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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437609/source-and-biological-response-of-biochar-organic-compounds-released-into-water-relationships-with-bio-oil-composition-and-carbonization-degree
#1
Michele Ghidotti, Daniele Fabbri, Ondřej Mašek, Colin Logan Mackay, Marco Montalti, Andreas Hornung
Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) were extracted from corn stalk biochar produced at increasing pyrolysis temperatures (350-650°C) and from the corresponding vapors, collected as bio-oil. WSOCs were characterized by gas chromatography (semi-volatile fraction), negative electron spray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (hydrophilic fraction) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The pattern of semi-volatile WSOCs in bio-oil was dominated by aromatic products from lignocellulose, while in biochar was featured by saturated carboxylic acids from hemi/cellulose and lipids with concentrations decreased with decreasing H/C ratios...
April 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436598/the-expression-of-helicobacter-pylori-tfs-plasticity-zone-cluster-is-regulated-by-ph-and-adherence-and-its-composition-is-associated-with-differential-gastric-il-8-secretion
#2
Bruno Silva, Alexandra Nunes, Filipa F Vale, Raquel Rocha, João Paulo Gomes, Ricardo Dias, Mónica Oleastro
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori virulence is associated with different clinical outcomes. The existence of an intact dupA gene from tfs4b cluster has been suggested as a predictor for duodenal ulcer development. However, the role of tfs plasticity zone clusters in the development of ulcers remains unclear. We studied several H. pylori strains to characterize the gene arrangement of tfs3 and tfs4 clusters and their impact in the inflammatory response by infected gastric cells. METHODS: The genome of 14 H...
April 24, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436469/a-novel-method-to-evaluate-ribosomal-performance-in-cell-free-protein-synthesis-systems
#3
Noémie Kempf, Cristina Remes, Ralph Ledesch, Tina Züchner, Henning Höfig, Ilona Ritter, Alexandros Katranidis, Jörg Fitter
Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems were designed to produce proteins with a minimal set of purified components, thus offering the possibility to follow translation as well as protein folding. In order to characterize the performance of the ribosomes in such a system, it is crucial to separately quantify the two main components of productivity, namely the fraction of active ribosomes and the number of synthesizing cycles. Here, we provide a direct and highly reliable measure of ribosomal activity in any given CFPS system, introducing an enhanced-arrest peptide variant...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434727/short-term-effects-of-soybean-oil-supplementation-on-performance-digestion-and-metabolism-in-dairy-cows-fed-sugarcane-based-diets
#4
João Paulo P Rodrigues, Ricardo M de Paula, Luciana N Rennó, Marta M S Fontes, Andreia F Machado, Sebastião de C Valadares Filho, Pekka Huhtanen, Marcos I Marcondes
We aimed to quantify the productive and metabolic responses, and digestive changes in dairy cows fed various concentrations of soybean oil (SBO) in high-concentrate, sugarcane-based diets. Eight rumen-cannulated multiparous Holstein cows in mid lactation (574 ± 19.1 kg of body weight and 122 ± 6.9 d in milk), averaging 22.5 ± 1.22 kg/d of milk were assigned to replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. The experimental period lasted 21 d as follows: 14 d for adaptation, followed by a sampling period from d 15 to 21...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434709/target-analysis-of-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-derivatives-of-nerve-agent-hydrolysis-products-by-selectable-one-dimensional-or-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#5
Yasuo Seto, Masumi Tachikawa, Mieko Kanamori-Kataoka, Kikuo Sasamoto, Nobuo Ochiai
A target analysis method for the sensitive and discriminative determination of the nerve agent hydrolysis products alkyl methylphosphonic acids as their tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives was developed using a combination of selectable one- and two-dimensional ((1)D/(2)D) GC-MS, and applied to the analysis of samples with significant interfering matrices. After sample drying, the alkylmethylphosphonic acids and methylphosphonic acid (MPA) were converted to TBDMS derivatives by addition of N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide with heating, and subjected to (1)D/(2)D GC-MS...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433915/stimulation-of-the-anaerobic-digestion-of-the-dry-organic-fraction-of-municipal-solid-waste-ofmsw-with-carbon-based-conductive-materials
#6
Yan Dang, Dezhi Sun, Trevor L Woodard, Li-Ying Wang, Kelly P Nevin, Dawn E Holmes
Growth of bacterial and archaeal species capable of interspecies electron exchange was stimulated by addition of conductive materials (carbon cloth or granular activated carbon (GAC)) to anaerobic digesters treating dog food (a substitute for the dry-organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)). Methane production (772-1428mmol vs <80mmol), volatile solids removal (78%-81% vs 54%-64%) and COD removal efficiencies (∼80% vs 20%-30%) were all significantly higher in reactors amended with GAC or carbon cloth than controls...
April 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433595/effects-of-chlorpyrifos-on-soil-carboxylesterase-activity-at-an-aggregate-size-scale
#7
Juan C Sanchez-Hernandez, Marco Sandoval
The impact of pesticides on extracellular enzyme activity has been mostly studied on the bulk soil scale, and our understanding of the impact on an aggregate-size scale remains limited. Because microbial processes, and their extracellular enzyme production, are dependent on the size of soil aggregates, we hypothesized that the effect of pesticides on enzyme activities is aggregate-size specific. We performed three experiments using an Andisol to test the interaction between carboxylesterase (CbE) activity and the organophosphorus (OP) chlorpyrifos...
April 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432949/dominance-of-candidate-saccharibacteria-in-a-membrane-bioreactor-treating-medium-age-landfill-leachate-effects-of-organic-load-on-microbial-communities-hydrolytic-potential-and-extracellular-polymeric-substances
#8
Nikolaos Remmas, Paraschos Melidis, Ioanna Zerva, Jon Bent Kristoffersen, Sofia Nikolaki, George Tsiamis, Spyridon Ntougias
A membrane bioreactor (MBR), accomplishing high nitrogen removal efficiencies, was evaluated under various landfill leachate concentrations (50, 75 and 100% v/v). Proteinous and carbohydrate extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial product (SMP) were strongly correlated (p<0.01) with organic load, salinity and NH4(+)-N. Exceptionally high β-glucosidase activities (6700-10,100Ug(-1)) were determined during MBR operation with 50% v/v leachate, as a result of the low organic carbon availability that extendedly induced β-glucosidases to breakdown the least biodegradable organic fraction...
April 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430813/phytoplankton-blooms-during-austral-summer-in-the-ross-sea-antarctica-driving-factors-and-trophic-implications
#9
Olga Mangoni, Vincenzo Saggiomo, Francesco Bolinesi, Francesca Margiotta, Giorgio Budillon, Yuri Cotroneo, Cristina Misic, Paola Rivaro, Maria Saggiomo
During the austral summer of 2014, an oceanographic cruise was conducted in the Ross Sea in the framework of the RoME (Ross Sea Mesoscale Experiment) Project. Forty-three hydrological stations were sampled within three different areas: the northern Ross Sea (RoME 1), Terra Nova Bay (RoME 2), and the southern Ross Sea (RoME 3). The ecological and photophysiological characteristics of the phytoplankton were investigated (i.e., size structure, functional groups, PSII maximum quantum efficiency, photoprotective pigments), as related to hydrographic and chemical features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429896/production-of-a-conjugate-between-the-rk346-antigen-from-leishmania-infantum-and-the-horseradish-peroxidase-c-for-the-detection-of-rk346-antibodies
#10
Juan Rengifo-González, Yollyseth Medina-Mora, Sasha Silva-Barrios, María Elizabeth Márquez-Contreras, María Tibisay Ruiz, Ana J Cáceres, Juan Luis Concepción, Wilfredo Quiñones
It was designed and characterized a reporter system to be captured by an- tibodies bound to ELISA plates. The system was designed with the rK346 from Leishmania infantum, a highly antigenic and specific protein. The rK346 was coupled to the horseradish peroxidase C (HRPc) from Armoracia rusticana using glutaraldehyde or sulfo-SMCC. Gluta- raldehyde conjugation was performed in two steps. Separation of conjugates was carried out using a Sepharose S-200 in size exclusion chromatography (SEC); fractions were analyzed via HRPc activity and through ELISA plates sensitized with polyclonal anti-rK346 IgG puri- fied from rabbit serum...
June 2016: Investigación Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429351/tgf%C3%AE-1-protects-myocardium-from-apoptosis-and-oxidative-damage-after-ischemia-reperfusion
#11
Y-F Liu, Y-Y Chu, X-Z Zhang, M Zhang, F-G Xie, M Zhou, H-H Wen, A-H Shu
OBJECTIVE: Myocardial apoptosis is an important pathologic basis of ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) participates in the regulation of oxidative damage and apoptosis. TGFβ1 is upregulated in the repair process of I/R injury. It is speculated that TGFβ1 over-expression is involved in the endogenous protective mechanism of I/R injury. This study explores the significance of TGFβ1 in myocardial cell apoptosis after I/R. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat myocardial I/R injury model was established...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429015/asymmetric-electroosmotic-pumping-across-porous-media-sandwiched-with-perforated-ion-exchange-membranes
#12
A Yaroshchuk, E E Licón, E K Zholkovskiy, M P Bondarenko, T Heldal
To have non-zero net flow in AC electroosmotic pumps, the electroosmosis (EO) has to be non-linear and asymmetric. This can be achieved due to ionic concentration polarization. This is known to occur close to micro-/nano-interfaces provided that the sizes of the nanopores are not too large compared to the Debye screening length. However, operation of the corresponding EO pumps can be quite sensitive to the solution concentration and, thus, unstable in practical applications. Concentration polarization of ion-exchange membranes is much more robust...
April 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428421/low-temperature-activation-of-methane-on-the-iro2-110-surface
#13
Zhu Liang, Tao Li, Minkyu Kim, Aravind Asthagiri, Jason F Weaver
Methane undergoes highly facile C-H bond cleavage on the stoichiometric IrO2(110) surface. From temperature-programmed reaction spectroscopy experiments, we found that methane molecularly adsorbed as a strongly bound σ complex on IrO2(110) and that a large fraction of the adsorbed complexes underwent C-H bond cleavage at temperatures as low as 150 kelvin (K). The initial dissociation probability of methane on IrO2(110) decreased from 80 to 20% with increasing surface temperature from 175 to 300 K. We estimate that the activation energy for methane C-H bond cleavage is 9...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428364/role-of-oestrogen-receptor-signaling-in-skeletal-response-to-leptin-in-female-ob-ob-mice
#14
Russell T Turner, Kenneth A Philbrick, Amida Kuah, Adam J Branscum, Urszula T Iwaniec
Leptin, critical in regulation of energy metabolism, is also important for normal bone growth, maturation and turnover. Compared to wild type (WT) mice, bone mass is lower in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice; osteopenia in growing ob/ob mice is due to decreased bone accrual, and is associated with reduced longitudinal bone growth, impaired cancellous bone maturation and increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT). However, leptin deficiency also results in gonadal dysfunction, disrupting production of gonadal hormones which regulate bone growth and turnover...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427654/effect-of-high-intensity-ultrasound-on-the-technofunctional-properties-and-structure-of-jackfruit-artocarpus-heterophyllus-seed-protein-isolate
#15
J A Resendiz-Vazquez, J A Ulloa, J E Urías-Silvas, P U Bautista-Rosales, J C Ramírez-Ramírez, P Rosas-Ulloa, L González-Torres
The influence of high-intensity ultrasound (HIU) on the technofunctional properties and structure of jackfruit seed protein isolate (JSPI) was investigated. Protein solutions (10%, w/v) were sonicated for 15min at 20kHz to the following levels of power output: 200, 400, and 600W (pulse duration: on-time, 5s; off-time 1s). Compared with untreated JSPI, HIU at 200W and 400W improved the oil holding capacity (OHC) and emulsifying capacity (EC), but the emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES) increased at 400W and 600W...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427006/regeneration-of-pilot-scale-ion-exchange-columns-for-hexavalent-chromium-removal
#16
Julie A Korak, Richard Huggins, Miguel Arias-Paic
Due to stricter regulations, some drinking water utilities must implement additional treatment processes to meet potable water standards for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), such as the California limit of 10 μg/L. Strong base anion exchange is effective for Cr(VI) removal, but efficient resin regeneration and waste minimization are important for operational, economic and environmental considerations. This study compared multiple regeneration methods on pilot-scale columns on the basis of regeneration efficiency, waste production and salt usage...
March 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425836/development-and-validation-of-a-multi-analyte-method-for-the-regulatory-control-of-carotenoids-used-as-feed-additives-in-fish-and-poultry-feed
#17
Ursula Vincent, Federica Serano, Christoph von Holst
Carotenoids are used in animal nutrition mainly as sensory additives that favourably affect the colour of fish, birds and food of animal origin. Various analytical methods exist for their quantification in compound feed, reflecting the different physico-chemical characteristics of the carotenoid and the corresponding feed additives. They may be natural products or specific formulations containing the target carotenoids produced by chemical synthesis. In this study a multi-analyte method was developed that can be applied to the determination of all 10 carotenoids currently authorised within the European Union for compound feedingstuffs...
April 24, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425205/engineering-the-xylose-catabolizing-dahms-pathway-for-production-of-poly-d-lactate-co-glycolate-and-poly-d-lactate-co-glycolate-co-d-2-hydroxybutyrate-in-escherichia-coli
#18
So Young Choi, Won Jun Kim, Seung Jung Yu, Si Jae Park, Sung Gap Im, Sang Yup Lee
Poly(lactate-co-glycolate), PLGA, is a representative synthetic biopolymer widely used in medical applications. Recently, we reported one-step direct fermentative production of PLGA and its copolymers by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli from xylose and glucose. In this study, we report development of metabolically engineered E. coli strains for the production of PLGA and poly(d-lactate-co-glycolate-co-d-2-hydroxybutyrate) having various monomer compositions from xylose as a sole carbon source. To achieve this, the metabolic flux towards Dahms pathway was modulated using five different synthetic promoters for the expression of Caulobacter crescentus XylBC...
April 19, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424605/white-matter-integrity-and-treatment-based-change-in-speech-performance-in-minimally-verbal-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Karen Chenausky, Julius Kernbach, Andrea Norton, Gottfried Schlaug
We investigated the relationship between imaging variables for two language/speech-motor tracts and speech fluency variables in 10 minimally verbal (MV) children with autism. Specifically, we tested whether measures of white matter integrity-fractional anisotropy (FA) of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and frontal aslant tract (FAT)-were related to change in percent syllable-initial consonants correct, percent items responded to, and percent syllable insertion errors (from best baseline to post 25 treatment sessions)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424373/statins-pcsk9-inhibitors-and-cholesterol-homeostasis-a-view-from-within-the-hepatocyte
#20
EDITORIAL
Allan D Sniderman, Robert Scott Kiss, Thomas Reid, George Thanassoulis, Gerald F Watts
Statins and PCSK9 inhibitors dramatically lower plasma LDL levels and dramatically increase LDL receptor number within hepatocyte cell membranes. It seems self-evident that total clearance of LDL particles from plasma and total delivery of cholesterol to the liver must increase in consequence. However, based on the results of stable isotope tracer studies, this analysis demonstrates the contrary to be the case. Statins do not change the production rate of LDL particles. Accordingly, at steady state, the clearance rate cannot change...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
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