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Chemical communication

Nathan J Butterworth, Phillip G Byrne, Paul A Keller, James F Wallman
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play an important role as contact pheromones in insects, particularly in flies. However, for many fly taxa our understanding of the importance of CHCs in sexual communication is limited. Within the family Calliphoridae (blowflies), sex-specific differences in CHCs have been reported for several species, but there is no evidence that CHCs facilitate sexual behavior. In order to elucidate the function of CHCs in Calliphoridae, studies combining behavioral and chemical analyses are required...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Tunga Salthammer, Yinping Zhang, Jinhan Mo, Holger M Koch, Charles J Weschler
There is an ongoing probing of the role of chemicals in the indoor environment. The majority of potential target substances are so-called very volatile, volatile and semi volatile organic compounds (VVOCs, VOCs and SVOCs). Depending on their physical properties and mass transfer conditions, they distribute in or between the gas phase, particle phase, settled house dust, surface films, clothing and other fabrics as well as the exposed skin and hair of the occupants themselves. Therefore, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake all must be considered as relevant pathways for the exposure assessment in human habitats...
March 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Heerak Chugh, Damini Sood, Ishita Chandra, Vartika Tomar, Gagan Dhawan, Ramesh Chandra
Development of nanoparticles (NPs) as a part of cancer therapeutics has given rise to a new field of research - cancer nanomedicine. In comparison to traditional anti-cancer drugs, NPs provide a targeted approach which prevents undesirable effects. In this communication, we have reviewed the role of gold and silver NPs (AgNPs) in the cancer nanomedicine. The preparation of gold NPs (AuNPs) and AgNPs can be grouped into three categories - physical, chemical and biological. Among the three approaches, the biological approach is growing and receiving more attention due to its safe and effective production...
March 13, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Danuše Tarkowská, Miroslav Strnad
The present review summarizes current knowledge of the biosynthesis and biological importance of isoprenoid-derived plant signaling compounds. Cellular organisms use chemical signals for intercellular communication to coordinate their growth, development, and responses to environmental cues. The skeletons of majority of plant signaling molecules, mediators of plant intercellular 'broadcasting', are built from C5 units of isoprene and therefore belong to a huge and diverse group of natural substances called isoprenoids (terpenoids)...
March 12, 2018: Planta
Paul G Becher, Arne Hagman, Vasiliki Verschut, Amrita Chakraborty, Elżbieta Rozpędowska, Sébastien Lebreton, Marie Bengtsson, Gerhard Flick, Peter Witzgall, Jure Piškur
Yeast volatiles attract insects, which apparently is of mutual benefit, for both yeasts and insects. However, it is unknown whether biosynthesis of metabolites that attract insects is a basic and general trait, or if it is specific for yeasts that live in close association with insects. Our goal was to study chemical insect attractants produced by yeasts that span more than 250 million years of evolutionary history and vastly differ in their metabolism and lifestyle. We bioassayed attraction of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to odors of phylogenetically and ecologically distinct yeasts grown under controlled conditions...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Guillaume Pernelle, Wilten Nicola, Claudia Clopath
Cortical oscillations are thought to be involved in many cognitive functions and processes. Several mechanisms have been proposed to regulate oscillations. One prominent but understudied mechanism is gap junction coupling. Gap junctions are ubiquitous in cortex between GABAergic interneurons. Moreover, recent experiments indicate their strength can be modified in an activity-dependent manner, similar to chemical synapses. We hypothesized that activity-dependent gap junction plasticity acts as a mechanism to regulate oscillations in the cortex...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Vincenzo Mirabello, Fernando Cortezon-Tamarit, Sofia I Pascu
Hypoxia has been identified as one of the hallmarks of tumor environments and a prognosis factor in many cancers. The development of ideal chemical probes for imaging and sensing of hypoxia remains elusive. Crucial characteristics would include a measurable response to subtle variations of pO2 in living systems and an ability to accumulate only in the areas of interest (e.g., targeting hypoxia tissues) whilst exhibiting kinetic stabilities in vitro and in vivo . A sensitive probe would comprise platforms for applications in imaging and therapy for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) relying on sensitive detection of pO2 ...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Andrew E Christie, Micah G Pascual, Andy Yu
Peptides are the largest/most diverse class of molecules used by animals for chemical communication, and with their cognate receptors, are key players in modulating physiological/behavioral control systems, including those involved in adaptation to environmental change. Crustaceans have long served as models for investigating peptidergic control of physiology/behavior, and members of Notostraca, an ancient branchiopod order, have recently been proposed as models for investigating the genetic/physiological underpinnings of ecoresponsiveness; nothing is currently known about the genes/proteins underlying peptidergic signaling in any member of this crustacean taxon...
March 8, 2018: Marine Genomics
J N Reiners, J E Held, C L Wright, D W Brake
We conducted 2 experiments to determine lysine loss from 2 lipid-coated lysine products after mixing with silage. In our first experiment, we mixed 2 lipid-coated lysine products, crystalline lysine or crystalline lysine and amounts of lipid identical to amounts included in lipid-coated lysine products, with alfalfa or corn silage that had 2 different amounts of acidity. Lysine appeared to disassociate from lipid-coated lysine products in a nonlinear manner after mixing with either alfalfa or corn silage at different amounts of acidity...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Wayne I Doyle, Julian P Meeks
Steroids play vital roles in animal physiology across species, and the production of specific steroids is associated with particular internal biological functions. The internal functions of steroids are, in most cases, quite clear. However, an important feature of many steroids -- their chemical stability -- allows these molecules to play secondary, external roles as chemical messengers after their excretion via urine, feces, or other shed substances. The presence of steroids in animal excretions has long been appreciated, but their capacity to serve as chemosignals has not received as much attention...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Neisha Sundaram, Kathryn Duckett, Chee Fu Yung, Koh Cheng Thoon, Sucitro Sidharta, Indumathi Venkatachalam, Angela Chow, Joanne Yoong
BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers (HCWs) is a worldwide problem, but relatively little research has focussed on Asia, including Singapore. Despite widespread access and recommendations from public health authorities, influenza vaccine uptake remains suboptimal among HCWs. METHODS: Our qualitative study used focus group discussions to identify and explain factors limiting influenza vaccine acceptance among HCWs in Singapore. A total of 73 doctors, nurses, allied health and ancillary staff across three public hospitals were included...
March 5, 2018: Vaccine
Bingquan Yang, Lu Li, Kuishan Du, Bingbing Fan, Yue Long, Kai Song
A facile method to realize photo-responsive inverse opal photonic crystal polymer (IOPP) films with an adjustable broad-wavelength-range photonic band gap (PBG) was demonstrated in this communication. When immersing the IOPP film in malachite green carbinol base (MGCB) solution, under light irradiation, the MGCB released hydroxide ions. In this way, optical signals were converted to chemical signals. As a result, the pH sensitive IOPP film expanded and the PBG changed. The band gap movement of the IOPP films with different monomer to cross-linker ratios was studied in this work...
March 8, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Daniele Merli, Barbara Mannucci, Federico Bassetti, Federica Corana, Marco Falchetto, Anna R Malacrida, Giuliano Gasperi, Francesca Scolari
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata is a polyphagous pest of fruits and crops with a worldwide distribution. Its ability to use different larval hosts may have multiple effects, including impacts on adult reproductive biology. The male sex pheromone, which plays a key role in attracting both other males to lekking arenas and females for mating, is a mixture of chemical compounds including esters, acids, alkanes and terpenes known to differ between laboratory strains and wild-type populations...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Dacheng Liang
The reactive oxygen species, generally labeled toxic due to high reactivity without target specificity, are gradually uncovered as signaling molecules involved in a myriad of biological processes. But one important feature of ROS roles in macromolecule movement has not caught attention until recent studies with technique advance and design elegance have shed lights on ROS signaling for intercellular and interorganelle communication. This review begins with the discussions of genetic and chemical studies on the regulation of symplastic dye movement through intercellular tunnels in plants (plasmodesmata), and focuses on the ROS regulatory mechanisms concerning macromolecule movement including small RNA-mediated gene silencing movement and protein shuttling between cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Thao Bich Nguyen, Shigeru Kitani, Shuichi Shimma, Takuya Nihira
In streptomycetes, autoregulators are important signaling compounds that trigger secondary metabolism, and they are regarded as Streptomyces hormones based on their extremely low effective concentrations (nM) and the involvement of specific receptor proteins. Our previous distribution study revealed that butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones, including avenolide, are a general class of signaling molecules in streptomycetes and that Streptomyces albus J1074 may produce butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones. Here, we describe metabolite profiling of a disruptant of the S...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Belgacem Agoubi
Assessing groundwater flow path in a thermal aquifer, such as El Hamma aquifer, southeastern Tunisia, and its lateral communication with the adjacent Jeffara-Gabes aquifers, is a very complex operation which requires the integration of several approaches to understand and explain the reality of phenomenon. In this study, geochemical and isotopic data, Kohonen self-organizing map, temperature cooling trend, and kriging techniques were used to assess groundwater flow path in hydrothermal aquifer of El Hamma-Gabes, Tunisia...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dénes Pálfi, Balázs Chiovini, Gergely Szalay, Attila Kaszás, Gergely F Turi, Gergely Katona, Péter Ábrányi-Balogh, Milán Szőri, Attila Potor, Orsolya Frigyesi, Csilla Lukácsné Haveland, Zoltán Szadai, Miklós Madarász, Anikó Vasanits-Zsigrai, Ibolya Molnár-Perl, Béla Viskolcz, Imre G Csizmadia, Zoltán Mucsi, Balázs Rózsa
Two-photon (TP) uncaging of neurotransmitter molecules is the method of choice to mimic and study the subtleties of neuronal communication either in the intact brain or in slice preparations. However, the currently available caged materials are just at the limit of their usability and have several drawbacks. The local and focal nature of their use may for example be jeopardized by a high spontaneous hydrolysis rate of the commercially available compounds with increased photochemical release rate. Here, using quantum chemical modelling we show the mechanisms of hydrolysis and two-photon activation, and synthesized more effective caged compounds...
March 2, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
J Eric Nielsen, Steven Pawson, Andrea Molod, Benjamin Auer, Arlindo M da Silva, Anne R Douglass, Bryan Duncan, Qing Liang, Michael Manyin, Luke D Oman, William Putman, Susan E Strahan, Krzysztof Wargan
NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near-real-time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes...
December 2017: Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
John F Leslie, Veronica Lattanzio, Kris Audenaert, Paola Battilani, Jeffrey Cary, Sofia N Chulze, Sarah De Saeger, Annamaria Gerardino, Petr Karlovsky, Yu-Cai Liao, Chris M Maragos, Giuseppe Meca, Angel Medina, Antonio Moretti, Gary Munkvold, Giuseppina Mulè, Patrick Njobeh, Ivan Pecorelli, Giancarlo Perrone, Amedeo Pietri, Juan M Palazzini, Robert H Proctor, Endang S Rahayu, Maria L Ramírez, Robert Samson, Jörg Stroka, Michael Sulyok, Mark Sumarah, Cees Waalwijk, Qi Zhang, Hao Zhang, Antonio F Logrieco
MycoKey, an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project, includes a series of "Roundtable Discussions" to gather information on trending research areas in the field of mycotoxicology. This paper includes summaries of the Roundtable Discussions on Chemical Detection and Monitoring of mycotoxins and on the role of genetics and biodiversity in mycotoxin production. Discussions were managed by using the nominal group discussion technique, which generates numerous ideas and provides a ranking for those identified as the most important...
March 1, 2018: Toxins
Wei Shen, Longfei Ruan, Zhitao Shen, Zhengtao Deng
This communication describes a new method to achieve reversible light-induced chemical composition and phase structural transitions from polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped orthorhombic CsPbBr3 to tetragonal CsPb2 Br5 nanosheets or vice versa. This work will deepen our understanding of the controlled synthesis, post-processing, and decomposition pathway of cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals.
March 1, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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