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Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457869/assessment-of-the-spectrum-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-multi-center-study
#1
Bradley Reuter, Kara Walter, Julien Bissonnette, Michael D Leise, Jennifer Lai, Puneeta Tandon, Patrick S Kamath, Scott W Biggins, Christopher F Rose, James B Wade, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a major cause of morbidity in cirrhosis. However its severity assessment is often subjective, which needs to be studied systematically. AIM: To determine how accurately trainee and non-trainee practitioners grade and manage HE patients throughout its severity. METHODS: We performed a survey study using standardized simulated patient videos at 4 US and 3 Canadian centers. Participants were trainees (gastroenterology/hepatology fellows) and non-trainees (faculty, nurse practitioners, physician assistants)...
February 19, 2018: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457570/infant-formulae-supplemented-with-prebiotics-are-they-better-than-unsupplemented-formulae-an-updated-systematic-review
#2
Agata Skórka, Małgorzata Pieścik-Lech, Maciej Kołodziej, Hania Szajewska
In 2011, the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition systematically reviewed published evidence related to the safety and health effects of the administration of formulae supplemented with pro- and/or prebiotics compared with unsupplemented formulae. We updated evidence on the effects of the administration of prebiotic-supplemented infant formulae (IF) compared with unsupplemented IF. Five databases were searched up to March 2017 for randomised controlled trials...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456194/the-global-fund-and-heineken
#3
EDITORIAL
The Lancet Gastroenterology Hepatology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454647/dynamic-plasticity-of-macrophage-functions-in-diseased-liver
#4
Thomas Ritz, Oliver Krenkel, Frank Tacke
Liver macrophages attract increasing interest due to their crucial roles in homeostasis and hepatic diseases. Recent findings in mice and man suggest a remarkable phenotypic and functional diversity of liver macrophages. Kupffer cells, the subset of tissue resident macrophages with sentinel functions in liver, mainly arise from embryogenic precursors, whereas in injury, liver tissue is engrafted by monocyte-derived macrophages. Both principal macrophage populations respond to local or systemic signals and have substantial effects on reduction as well as aggravation of hepatic diseases...
December 20, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451515/-promoting-evidence-based-gastroenterology-back-to-the-future
#5
Maurizio Koch
Evidence-based medicine continues to thrive thanks to the publication of a considerable amount of papers focusing on data collection and sharing. Assessment of the accuracy of diagnostic tests still remains highly deficient, often leading to inappropriate clinical decision-making. Like most other doctors, gastroenterologists as well have to face the ever-growing availability of complex and expensive exams, being charged with the task of choosing the best diagnostic option and interpreting test results. It is therefore advisable to provide specialists with the tools they need to evaluate the available literature data...
January 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447614/adherence-and-perceived-barriers-to-oral-antiviral-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#6
Kerui Xu, Li-Ming Liu, Paraskevi A Farazi, Hongmei Wang, Fedja A Rochling, Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway, Jian-Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Globally, of the 248 million people chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), 74 million reside in China. Five oral nucleot(s)ide analogs (NUCs) have been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine rates of adherence to NUC therapy in patients with CHB, to identify the self-perceived barriers to adherence, and to examine the factors associated with adherence. METHODS: Questionnaire-based interviews were administered among Chinese patients with CHB at hepatology clinics of a tertiary hospital in the city of Wuhan, China...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444780/the-possible-link-between-coeliac-and-kawasaki-diseases-in-brazil-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Alessandra Dos Santos Domingues, Nicole Selleski, Rosa Harumi Uenishi, Cristina Medeiros Ribeiro de Magalhães, Lenora Gandolfi, Claudia B Pratesi
BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a self-limited acute systemic vasculitis of unknown aetiology that predominantly affects infants and young children eventually associated with immunological abnormalities. Coeliac disease (CD) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease characterised by a permanent gluten intolerance, which affects genetically susceptible individuals of any age group, and can cause intestinal and systemic symptoms. Association of CD with KD has been previously described in a single study that disclosed a surprisingly high prevalence of CD in children with a history of KD...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439279/-comorbid-mental-disorders-in-gastroenterology-and-hepatology-prevalence-and-psychosocial-needs-in-tertiary-care
#8
Alexander Niecke, Hanna Lemke, Tobias Goeser, Martin Hellmich, Frank Vitinius, Christian Albus
BACKGROUND: In the field of gastroenterology and hepatology, associations and interactions with comorbid mental disorders are often described, but there is currently a lack of methodologically high-quality studies on prevalence and the need for care. The aim of the study was to take account of this shortcoming. METHODS: Prospective, monocentric, cross-sectional study of a representative sample of inpatients at a university hospital. A total of 308 participants were examined for the presence of 8 frequent psychological syndromes with a validated questionnaire (PHQ-D)...
February 13, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424814/cytomegalovirus-infection-in-pediatric-severe-ulcerative-colitis-a-multicenter-study-from-the-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-porto-group-of-the-european-society-of-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition
#9
Shlomi Cohen, Christine Martinez-Vinson, Marina Aloi, Dan Turner, Amit Assa, Lissy de Ridder, Victorien M Wolters, Tim de Meij, Patrizia Alvisi, Jiri Bronsky, Uri Kopylov
BACKGROUND: Data on the clinical course and outcomes of pediatric patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection complicating acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASC) are very limited. The aim of our study was to compare outcomes of children with ASC who were CMV positive or CMV negative. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective case-controlled study, from centers affiliated with the Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Porto Group of European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition...
March 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424123/mouse-models-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-a-reflection-on-recent-literature
#10
REVIEW
Fahrettin Haczeyni, Matthew M Yeh, George N Ioannou, Isabelle A Leclercq, Robert Goldin, Yock Young Dan, Jun Yu, Narcissus C Teoh, Geoffrey C Farrell
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is strongly associated with overnutrition, insulin resistance, and predisposition to type 2 diabetes. To critically analyze the translational significance of currently-used animal models of NASH, we reviewed articles published during the last three years that studied NASH pathogenesis using mouse models. Among 146 articles, 34 (23%) used models in which overnutrition was reported, and 36 (25%) demonstrated insulin resistance, with or without glucose intolerance. Half the articles contained no information on whether mice exhibited overnutrition or insulin resistance...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405373/hepatocellular-carcinoma-liver-biopsy-in-the-balance
#11
EDITORIAL
David E Kleiner
The use of liver biopsy to diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma is governed by the balance of the risks of the procedure (morbidity, mortality, inadequate sampling), the relative utility of non-invasive techniques and the benefits of precise diagnosis, prognostic and theragnostic information and access to tissue for molecular analysis. In this issue of Hepatology, identification of the macrotrabecular subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma on liver biopsy is shown to add clinically useful prognostic information as well as molecular correlations...
February 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404528/acute-decompensation-boosts-hepatic-collagen-type-iii-deposition-and-deteriorates-experimental-and-human-cirrhosis
#12
Michael Praktiknjo, Jennifer Lehmann, Mette J Nielsen, Robert Schierwagen, Frank E Uschner, Carsten Meyer, Daniel Thomas, Christian P Strassburg, Flemming Bendtsen, Søren Møller, Aleksander Krag, Morten A Karsdal, Diana J Leeming, Jonel Trebicka
Patients with end-stage liver disease develop acute decompensation (AD) episodes, which become more frequent and might develop into acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). However, it remains unknown how AD induces acceleration of liver disease. We hypothesized that remodeling of collagen type III plays a role in the acceleration of liver cirrhosis after AD and analyzed its formation (Pro-C3) and degradation (matrix metalloproteinase-degraded type III collagen [C3M]) markers in animal models and human disease...
February 2018: Hepatology communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404527/natural-history-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-prospective-follow-up-study-with-serial-biopsies
#13
Patrik Nasr, Simone Ignatova, Stergios Kechagias, Mattias Ekstedt
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in the world. The complete natural history of NAFLD is unknown because few high-quality follow-up studies have been conducted. Our aim was to find variables predicting disease severity through an extended follow-up with serial biopsies. In a prospective cohort study, 129 patients who enrolled between 1988 and 1993 were asked to participate in a follow-up study on two occasions; biochemical, clinical, and histologic data were documented...
February 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404526/incidence-and-cost-analysis-of-hospital-admission-and-30-day-readmission-among-patients-with-cirrhosis
#14
Sakkarin Chirapongsathorn, Chayakrit Krittanawong, Felicity T Enders, Richard Pendegraft, Kristin C Mara, Bijan J Borah, Sue L Visscher, Conor G Loftus, Vijay H Shah, Jayant A Talwalkar, Patrick S Kamath
We examined risks for first hospitalization and the rate, risk factors, costs, and 1-year outcome of 30-day readmission among patients admitted for complications of cirrhosis. Data were retrospectively analyzed for adult patients with cirrhosis residing in Minnesota, Iowa, or Wisconsin and admitted from 2010 through 2013 at both campuses of the Mayo Clinic Hospital in Rochester, MN. Readmission was captured at the two hospitals as well as at community hospitals in the tristate area within the Mayo Clinic Health System...
February 2018: Hepatology communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404525/hepatitis-e-virus-replication-and-interferon-responses-in-human-placental-cells
#15
Leonard Knegendorf, Svenja A Drave, Viet Loan Dao Thi, Yannick Debing, Richard J P Brown, Florian W R Vondran, Kathrin Resner, Martina Friesland, Tanvi Khera, Michael Engelmann, Birgit Bremer, Heiner Wedemeyer, Patrick Behrendt, Johan Neyts, Thomas Pietschmann, Daniel Todt, Eike Steinmann
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a member of the genus Orthohepevirus in the family Hepeviridae and the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans. HEV is a major health problem in developing countries, causing mortality rates up to 25% in pregnant women. However, these cases are mainly reported for HEV genotype (gt)1, while gt3 infections are usually associated with subclinical courses of disease. The pathogenic mechanisms of adverse maternal and fetal outcome during pregnancy in HEV-infected pregnant women remain elusive...
February 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404524/overexpression-of-periostin-and-distinct-mesothelin-forms-predict-malignant-progression-in-a-rat-cholangiocarcinoma-model
#16
Miguel Á Manzanares, Deanna J W Campbell, Gabrielle T Maldonado, Alphonse E Sirica
Periostin and mesothelin have each been suggested to be predictors of poor survival for patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, although the clinical prognostic value of both of these biomarkers remains uncertain. The aim of the current study was to investigate these biomarkers for their potential to act as tumor progression factors when assessed in orthotopic tumor and three-dimensional culture models of rat cholangiocarcinoma progression. Using our orthotopic model, we demonstrated a strong positive correlation between tumor and serum periostin and mesothelin and increasing liver tumor mass and associated peritoneal metastases that also reflected differences in cholangiocarcinoma cell aggressiveness and malignant grade...
February 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404523/can-genetic-testing-guide-the-therapy-of-cholestatic-pruritus-a-case-of-benign-recurrent-intrahepatic-cholestasis-type-2-with-severe-nasobiliary-drainage-refractory-itch
#17
Robert Holz, Andreas E Kremer, Dieter Lütjohann, Hermann E Wasmuth, Frank Lammert, Marcin Krawczyk
Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) is a peculiar familial disease caused by mutations of the genes encoding hepatocanalicular flippase for phosphatidylserine (ATP8B1; BRIC type 1) or the bile salt export pump (ABCB11; BRIC type 2). Here, we report on a patient with nasobiliary drainage-refractory BRIC type 2 who improved under plasma separation and anion absorption therapy. We also suggest that nasobiliary drainage might be an ineffective approach in carriers of severe loss-of-function mutations of the bile salt export pump ABCB11...
February 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404522/distinct-clinical-and-magnetic-resonance-features-of-metastatic-hepatocellular-carcinoma-treated-with-pembrolizumab-a-case-report-of-late-response-after-pseudoprogression
#18
Patrick Grierson, Danielle Crites, Marianna B Ruzinova, Motoyo Yano, Kian-Huat Lim
There are few effective therapies for unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent data have demonstrated efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade in this difficult to treat disease; however, clinical experience is limited. We report a case of hepatocellular carcinoma displaying pseudoprogression followed by a late response with novel magnetic resonance imaging features following treatment with the anti-programmed cell death protein 1 agent pembrolizumab. (Hepatology Communications 2018;2:148-151)...
February 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404521/drug-idiosyncrasy-due-to-pirfenidone-presenting-as-acute-liver-failure-case-report-and-mini-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Nipun Verma, Pramod Kumar, Suvradeep Mitra, Sunil Taneja, Sahajal Dhooria, Ashim Das, Ajay Duseja, Radha Krishan Dhiman, Yogesh Chawla
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is ranked among the top most common etiologies of acute liver failure (ALF). It carries poor transplant-free survival. Pirfenidone is an anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drug that is commonly used for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Hepatotoxicity due to pirfenidone is rare and generally manifests as a mild rise in serum aminotransferases. In this mini-review, we report an unusual case of idiosyncratic DILI due to pirfenidone presenting as ALF, with emphasis on the definition, classification, diagnostic criteria, histopathology, molecular markers, and treatment options for DILI and related ALF...
February 2018: Hepatology communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404520/liver-tissue-engineering-from-implantable-tissue-to-whole-organ-engineering
#20
REVIEW
Giuseppe Mazza, Walid Al-Akkad, Krista Rombouts, Massimo Pinzani
The term "liver tissue engineering" summarizes one of the ultimate goals of modern biotechnology: the possibility of reproducing in total or in part the functions of the liver in order to treat acute or chronic liver disorders and, ultimately, create a fully functional organ to be transplanted or used as an extracorporeal device. All the technical approaches in the area of liver tissue engineering are based on allocating adult hepatocytes or stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells within a three-dimensional structure able to ensure their survival and to maintain their functional phenotype...
February 2018: Hepatology Communications
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