keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Conservation

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087943/rna-interference-in-fungi-retention-and-loss
#1
Francisco E Nicolás, Victoriano Garre
RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism conserved in eukaryotes, including fungi, that represses gene expression by means of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) of about 20 to 30 nucleotides. Its discovery is one of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the past 20 years, and it has revolutionized our perception of the functioning of the cell. Initially described and characterized in Neurospora crassa, the RNAi is widespread in fungi, suggesting that it plays important functions in the fungal kingdom. Several RNAi-related mechanisms for maintenance of genome integrity, particularly protection against exogenous nucleic acids such as mobile elements, have been described in several fungi, suggesting that this is the main function of RNAi in the fungal kingdom...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087934/fungal-cell-cycle-a-unicellular-versus-multicellular-comparison
#2
Ilkay Dörter, Michelle Momany
All cells must accurately replicate DNA and partition it to daughter cells. The basic cell cycle machinery is highly conserved among eukaryotes. Most of the mechanisms that control the cell cycle were worked out in fungal cells, taking advantage of their powerful genetics and rapid duplication times. Here we describe the cell cycles of the unicellular budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the multicellular filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. We compare and contrast morphological landmarks of G1, S, G2, and M phases, molecular mechanisms that drive cell cycle progression, and checkpoints in these model unicellular and multicellular fungal systems...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087841/single-cell-transcriptome-analysis-of-fish-immune-cells-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-of-vertebrate-immune-cell-types
#3
Santiago J Carmona, Sarah A Teichmann, Lauren Ferreira, Iain C Macaulay, Michael J T Stubbington, Ana Cvejic, David Gfeller
The immune system of vertebrate species consists of many different cell types that have distinct functional roles and are subject to different evolutionary pressures. Here, we first analysed conservation of genes specific for all major immune cell types in human and mouse. Our results revealed higher gene turnover and faster evolution of trans-membrane proteins in NK cells compared to other immune cell types, and especially T cells, but similar conservation of nuclear and cytoplasmic protein coding genes. To validate these findings in a distant vertebrate species, we used single-cell RNA-Sequencing of lck:GFP cells in zebrafish and obtained the first transcriptome of specific immune cell types in a non-mammalian species...
January 13, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087837/off-target-effects-of-neuroleptics-and-antidepressants-on-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#4
M Caldara, S Graziano, M Gullì, S Cadonici, Nelson Marmiroli
Over the past years, the use of antidepressants and neuroleptics has steadily increased. Although incredibly useful to treat disorders like depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, or mental retardation, these drugs display many side effects. Toxicogenomic studies aim to limit this problem by trying to identify cellular targets and off-targets of medical compounds. The baker yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been shown to be a key player in this approach, as it represents an incredible toolbox for the dissection of complex biological processes...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087829/tracheophytes-contain-conserved-orthologs-of-a-basic-helix-loop-helix-transcription-factor-to-modulate-root-hair-specific-genes
#5
Youra Hwang, Hee-Seung Choi, Hyun-Min Cho, Hyung-Taeg Cho
ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC (RHS) genes, which contain the root hair-specific cis-element (RHE) in their regulatory regions, function in root hair morphogenesis. Here, we demostrate that an Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, ROOT HAIR DEFECTVE SIX-LIKE 4 (RSL4), directly binds to the RHE in vitro and in vivo, up-regulates RHS genes, and stimulates root hair formation in Arabidopsis. Orthologs of RSL4 from a eudicot (poplar, Populus trichocarpa), a monocot (rice, Oryza sativa), and a lycophyte (Selaginella moellendorffii) each restored root hair growth in the Arabidopsis rsl4 mutant...
January 13, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087780/oncogenes-without-a-neighboring-tumor-suppressor-gene-are-more-prone-to-amplification
#6
William K K Wu, Xiangchun Li, Xiansong Wang, Rudin Z W Dai, Alfred S L Cheng, Maggie H T Wang, Thomas Kwong, Tai C Chow, Jun Yu, Matthew T V Chan, Sunny H Wong
Focal copy number gains or losses are important genomic hallmarks of cancer. The genomic distribution of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes (TSG) in relation to focal copy number aberrations is unclear. Our analysis revealed that the mean distance of TSGs from oncogenes was significantly shorter than that of non-cancer genes, suggesting that oncogenes and TSGs tend to be in close physical proximity in the human genome. Such relationship was conserved in mouse and drosophila. Pan-cancer analysis using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas indicated that oncogenes without a nearby TSG are more prone to amplification...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087771/genome-wide-convergence-during-evolution-of-mangroves-from-woody-plants
#7
Shaohua Xu, Ziwen He, Zixiao Guo, Zhang Zhang, Gerald J Wyckoff, Anthony Greenberg, Chung-I Wu, Suhua Shi
When living organisms independently invade a new environment, the evolution of similar phenotypic traits is often observed. An interesting but contentious issue is whether the underlying molecular biology also converges in the new habitat. Independent invasions of tropical intertidal zones by woody plants, collectively referred to as mangrove trees, represent some dramatic examples. The high salinity, hypoxia and other stressors in the new habitat might have affected both genomic features and protein structures...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087737/a-homozygous-mutation-in-trim36-causes-autosomal-recessive-anencephaly-in-an-indian-family
#8
Nivedita Singh, Vishwanath Kumble Bhat, Ankana Tiwari, Srinivas G Kodaganur, Sagar J Tontanahal, Astha Sarda, K V Malini, Arun Kumar
Anencephaly is characterized by the absence of brain tissues and cranium. During primary neurulation stage of the embryo, the rostral part of the neural pore fails to close, leading to anencephaly. Anencephaly shows a heterogeneous etiology, ranging from environmental to genetic causes. The autosomal recessive inheritance of anencephaly has been reported in several populations. In this study, we employed whole-exome sequencing and identified a homozygous missense mutation c.1522C>A (p.Pro508Thr) in the TRIM36 gene as the cause of autosomal recessive anencephaly (APH) in an Indian family...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087714/dlg5-connects-cell-polarity-and-hippo-signaling-protein-networks-by-linking-par-1-with-mst1-2
#9
Julian Kwan, Anna Sczaniecka, Emad Heidary Arash, Liem Nguyen, Chia-Chun Chen, Srdjana Ratkovic, Olga Klezovitch, Liliana Attisano, Helen McNeill, Andrew Emili, Valeri Vasioukhin
Disruption of apical-basal polarity is implicated in developmental disorders and cancer; however, the mechanisms connecting cell polarity proteins with intracellular signaling pathways are largely unknown. We determined previously that membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein discs large homolog 5 (DLG5) functions in cell polarity and regulates cellular proliferation and differentiation via undefined mechanisms. We report here that DLG5 functions as an evolutionarily conserved scaffold and negative regulator of Hippo signaling, which controls organ size through the modulation of cell proliferation and differentiation...
December 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087711/ctcf-mediated-topological-boundaries-during-development-foster-appropriate-gene-regulation
#10
Varun Narendra, Milica Bulajić, Job Dekker, Esteban O Mazzoni, Danny Reinberg
The genome is organized into repeating topologically associated domains (TADs), each of which is spatially isolated from its neighbor by poorly understood boundary elements thought to be conserved across cell types. Here, we show that deletion of CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor)-binding sites at TAD and sub-TAD topological boundaries that form within the HoxA and HoxC clusters during differentiation not only disturbs local chromatin domain organization and regulatory interactions but also results in homeotic transformations typical of Hox gene misregulation...
December 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087687/survival-benefits-of-invasive-versus-conservative-strategies-in-heart-failure-in-patients-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-and-coronary-artery-disease-a-meta-analysis
#11
Georg Wolff, Dimitrios Dimitroulis, Felicita Andreotti, Michalina Kołodziejczak, Christian Jung, Pietro Scicchitano, Fiorella Devito, Annapaola Zito, Michele Occhipinti, Battistina Castiglioni, Giuseppe Calveri, Francesco Maisano, Marco M Ciccone, Stefano De Servi, Eliano P Navarese
BACKGROUND: Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction caused by ischemic heart disease is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. It remains unclear whether revascularization by either coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) carries benefits or risks in this group of stable patients compared with medical treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a meta-analysis of available studies comparing different methods of revascularization (PCI or CABG) against each other or medical treatment in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%...
January 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087686/amoebozoans-are-secretly-but-ancestrally-sexual-evidence-for-sex-genes-and-potential-novel-crossover-pathways-in-diverse-groups-of-amoebae
#12
Yonas I Tekle, Fiona C Wood, Laura A Katz, Mario A Cerón-Romero, Lydia A Gorfu
Sex is beneficial in eukaryotes as it can increase genetic diversity, reshuffle their genomes, and purge deleterious mutations. Yet, its evolution remains a mystery. The eukaryotic clade supergroup Amoebozoa encompasses diverse lineages of polymorphic amoeboid forms, including both free-living and parasitic lineages. The group is generally believed to be asexual, though recent studies show that some of its members are implicated in cryptic forms of sexual cycles. In this study we conduct a comprehensive inventory and analysis of genes involved in meiosis and related processes, in order to investigate the evolutionary history of sex in the clade...
January 13, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087659/plant-parasitic-nematodes-towards-understanding-molecular-players-in-stress-responses
#13
REVIEW
François-Xavier Gillet, Caroline Bournaud, Jose Dijair Antonino de Souza Júnior, Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa
BACKGROUND: Plant-parasitic nematode interactions occur within a vast molecular plant immunity network. Following initial contact with the host plant roots, plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) activate basal immune responses. Defence priming involves the release in the apoplast of toxic molecules derived from reactive species or secondary metabolism. In turn, PPNs must overcome the poisonous and stressful environment at the plant-nematode interface. The ability of PPNs to escape this first line of plant immunity is crucial and will determine its virulence...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087624/tissue-specific-regulation-of-alternative-polyadenylation-represses-expression-of-neuronal-ankyrin-isoform-in-c-elegans-epidermal-development
#14
Fei Chen, Andrew D Chisholm, Yishi Jin
Differential mRNA polyadenylation plays an important role in shaping the neuronal transcriptome. In C. elegans, several ankyrin isoforms are produced from the unc-44 locus through alternative polyadenylation. Here, we identify a key role for an intronic polyadenylation site (PAS) in temporal- and tissue-specific regulation of UNC-44/ankyrin isoforms. Removing an intronic PAS results in ectopic expression of the neuronal ankyrin isoform in non-neural tissues. This mis-expression underlies epidermal developmental defects in mutants of the conserved tumor suppressor death-associated protein kinase, dapk-1 We previously reported that the use of this intronic PAS depends on the nuclear polyadenylation factor SYDN-1, which inhibits the RNA polymerase II CTD phosphatase SSUP-72...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087536/the-regulator-of-type-iv-pili-synthesis-pilr-from-lysobacter-controls-antifungal-antibiotic-production-via-a-c-di-gmp-pathway
#15
Yuan Chen, Jing Xia, Zhenhe Su, Gaoge Xu, Mark Gomelsky, Guoliang Qian, Fengquan Liu
Lysobacter enzymogenes is a ubiquitous soil gammaproteobacterium that produces a broad-spectrum antifungal antibiotic, known as Heat-Stable Antifungal Factor (HSAF). To increase HSAF production for the use against fungal crop diseases, it is important to understand how HSAF synthesis is regulated. To gain insights into transcriptional regulation of the HSAF synthesis gene cluster, we generated a library of deletion mutants in the genes predicted to encode response regulators of the two-component signaling systems in L...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087534/mechanisms-of-horizontal-cell-to-cell-transfer-of-wolbachia-spp-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Pamela M White, Jose E Pietri, Alain Debec, Shelbi Russell, Bhavin Patel, William Sullivan
: Wolbachia is an intracellular endosymbiont present in most arthropod and filarial nematode species. Transmission between hosts is primarily vertical, taking place exclusively through the female germline, though horizontal transmission has also been documented. Several studies indicate that Wolbachia is capable of transfer between somatic and germline cells during nematode development and in adult flies. However, the mechanisms underlying horizontal cell-to-cell transfer remain largely unexplored...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087495/comparative-analysis-of-variation-and-selection-in-the-hcv-genome
#17
Juan Ángel Patiño-Galindo, Fernando González-Candelas
Genotype 1 of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most prevalent of the variants of this virus. Its two main subtypes, HCV-1a and HCV-1b, are associated to differences in epidemic features and risk groups, despite sharing similar features in most biological properties. We have analyzed the impact of positive selection on the evolution of these variants using complete genome coding regions, and compared the levels of genetic variability and the distribution of positively selected sites. We have also compared the distributions of positively selected and conserved sites considering different factors such as RNA secondary structure, the presence of different epitopes (antibody, CD4 and CD8), and secondary protein structure...
January 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087459/wnt-signaling-balances-specification-of-the-cardiac-and-pharyngeal-muscle-fields
#18
Amrita Mandal, Andrew Holowiecki, Yuntao Charlie Song, Joshua S Waxman
Canonical Wnt/β-catenin (Wnt) signaling plays multiple conserved roles during fate specification of cardiac progenitors in developing vertebrate embryos. Although lineage analysis in ascidians and mice has indicated there is a close relationship between the cardiac second heart field (SHF) and pharyngeal muscle (PM) progenitors, the signals underlying directional fate decisions of the cells within the cardio-pharyngeal muscle field in vertebrates are not yet understood. Here, we examined the temporal requirements of Wnt signaling in cardiac and PM development...
January 10, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087444/the-mechanistic-role-of-chemically-diverse-metal-ions-in-the-induction-of-autophagy
#19
REVIEW
Sumit Sahni, Dong-Hun Bae, Patric Jansson, Des Richardson
Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved cellular catabolic degradation process in response to stress which involves lysosomal degradation of unnecessary or damaged organelles and misfolded proteins. This is primarily a pro-survival pathway providing the cell with essential nutrients during stressful conditions. There are number of essential metal ions, which are required for normal physiological functioning of cells. Studies have shown that autophagy can be regulated by cellular metal ion concentrations. On the other hand, autophagy is also shown to regulate intracellular levels of certain metal ions...
January 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087398/interaction-of-mal-de-r%C3%A3-o-cuarto-virus-fijivirus-genus-proteins-and-identification-of-putative-factors-determining-viroplasm-formation-and-decay
#20
Gabriela Llauger, Luis Alejandro de Haro, Victoria Alfonso, Mariana Del Vas
Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) is a member of the Fijivirus genus, within the Reoviridae family, that replicates and assembles in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies called viroplasms. In this study, we investigated interactions between ten MRCV proteins by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays and identified interactions of non-structural proteins P6/P6, P9-2/P9-2 and P6/P9-1. P9-1 and P6 are the major and minor components of the viroplasms respectively, whereas P9-2 is an N-glycosylated membrane protein of unknown function...
January 10, 2017: Virus Research
keyword
keyword
23595
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"