
The ability to predict reward promotes animal survival. Both dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) participate in reward processing. Although the learning effects on dopamine neurons have been extensively characterized, it remains largely unknown how the response of serotonin neurons evolves during learning. Moreover, while stress is known to strongly influence reward-related behavior, we know very little about how stress modulates neuronal reward responses...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814474/role-of-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-in-aversive-learning-and-memory
#9
Travis D Goode, Stephen Maren
Surviving threats in the environment requires brain circuits for detecting (or anticipating) danger and for coordinating appropriate defensive responses (e.g., increased cardiac output, stress hormone release, and freezing behavior). The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a critical interface between the "affective forebrain"-including the amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex-and the hypothalamic and brainstem areas that have been implicated in neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to actual or anticipated threats...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814469/characterization-of-the-amplificatory-effect-of-norepinephrine-in-the-acquisition-of-pavlovian-threat-associations
#10
Lorenzo Díaz-Mataix, Walter T Piper, Hillary C Schiff, Clark H Roberts, Vincent D Campese, Robert M Sears, Joseph E LeDoux
The creation of auditory threat Pavlovian memory requires an initial learning stage in which a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS), such as a tone, is paired with an aversive one (US), such as a shock. In this phase, the CS acquires the capacity of predicting the occurrence of the US and therefore elicits conditioned defense responses. Norepinephrine (NE), through β-adrenergic receptors in the amygdala, enhances threat memory by facilitating the acquisition of the CS-US association, but the nature of this effect has not been described...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814464/on-the-transition-from-reconsolidation-to-extinction-of-contextual-fear-memories
#11
Lindsey F Cassini, Charlotte R Flavell, Olavo B Amaral, Jonathan L C Lee
Retrieval of an associative memory can lead to different phenomena. Brief reexposure sessions tend to trigger reconsolidation, whereas more extended ones trigger extinction. In appetitive and fear cued Pavlovian memories, an intermediate "null point" period has been observed where neither process seems to be engaged. Here we investigated whether this phenomenon extends to contextual fear memory. Adult rats were subjected to a contextual fear conditioning paradigm, reexposed to the context 2 d later for 3, 5, 10, 20, or 30 min, with immediate injections of MK-801 or saline following reexposure, and tested on the following day...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798131/pavlovian-conditioning-induced-hallucinations-result-from-overweighting-of-perceptual-priors
#12
A R Powers, C Mathys, P R Corlett
Some people hear voices that others do not, but only some of those people seek treatment. Using a Pavlovian learning task, we induced conditioned hallucinations in four groups of people who differed orthogonally in their voice-hearing and treatment-seeking statuses. People who hear voices were significantly more susceptible to the effect. Using functional neuroimaging and computational modeling of perception, we identified processes that differentiated voice-hearers from non-voice-hearers and treatment-seekers from non-treatment-seekers and characterized a brain circuit that mediated the conditioned hallucinations...
August 11, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790898/differences-between-dorsal-and-ventral-striatum-in-the-sensitivity-of-tonically-active-neurons-to-rewarding-events
#13
Kevin Marche, Anne-Caroline Martel, Paul Apicella
Within the striatum, cholinergic interneurons, electrophysiologically identified as tonically active neurons (TANs), represent a relatively homogeneous group in terms of their functional properties. They display typical pause in tonic firing in response to rewarding events which are of crucial importance for reinforcement learning. These responses are uniformly distributed throughout the dorsal striatum (i.e., motor and associative striatum), but it is unknown, at least in monkeys, whether differences in the modulation of TAN activity exist in the ventral striatum (i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775269/hipp-neurons-in-the-dentate-gyrus-mediate-the-cholinergic-modulation-of-background-context-memory-salience
#14
Syed Ahsan Raza, Anne Albrecht, Gürsel Çalışkan, Bettina Müller, Yunus Emre Demiray, Susann Ludewig, Susanne Meis, Nicolai Faber, Roland Hartig, Burkhart Schraven, Volkmar Lessmann, Herbert Schwegler, Oliver Stork
Cholinergic neuromodulation in the hippocampus controls the salience of background context memory acquired in the presence of elemental stimuli predicting an aversive reinforcement. With pharmacogenetic inhibition we here demonstrate that hilar perforant path-associated (HIPP) cells of the dentate gyrus mediate the devaluation of background context memory during Pavlovian fear conditioning. The salience adjustment is sensitive to reduction of hilar neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression via dominant negative CREB expression in HIPP cells and to acute blockage of NPY-Y1 receptors in the dentate gyrus during conditioning...
August 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771019/inhibitory-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer-in-humans
#15
Stephanie L Quail, Vincent Laurent, Bernard W Balleine
Although there has been extensive research in both humans and rodents regarding the influence of excitatory predictions on action selection, the influence of inhibitory reward predictions is less well understood. We used a feature-negative conditioned inhibition procedure to generate Pavlovian excitors and inhibitors, predicting the presence or absence of specific outcomes, and assessed their influence on action selection using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer test. Inhibitors predicting the absence of a specific outcome reversed the bias in action selection elicited by outcome-specific excitors; whereas excitors promoted responding on the action associated with the same outcome as the cue, inhibitors shifted responding away from such actions and toward other actions...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763064/strong-seduction-impulsivity-and-the-impact-of-contextual-cues-on-instrumental-behavior-in-alcohol-dependence
#16
C Sommer, M Garbusow, E Jünger, S Pooseh, N Bernhardt, J Birkenstock, D J Schad, B Jabs, T Glöckler, Q M Huys, A Heinz, M N Smolka, U S Zimmermann
Alcohol-related cues acquire incentive salience through Pavlovian conditioning and then can markedly affect instrumental behavior of alcohol-dependent patients to promote relapse. However, it is unclear whether similar effects occur with alcohol-unrelated cues. We tested 116 early-abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 91 healthy controls who completed a delay discounting task to assess choice impulsivity, and a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm employing both alcohol-unrelated and alcohol-related stimuli...
August 1, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757250/optogenetic-activation-of-amygdala-projections-to-nucleus-accumbens-can-arrest-conditioned-and-unconditioned-alcohol-consummatory-behavior
#17
E Zayra Millan, H Amy Kim, Patricia H Janak
Following a Pavlovian pairing procedure, alcohol-paired cues come to elicit behavioral responses that lead to alcohol consumption. Here we used an optogenetic approach to activate basolateral amygdala (BLA) axonal terminals targeting the shell of nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) and investigated a possible influence over cue-conditioned alcohol seeking and alcohol drinking, based on the demonstrated roles of these areas in behavioral responding to Pavlovian cues and in feeding behavior. Rats were trained to anticipate alcohol or sucrose following the onset of a discrete conditioned stimulus (CS)...
September 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747623/anterior-cingulate-is-a-source-of-valence-specific-information-about-value-and-uncertainty
#18
Ilya E Monosov
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is thought to control a wide range of reward, punishment, and uncertainty-related behaviors. However, how it does so is unclear. Here, in a Pavlovian procedure in which monkeys displayed a diverse repertoire of reward-related, punishment-related, and uncertainty-related behaviors, we show that many ACC-neurons represent expected value and uncertainty in a valence-specific manner, signaling value or uncertainty predictions about either rewards or punishments. Other ACC-neurons signal prediction information about rewards and punishments by displaying excitation to both (rather than excitation to one and inhibition to the other)...
July 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743727/basolateral-amygdala-to-orbitofrontal-cortex-projections-enable-cue-triggered-reward-expectations
#19
Nina T Lichtenberg, Zachary T Pennington, Sandra M Holley, Venuz Y Greenfield, Carlos Cepeda, Michael S Levine, Kate M Wassum
To make an appropriate decision, one must anticipate potential future rewarding events, even when they are not readily observable. These expectations are generated by using observable information (e.g., stimuli or available actions) to retrieve often quite detailed memories of available rewards. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are two reciprocally connected key nodes in the circuitry supporting such outcome-guided behaviors. But there is much unknown about the contribution of this circuit to decision making, and almost nothing known about the whether any contribution is via direct, monosynaptic projections, or the direction of information transfer...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736133/knockdown-of-zif268-in-the-posterior-dorsolateral-striatum-does-not-enduringly-disrupt-a-response-memory-of-a-rewarded-t-maze-task
#20
Emma N Cahill, George H Vousden, Marc T J Exton-McGuinness, Ian R C Beh, Casey B Swerner, Matej Macak, Sameera Abas, Cameron C Cole, Brian F Kelleher, Barry J Everitt, Amy L Milton
Under certain conditions pavlovian memories undergo reconsolidation, whereby the reactivated memory can be disrupted by manipulations such as knockdown of zif268. For instrumental memories, reconsolidation disruption is less well established. Our previous, preliminary data identified that there was an increase in Zif268 in the posterior dorsolateral striatum (pDLS) after expression of an instrumental habit-like 'response' memory, but not an instrumental goal-directed 'place' memory on a T-maze task. Here, the requirement for Zif268 in the reconsolidation of a response memory was tested by knockdown of Zif268, using antisense oligodeoxynucleotide infusion into the pDLS, at memory reactivation...
July 21, 2017: Neuroscience
keyword
keyword
23604
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"