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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938495/polyphenol-enriched-fractions-of-cyclopia-intermedia-selectively-affect-lipogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#1
Babalwa U Jack, Christiaan J Malherbe, Elize L Willenburg, Dalene de Beer, Barbara Huisamen, Elizabeth Joubert, Christo J F Muller, Johan Louw, Carmen Pheiffer
Cyclopia species are increasingly investigated as sources of phenolic compounds with potential as therapeutic agents. Recently, we demonstrated that a crude polyphenol-enriched organic fraction (CPEF) of Cyclopia intermedia, currently forming the bulk of commercial production, decreased lipid content in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and inhibited body weight gain in obese db/db mice. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a more effective product and/or one with higher specificity could be obtained by fractionation of the CPEF by purposely increasing xanthone and benzophenone levels...
September 22, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936722/kinetics-of-photosystem-ii-electron-transport-a-mathematical-analysis-based-on-chlorophyll-fluorescence-induction
#2
Agu Laisk, Vello Oja
The OJDIP rise in chlorophyll fluorescence during induction at different light intensities was mathematically modeled using 24 master equations describing electron transport through photosystem II (PSII) plus ordinary differential equations for electron budgets in plastoquinone, cytochrome f, plastocyanin, photosystem I, and ferredoxin. A novel feature of the model is consideration of electron in- and outflow budgets resulting in changes in redox states of Tyrosine Z, P680, and QA as sole bases for changes in fluorescence yield during the transient...
September 21, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935551/anti-trypanosoma-anti-leishmania-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-natural-products-from-psidium-brownianum-mart-ex-dc-and-psidium-guajava-var-pomifera-analysed-by-lc-ms
#3
Celestina Elba Sobral de Souza, Ana Raquel Pereira da Silva, Maria Celeste Vega Gomez, Míriam Rolóm, Cathia Coronel, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Amanda K Sousa, Larissa A Rolim, Francisco Hugo Sobral de Souza, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho
Neglected diseases are those that are prevalent in developing countries, even with a rich biodiversity. These diseases still persist because of the lack of scientific studies, government negligence or failures of the public health system. This study aims to identify the composition of extracts and fractions from Psidium brownianum and Psidium guajava through LC-MS, to evaluate its in vitro anti-parasitic and cytotoxic activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania brasiliensis and L. infantum epismastigote and promastigote forms, as well as mammalian cells...
September 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934155/anti-inflammatory-phenolic-metabolites-from-the-edible-fungus-phellinus-baumii-in-lps-stimulated-raw264-7-cells
#4
Seulah Lee, Dahae Lee, Tae Su Jang, Ki Sung Kang, Joo-Won Nam, Hae-Jeung Lee, Ki Hyun Kim
The edible fungus Phellinus baumii Pilat (Hymenochaetaceae) has been used in Korean traditional medicines for strengthening health and prolonging life. An extract of the fruiting bodies of P. baumii was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation based on its anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The resulting fractions were chemically investigated, leading to isolation of three phenolic compounds (1-3), a sesquiterpene (4), two steroids (5-6), a fatty acid (7), and a cerebroside (8)...
September 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933159/hemoglobin-adducts-and-urinary-metabolites-of-arylamines-and-nitroarenes
#5
Gabriele Sabbioni
Arylamines and nitroarenes are intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, and plastics and are important environmental and occupational pollutants. N-Hydroxyarylamines are the toxic common intermediates of arylamines and nitroarenes. N-Hydroxyarylamines and their derivatives can form adducts with hemoglobin (Hb-adducts), albumin, DNA, and tissue proteins in a dose-dependent manner. Most of the arylamine Hb-adducts are labile and undergo hydrolysis in vitro, by mild acid or base, to form the arylamines...
September 21, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933018/-18-f-fluoromisonidazole-pet-in-rectal-cancer
#6
Tanuj Puri, Tessa A Greenhalgh, James M Wilson, Jamie Franklin, Lia Mun Wang, Victoria Strauss, Chris Cunningham, Mike Partridge, Tim Maughan
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in developing predictive biomarkers of tissue hypoxia using functional imaging for personalised radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer that are considered for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The study explores [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole ([(18)F]FMISO) positron emission tomography (PET) scans for predicting clinical response in rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant CRT. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven rectal adenocarcinoma were imaged at 0-45 min, 2 and 4 h, at baseline and after 8-10 fractions of CRT (week 2)...
September 20, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931652/responsive-monitoring-of-mitochondrial-redox-states-in-heart-muscle-predicts-impending-cardiac-arrest
#7
Dorothy A Perry, Joshua W Salvin, Padraic Romfh, Peili Chen, Kalyani Krishnamurthy, Lindsay M Thomson, Brian D Polizzotti, Francis X McGowan, Daryoosh Vakhshoori, John N Kheir
Assessing the adequacy of oxygen delivery to tissues is vital, particularly in the fields of intensive care medicine and surgery. As oxygen delivery to a cell becomes deficient, changes in mitochondrial redox state precede changes in cellular function. We describe a technique for the continuous monitoring of the mitochondrial redox state on the epicardial surface using resonance Raman spectroscopy. We quantify the reduced fraction of specific electron transport chain cytochromes, a metric we name the resonance Raman reduced mitochondrial ratio (3RMR)...
September 20, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930430/novel-strategies-for-the-production-of-fuels-lubricants-and-chemicals-from-biomass
#8
Sankaranarayanapillai Shylesh, Amit A Gokhale, Christopher R Ho, Alexis T Bell
Growing concern with the environmental impact of CO2 emissions produced by combustion of fuels derived from fossil-based carbon resources has stimulated the search for renewable sources of carbon. Much of this focus has been on the development of methods for producing transportation fuels, the major source of CO2 emissions today, and to a lesser extent on the production of lubricants and chemicals. First-generation biofuels such as bioethanol, produced by the fermentation of sugar cane- or corn-based sugars, and biodiesel, produced by the transesterification reaction of triglycerides with alcohols to form a mixture of long-chain fatty esters, can be blended with traditional fuels in limited amounts and also arise in food versus fuel debates...
September 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930257/physicochemical-properties-antioxidant-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-crude-extracts-and-fractions-from-phyllanthus-amarus
#9
Van Tang Nguyen, Jennette A Sakoff, Christopher J Scarlett
Background:Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) has been used as a medicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of chronic ailments such as diabetes, hepatitis, and cancer. Methods: The physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts and fractions from P. amarus were determined using spectrophotometric method. Results: The P. amarus methanol (PAM) extract had lower levels of residual moisture (7.40%) and water activity (0.24) and higher contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins (1657...
June 18, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930198/joint-decisions-on-production-and-pricing-with-strategic-consumers-for-green-crowdfunding-products
#10
Yuting Chen, Rong Zhang, Bin Liu
Green crowdfunding is developing as a novel and popular transaction method, which can largely improve the efficiency of raising initial funds and selling innovative green products or services. In this paper, we explore the creator's joint decisions regarding green crowdfunding products of different quality levels that can sufficiently satisfy consumer preferences. Firstly, considering the characteristics of a green crowdfunding product, we present four pricing strategies when substitutes exist. Then we propose the optimal pricing strategies to maximize the total profit for the creator under different circumstances, facing strategic and myopic consumers...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929978/a-new-study-of-the-kinetics-of-curd-production-in-the-process-of-cheese-manufacture
#11
Susana Vargas Muñoz, Maykel González Torres, Francisco Quintanilla Guerrero, Rogelio Rodríguez Talavera
We studied the role played by temperature and rennet concentration in the coagulation process for cheese manufacture and the evaluation of their kinetics. We concluded that temperature is the main factor that determines the kinetics. The rennet concentration was unimportant probably due to the fast action of the enzyme chymosin. The Dynamic light scattering technique allowed measuring the aggregate's size and their formation kinetics. The volume fraction of solids was determined from viscosity measurements, showing profiles that are in agreement with the size profiles...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929139/rapid-and-near-complete-dissolution-of-wood-lignin-at-%C3%A2-80%C3%A2-c-by-a-recyclable-acid-hydrotrope
#12
Liheng Chen, Jinze Dou, Qianli Ma, Ning Li, Ruchun Wu, Huiyang Bian, Daniel J Yelle, Tapani Vuorinen, Shiyu Fu, Xuejun Pan, Junyong J Y Zhu
We report the discovery of the hydrotropic properties of a recyclable aromatic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TsOH), for potentially low-cost and efficient fractionation of wood through rapid and near-complete dissolution of lignin. Approximately 90% of poplar wood (NE222) lignin can be dissolved at 80°C in 20 min. Equivalent delignification using known hydrotropes, such as aromatic salts, can be achieved only at 150°C or higher for more than 10 hours or at 150°C for 2 hours with alkaline pulping. p-TsOH fractionated wood into two fractions: (i) a primarily cellulose-rich water-insoluble solid fraction that can be used for the production of high-value building blocks, such as dissolving pulp fibers, lignocellulosic nanomaterials, and/or sugars through subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis; and (ii) a spent acid liquor stream containing mainly dissolved lignin that can be easily precipitated as lignin nanoparticles by diluting the spent acid liquor to below the minimal hydrotrope concentration...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928721/onion-peel-ethylacetate-fraction-and-its-derived-constituent-quercetin-4-o-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranoside-attenuates-quorum-sensing-regulated-virulence-and-biofilm-formation
#13
Hanan M Al-Yousef, Atallah F Ahmed, Nasser A Al-Shabib, Sameen Laeeq, Rais A Khan, Md T Rehman, Ali Alsalme, Mohamed F Al-Ajmi, Mohammad S Khan, Fohad M Husain
The resistance and pathogenesis of bacteria could be related to their ability to sense and respond to population density, termed quorum sensing (QS). Inhibition of the QS system is considered as a novel strategy for the development of antipathogenic agents, especially for combating drug-resistant bacterial infections. In the present study, the anti-QS activity of Onion peel ethylacetate fraction (ONE) was tested against Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. ONE inhibit the QS-mediated virulence factors production such as violacein in C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928359/hydrodeoxygenation-of-water-insoluble-bio-oil-to-alkanes-using-a-highly-dispersed-pd-mo-catalyst
#14
Haohong Duan, Juncai Dong, Xianrui Gu, Yung-Kang Peng, Wenxing Chen, Titipong Issariyakul, William K Myers, Meng-Jung Li, Ni Yi, Alexander F R Kilpatrick, Yu Wang, Xusheng Zheng, Shufang Ji, Qian Wang, Junting Feng, Dongliang Chen, Yadong Li, Jean-Charles Buffet, Haichao Liu, Shik Chi Edman Tsang, Dermot O'Hare
Bio-oil, produced by the destructive distillation of cheap and renewable lignocellulosic biomass, contains high energy density oligomers in the water-insoluble fraction that can be utilized for diesel and valuable fine chemicals productions. Here, we show an efficient hydrodeoxygenation catalyst that combines highly dispersed palladium and ultrafine molybdenum phosphate nanoparticles on silica. Using phenol as a model substrate this catalyst is 100% effective and 97.5% selective for hydrodeoxygenation to cyclohexane under mild conditions in a batch reaction; this catalyst also demonstrates regeneration ability in long-term continuous flow tests...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928068/pistachio-hull-water-soluble-polysaccharides-as-a-novel-prebiotic-agent
#15
Safoura Akbari-Alavijeh, Sabihe Soleimanian-Zad, Mahmoud Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Sarwar Hashmi
We isolated and characterized pistachio hull polysaccharides (PHP). The PHP was a heteropolysaccharide mainly contained 75.50% (w/w) total sugar and 9.51% (w/w) uronic acid. As determined by GPC analysis, the polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 3.71×10(6) D (83.2%) was the most dominant fraction. Moreover, HPLC analysis indicated that PHP was predominantly composed of xylose, glucose, arabinose, and fructose with a molar ratio of 1.00:2.50:19.67:28.81. FT-IR and NMR analysis also confirmed the results obtained by HPLC and characterized preliminary structure features of the PHP...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927705/evaluation-of-aluminium-mobilization-from-its-soil-mineral-pools-by-simultaneous-effect-of-aspergillus-strains-acidic-and-chelating-exometabolites
#16
Filip Polák, Martin Urík, Marek Bujdoš, Peter Uhlík, Peter Matúš
This contribution investigates aluminium mobilization from main aluminium pools in soils, phyllosilicates and oxyhydroxides, by acidic and chelating exometabolites of common soil fungi Aspergillus niger and A. clavatus. Their exometabolites' acidity as well as their ability to extract aluminium from solid mineral phases differed significantly during incubation. While both strains are able to mobilize aluminium from boehmite and aluminium oxide mixture to some extent, A. clavatus struggles to mobilize any aluminium from gibbsite...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926976/chemical-composition-antibacterial-activity-and-synergistic-effects-with-conventional-antibiotics-and-nitric-oxide-production-inhibitory-activity-of-essential-oil-from-geophila-repens-l-i-m-johnst
#17
Huijuanzi Rao, Pengxiang Lai, Yang Gao
Geophila repens (L.) I.M. Johnst, a perennial herb, belongs to the Rubiaceae family. In this study, we identified the chemical composition of the Geophila repens essential oil (GR-EO) for the first time. Totally, seventy-seven compounds were identified according to GC and GC-MS, which represent 98.0% of the oil. And the major components of GR-EO were β-caryophyllene (23.3%), β-elemene (8.0%), farnesyl butanoate (7.4%), myrcene (3.5%), and trans-nerolidol (3.3%). Then we evaluated the antibacterial activities of GR-EO and the synergistic effects of GR-EO in combination with commercial antibiotics using the microdilution and Checkerboard method...
September 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926863/evaluation-of-cannabinoid-and-terpenoid-content-cannabis-flower-compared-to-supercritical-co2-concentrate
#18
Michelle Sexton, Kyle Shelton, Pam Haley, Mike West
A recent cannabis use survey revealed that 60% of cannabis users rely on smelling the flower to select their cannabis. Olfactory indicators in plants include volatile compounds, principally represented by the terpenoid fraction. Currently, medicinal- and adult-use cannabis is marketed in the United States with relatively little differentiation between products other than by a common name, association with a species type, and Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol potency. Because of this practice, how terpenoid compositions may change during an extraction process is widely overlooked...
September 19, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926809/spatial-distribution-of-glomalin-related-soil-protein-and-its-relationship-with-sediment-carbon-sequestration-across-a-mangrove-forest
#19
Qiang Wang, Haoliang Lu, Jingyan Chen, Hualong Hong, Jingchun Liu, Junwei Li, Chongling Yan
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi produce a recalcitrant glycoprotein, (glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP)), which can contribute to soil carbon sequestration. Here we made a first study to characterize the spatial distribution of GRSP fractions in a mangrove forest at Zhangjiang Estuary, Southeastern China and to explore potential contributions of GRSP to sediment organic carbon (SOC) in this forest. We identified GRSP fractions in surface sediments, as well as those at a depth of 50 cm. The contents of easily extractable GRSP (EE-GRSP), total GRSP (T-GRSP), GRSP in particulate organic matter (POM-GRSP) and GRSP in pore water (PW-GRSP) ranged between 1...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926734/a-quality-by-design-based-approach-to-a-capillary-electrokinetic-assay-for-the-determination-of-dextromepromazine-and-levomepromazine-sulfoxide-as-impurities-of-levomepromazine
#20
Stephan Niedermeier, Gerhard K E Scriba
Using a quality by design approach, a capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of dextromepromazine and the oxidation product levomepromazine sulfoxide in levomepromazine was developed. The analytical target profile was defined that the method should be able to quantify 0.1% of both impurities with a precision of  ≤10%. Hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin was used as chiral selector. The critical process parameters cyclodextrin concentration, buffer pH and concentration as well as temperature and applied voltage were studied using a fractional factorial resolution V+ design for defining the knowledge space...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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