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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793075/newcastle-disease-virus-induces-g-0-g-1-cell-cycle-arrest-in-asynchronously-growing-cells
#1
Yan Wang, Rui Wang, Yanrong Li, Yingjie Sun, Cuiping Song, Yuan Zhan, Lei Tan, Ying Liao, ChunChun Meng, Xusheng Qiu, Chan Ding
The cell cycle, as a basic cellular process, is conservatively regulated. Consequently, subversion of the host cell replication cycle is a common strategy employed by many viruses to create a cellular environment favorable for viral replication. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes disease in poultry and is also an effective oncolytic agent. However, the effects of NDV infection on cell cycle progression are unknown. In this study, we showed that NDV replication in asynchronized cells resulted in the accumulation of infected cells in the G0 /G1 phase of the cell cycle, which benefitted the proliferation of NDV...
May 21, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793052/title-lhp1-interacts-with-atrx-through-plant-specific-domains-at-specific-loci-targeted-by-prc2
#2
Haifeng Wang, Danhua Jiang, Elin Axelsson, Zdravko J Lorković, Sean Montgomery, Sarah Holec, Bas J G E Pieters, Abbas H K Al Temimi, Jasmin Mecinović, Frédéric Berger
Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) is a major regulator of chromatin structure and function. In animals, the network of proteins interacting with HP1 is mainly associated with constitutive heterochromatin marked by H3K9me3. HP1 physically interacts with the putative orthologue of the SNF2 chromatin remodeler ATRX, which controls deposition of the histone variant H3.3 in mammals. In Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that the orthologue of ATRX participates in H3.3 deposition and characterize the function of conserved domains of plant ATRX...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793050/small-scale-managed-marine-areas-over-time-developments-and-challenges-in-a-local-fijian-reef-fishery
#3
Elodie Fache, Annette Breckwoldt
This paper investigates the Locally Managed Marine Area (LMMA) approach through looking at developments and challenges of community-based marine resource management over time, with a particular focus on Fiji in the South Pacific region. A diachronic perspective, based on two multi-method empirical studies, is used to exemplify the social complexities of the implementation of this LMMA approach in a specific island setting. This perspective connects local stakeholders' establishment and management of a LMMA covering their entire customary fishing rights area (iqoliqoli) with the national context articulated around the Fiji Locally Managed Marine Area (FLMMA) network, as well as with regional networking and international conservation dynamics...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793024/sedimentary-record-of-plutonium-in-the-north-yellow-sea-and-the-response-to-catchment-environmental-changes-of-inflow-rivers
#4
Yihong Xu, Shaoming Pan, Jianhua Gao, Xiaolin Hou, Yongfu Ma, Yongpei Hao
Plutonium (Pu) isotopes were first determined in surface and core sediment samples collected from the northern North Yellow Sea (NYS) to elucidate their source terms and deposition process as well as the response to catchment environmental changes of inflow rivers. 240 Pu/239 Pu atom ratios in all sediments showed the typical global fallout value of ∼0.18 without any influences from the nuclear weapons tests conducted recently in the North Korea or early in the Pacific Proving Ground. The large variation of 239+240 Pu activities (0...
May 18, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792999/does-solid-fusion-eliminate-rod-fracture-after-pedicle-subtraction-osteotomy-in-ankylosing-spondylitis-related-thoracolumbar-kyphosis
#5
Shi-Zhou Zhao, Bang-Ping Qian, Mu Qiao, Jun Jiang, Yong Qiu
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Rod fracture (RF) has a negative impact on the surgical outcome of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients following lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO). However, there is a paucity of published studies analyzing the risk factors for RF in PSO-treated AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis. PURPOSE: To investigate the risk factors for RF after PSO for thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to AS. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective single-center study...
May 21, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792968/applicability-of-endochitinase-of-flavobacterium-johnsoniae-with-transglycosylation-activity-in-generating-long-chain-chitooligosaccharides
#6
Papa Rao Vaikuntapu, Mohan Krishna Mallakuntla, Subha Narayan Das, Bhoopal Bhuvanachandra, Bellamkonda Ramakrishna, Sandhya Rani Nadendla, Appa Rao Podile
Chitin and its derivatives are used for a variety of applications. Flavobacterium johnsoniae UW1 is an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium and genome analysis revealed the presence of 10 glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that may degrade or modify chitin. The gene encoding chitinase B (FjchiB), which encodes a single catalytic GH18 domain has been cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. FjChiB was optimally active in 50 mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 6.0) at 40 °C. FjChiB was salt-tolerant and catalytically versatile, with substrate specificity towards 75% DDA (degree of de-acetylation) chitosan, followed by colloidal chitin...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792951/an-analysis-of-variability-in-genome-organisation-of-intracellular-calcium-release-channels-across-insect-orders
#7
Bartlomiej J Troczka, Ewan Richardson, Rafael Homem, T G Emyr Davies
Using publicly available genomic data, combined with RT-PCR validation, we explore structural genomic variation for two major ion channels across insect classes. We have manually curated Ryanodine receptor (RyR) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3 R) ORFs and their corresponding genomic structures from 26 different insects covering major insect orders. We found that, despite high protein identity for both RyRs (>75%) and IP3 Rs (~67%), the overall complexity of the gene structure varies greatly between different insect orders with the simplest genes (fewest introns) found in Diptera and the most complex in Lepidoptera...
May 21, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792903/endogenous-pararetrovirus-sequences-are-widely-present-in-citrinae-genomes
#8
Huiwen Yu, Xia Wang, Zhihao Lu, Yuantao Xu, Xiuxin Deng, Qiang Xu
Endogenous pararetroviruses (EPRVs) are characterized in several plant genomes and their biological effects have been reported. In this study, hundreds of EPRV segments were identified in six Citrinae genomes. A total of 1,034 EPRV segments were identified in the genomes of sweet orange, 2,036 in pummelo, 598 in clementine mandarin, 752 in Ichang papeda, 2,060 in citron and 245 in atalantia. Genomic analysis indicated that EPRV segments tend to cluster as hot spots in the genomes, particularly on chromosome 2 and 5...
May 21, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792901/identification-and-functional-characterization-including-cytokine-production-modulation-of-the-novel-chicken-interleukin-11
#9
Anh Duc Truong, Yeojin Hong, Deivendran Rengaraj, Janggeun Lee, Kyungbaek Lee, Yeong Ho Hong
Interleukin (IL)-11 plays an important role in the immune system. However, IL-11 has not yet been characterized in avian species, including chickens. This study is the first to clone and functionally characterize chicken IL-11 (chIL-11). Multiple alignments and phylogenetic tree comparisons of chIL-11 with IL-11 proteins from other species revealed high levels of conservation and a close relationship between chicken and Japanese quail IL-11. Our results demonstrate that chIL-11 was a functional ligand of IL-11RA and IL-6ST in chicken HD11 and OU2 cell lines, as well as activated and regulated JAK-STAT, NF-κB, PI3K/AKT, and MAPK signaling pathways in chicken cell lines...
May 21, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792877/coordinating-multi-protein-mismatch-repair-by-managing-diffusion-mechanics-on-the-dna
#10
REVIEW
Daehyung Kim, Richard Fishel, Jong-Bong Lee
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) corrects DNA base pairing errors that occur during DNA replication. MMR catalyzes strand-specific DNA degradation and resynthesis by dynamic molecular coordination of sequential downstream pathways. The temporal and mechanistic order of molecular events is essential to insure interactions in MMR that occur over long distances on the DNA. Biophysical real-time studies of highly conserved components on mismatched DNA have shed light on the mechanics of MMR. Single-molecule imaging has visualized stochastically coordinated MMR interactions that are based on thermal fluctuation-driven motions...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792863/identification-of-immunodominant-cd8-epitope-in-the-stalk-domain-of-influenza-b-viral-hemagglutinin
#11
Abenaya Muralidharan, Caroline Gravel, Amparo Duran, Louise Larocque, Changgui Li, Adrian Zetner, Gary Van Domselaar, Lisheng Wang, Xuguang Li
Human infections by type B influenza virus constitute about 25% of all influenza cases. The viral hemagglutinin is comprised of two subunits, HA1 and HA2. While HA1 is constantly evolving in an unpredictable fashion, the HA2 subunit is highly conserved, making it a potential candidate for a universal vaccine. However, immunodominant epitopes in the HA2 subunit remain largely unknown. To delineate MHC Class I epitopes, we first identified 9-mer H-2Kd -restricted CD8 T cell epitopes in the HA2 domain by in silico analyses, followed by evaluating the immunodominance of these peptides in mice challenged with the virus...
May 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792856/comparison-of-the-3-d-patterns-of-the-parasympathetic-nervous-system-in-the-lung-at-late-developmental-stages-between-mouse-and-chicken
#12
Tadayoshi Watanabe, Ryo Nakamura, Yuta Takase, Etsuo A Susaki, Hiroki R Ueda, Ryosuke Tadokoro, Yoshiko Takahashi
Although the basic schema of the body plan is similar among different species of amniotes (mammals, birds, and reptiles), the lung is an exception. Here, anatomy and physiology are considerably different, particularly between mammals and birds. In mammals, inhaled and exhaled airs mix in the airways, whereas in birds the inspired air flows unidirectionally without mixing with the expired air. This bird-specific respiration system is enabled by the complex tubular structures called parabronchi where gas exchange takes place, and also by the bellow-like air sacs appended to the main part of the lung...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792822/genetic-identity-in-genebanks-application-of-the-solcap-12k-snp-array-in-fingerprinting-and-diversity-analysis-in-the-global-in-trust-potato-collection
#13
David Ellis, Oswaldo Chavez, Joseph J Coombs, Julian V Soto, Rene Gomez, David S Douches, Ana Panta, Rocio Silvestre, Noelle Lynette Anglin
Breeders rely on genetic integrity of material from genebanks, however, mislabeling and errors in original data can occur. Paired samples of original material and their in vitro counterparts from 250 diverse potato landrace accessions from the International Potato Center (CIP), were fingerprinted using the Infinium 12K V2 Potato Array to confirm genetic identity and evaluate genetic diversity. Diploid, triploid, and tetraploid accessions were included representing seven cultivated potato taxa (Hawkes, 1990)...
May 24, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792819/distinct-mechanisms-of-transcription-initiation-by-rna-polymerases-i-and-ii
#14
Christoph Engel, Simon Neyer, Patrick Cramer
RNA polymerases I and II (Pol I and Pol II) are the eukaryotic enzymes that catalyze DNA-dependent synthesis of ribosomal RNA and messenger RNA, respectively. Recent work shows that the transcribing forms of both enzymes are similar and the fundamental mechanisms of RNA chain elongation are conserved. However, the mechanisms of transcription initiation and its regulation differ between Pol I and Pol II. Recent structural studies of Pol I complexes with transcription initiation factors provided insights into how the polymerase recognizes its specific promoter DNA, how it may open DNA, and how initiation may be regulated...
May 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792758/investigation-of-a-large-scale-gopher-tortoise-gopherus-polyphemus-mortality-event-on-a-public-conservation-land-in-florida
#15
Michelina C Dziadzio, Eric R Sievers, Deborah Burr
In August 2015, a gopher tortoise ( Gopherus polyphemus) mortality event was documented on a 40-ha area of Lake Louisa State Park, Lake County, Florida, USA. To quantify the extent of the die-off and the seroprevalence of Mycoplasma agassizii and Mycoplasma testudineum, two causative agents of mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (URTD), we conducted a tortoise shell survey on 25 and 26 August 2015 and collected blood samples from live tortoises on 2-4 September 2015 and 1-13 August 2016 within the area of documented mortality...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792735/hip-fracture-in-the-setting-of-limited-life-expectancy-the-importance-of-considering-goals-of-care-and-prognosis
#16
C Bree Johnston, Amanda Holleran, Thuan Ong, Ursula McVeigh, Elizabeth Ames
IMPORTANCE: Many older patients with a limited life expectancy experience fragility fracture of the hip, and this event is associated with increased risk of premature mortality, functional decline, and institutionalization. The treating team, in collaboration with patients and their families, must determine whether a surgical or conservative approach is in the patient's best interest when a patient has limited life expectancy. OBSERVATION: Goals of care discussions appear to be rare in the setting of fragility fracture...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792696/biochemical-and-structural-characterization-of-a-schiff-base-in-the-radical-mediated-biosynthesis-of-4-demethylwyosine-by-tyw1
#17
Tsehai A J Grell, Anthony P Young, Catherine L Drennan, Vahe Bandarian
TYW1 is a radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of pyruvate and N-methylguanosine to form the posttranscriptional modification, 4-demethylwyosine, in situ on transfer RNA (tRNA). Two mechanisms have been proposed for this transformation, with one of the possible mechanisms invoking a Schiff base intermediate formed between a conserved lysine residue and pyruvate. Utilizing a combination of mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography, we have obtained evidence to support the formation of a Schiff base lysine adduct in TYW1...
May 24, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792261/structure-based-analysis-of-cysz-mediated-cellular-uptake-of-sulfate
#18
Zahra Assur Sanghai, Qun Liu, Oliver B Clarke, Meagan Belcher-Dufrisne, Pattama Wiriyasermkul, M Hunter Giese, Edgar Leal-Pinto, Brian Kloss, Shantelle Tabuso, James Love, Marco Punta, Surajit Banerjee, Kanagalaghatta R Rajashankar, Burkhard Rost, Diomedes Logothetis, Matthias Quick, Wayne A Hendrickson, Filippo Mancia
Sulfur, most abundantly found in the environment as sulfate (SO4 2- ), is an essential element in metabolites required by all living cells, including amino acids, co-factors and vitamins. However, current understanding of the cellular delivery of SO4 2- at the molecular level is limited. CysZ has been described as a SO4 2- permease, but its sequence family is without known structural precedent. Based on crystallographic structure information, SO4 2- binding and flux experiments, we provide insight into the molecular mechanism of CysZ-mediated translocation of SO4 2- across membranes...
May 24, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792196/ethnozoological-study-of-traditional-medicinal-appreciation-of-animals-and-their-products-among-the-indigenous-people-of-metema-woreda-north-western-ethiopia
#19
Fasil Adugna Kendie, Sileshi Andualem Mekuriaw, Melkamu Andargie Dagnew
BACKGROUND: Using animals for different purposes goes back to the dawn of mankind. Animals served as a source of food, medicine, and clothing for humans and provided other services. This study was designed to undertake a cross-sectional ethnozoological field survey among the residents of Metema Woreda from November 2015 to May 2016. METHODS: Data were collected through studied questionnaires, interviews, and focus group discussions with 36 purposively selected respondents...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792173/impact-of-growth-ph-and-glucose-concentrations-on-the-cody-regulatory-network-in-streptococcus-salivarius
#20
Jianing Geng, Szu-Chuan Huang, Yueh-Ying Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Songnian Hu, Yi-Ywan M Chen
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus salivarius is an abundant isolate of the human oral microbiota. Since both pH and glucose availability fluctuate frequently in the oral cavity, the goal of this study was to investigate regulation by CodY, a conserved pleiotropic regulator of Gram positive bacteria, in response to these two signals. The chemostat culture system was employed to precisely control the growth parameters, and the transcriptomes of wild-type S. salivarius 57.I and its CodY-null derivative (ΔcodY) grown at pH 7 and 5...
May 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
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