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Chemical communication

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793115/estimating-chemical-ecotoxicity-in-eu-ecolabel-and-in-eu-product-environmental-footprint
#1
Erwan Saouter, An De Schryver, Rana Pant, Serenella Sala
The EU Commission Ecolabel and the Product and Environmental Footprint (PEF) aim at promoting the development and consumption of greener products. The product aquatic toxicity score from these 2 methods may lead in some circumstances to opposite conclusions. Although this could be interpreted as an inconsistency, the score should not be compared to each other but used in a complementary way. In short, CDV provided a "full" product formula aquatic toxicity score, even if some chemicals may never reach or persist in freshwater ecosystems...
May 21, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792681/protein-based-electronic-skin-akin-to-biological-tissues
#2
Minsik Jo, Kyungtaek Min, Biswajit Roy, Sookyoung Kim, Sangmin Lee, Ji-Yong Park, Sunghwan Kim
Human skin provides an interface that transduces external stimuli into electrical signals for communication with the brain. There has been considerable effort to produce soft, flexible, and stretchable electronic skin (E-skin) devices. However, common polymers cannot imitate human skin perfectly due to their poor biocompatibility, biofunctionality, and permeability to many chemicals and biomolecules. Herein, we report on highly flexible, stretchable, conformal, molecule-permeable, and skin-adhering E-skins that combine a metallic nanowire (NW) network and silk protein hydrogel...
May 24, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792142/collaboration-of-the-joint-research-centre-and-the-european-customs-laboratories-for-identification-of-new-psychoactive-substances
#3
Claude Guillou, Fabiano Reniero, Joana Lobo Pereira Vicente, Margaret Holland, Kamil Kolar, Hubert Chassaigne, Salvatore Tirendi, Herve Schepers
The emergence of designer drugs as substances of abuse has seen a dramatic increase over the last few years. Customs officials are responsible for the control of products entering the European Union (EU) market. This control applies to chemicals in general, pharmaceutical products and medicines. Numerous products imported from non-EU countries, often -declared as 'bath salts' or 'fertilizers', may in fact contain new psychoactive substance (NPS). These are not necessarily controlled under international law, but are subject to monitoring in agreement with EU legislation...
May 23, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789359/conserved-responses-in-a-war-of-small-molecules-between-a-plant-pathogenic-bacterium-and-fungi
#4
Joseph E Spraker, Philipp Wiemann, Joshua A Baccile, Nandhitha Venkatesh, Julia Schumacher, Frank C Schroeder, Laura M Sanchez, Nancy P Keller
Small-molecule signaling is one major mode of communication within the polymicrobial consortium of soil and rhizosphere. While microbial secondary metabolite (SM) production and responses of individual species have been studied extensively, little is known about potentially conserved roles of SM signals in multilayered symbiotic or antagonistic relationships. Here, we characterize the SM-mediated interaction between the plant-pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum and the two plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium fujikuroi and Botrytis cinerea We show that cellular differentiation and SM biosynthesis in F...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789066/exploring-modular-glycolipids-involved-in-nematode-chemical-communication
#5
Stephan H von Reuss
Chemical communication in nematodes has been known for over half a century, but the underlying molecular basis remained largely elusive. Recent advances in analytical techniques facilitated the characterization of a modular glycolipid library based on the dideoxysugar <small>L</small>-ascarylose, which modulates behavior and development in the model organism C. elegans. Ascaroside signaling is highly conserved in nematodes and represents a key factor in nematode chemical ecology. Ascaroside biosynthesis depends on the co-option of the peroxisomal β-oxidation cycle and in addition integrates a large diversity of additional building blocks derived from various primary metabolic pathways to give rise to species-specific modular assemblies, thus, transcending the concept of strictly segregated primary versus secondary metabolism...
May 30, 2018: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788231/role-of-quorum-sensing-and-chemical-communication-in-fungal-biotechnology-and-pathogenesis
#6
Jorge Barriuso, Deborah A Hogan, Tajalli Keshavarz, María Jesús Martínez
Microbial cells do not live in isolation in their environment, but rather they communicate with each other using chemical signals. This sophisticated mode of cell-to-cell signalling, known as quorum sensing, was first discovered in bacteria, and coordinates the behaviour of microbial population behaviour in a cell-density dependent manner. More recently, these mechanisms have been described in eukaryotes, particularly in fungi, where they regulate processes such as pathogenesis, morphological differentiation, secondary metabolite production and biofilm formation...
May 18, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785627/chemical-communication-and-reproduction-partitioning-in-social-wasps
#7
REVIEW
Francesca Romana Dani, Stefano Turillazzi
Social wasps encompass species displaying diverse social organization regarding colony cycle, nest foundation, caste differences (from none to significant dimorphism) and number of reproductive queens. Current phylogenetic data suggests that sociality occured independently in the subfamily Stenogastrinae and in the Polistinae+Vespinae clade. In most species, including those with the simplest social organization, colony reproduction is monopolised by a single or few females. Since their nest mates can also develop ovaries and lay eggs, dominant females must somehow inhibit them from reproducing...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783145/electrochemical-biosensor-system-using-a-cmos-microelectrode-array-provides-high-spatially-and-temporally-resolved-images
#8
William Tedjo, Jasmine E Nejad, Rachel Feeny, Lang Yang, Charles S Henry, Stuart Tobet, Tom Chen
The ability to view biological events in real time has contributed significantly to research in the life sciences. While video capture of real time changes in anatomical relationships is important, it is equally important to visualize real time changes in the chemical communications that drive cell behaviors. This paper describes an electrochemical imaging system capable of capturing changes in chemical gradients in live tissue slices. The system consists of a CMOS microchip with 8192 configurable Pt surface electrodes, on-chip potentiostat, on-chip control logic, and a microfluidic device designed to interface with the CMOS chip to support ex vivo tissue experimentation...
April 10, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780074/communication-site-ligation-and-polyglycolic-acid-sheet-use-for-the-treatment-of-hydrothorax-in-patients-undergoing-continuous-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis
#9
Hirotoshi Kubokura, Junichi Okamoto, Jitsuo Usuda
INTRODUCTION: Hydrothorax due to pleuroperitoneal communication (PPC) can occur in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We report our experiences of the safety and efficacy of the treatment of four patients with a novel video-assisted thoracoscopy method. METHODS: Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) was performed with a mini-thoracotomy of 5 cm in length. The PPC site was identified on the diaphragm and ligated using an endoscopic loop...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779583/mouse-models-of-peripheral-metabolic-disease
#10
REVIEW
Gabriela da Silva Xavier, David J Hodson
Metabolic disease risk is driven by defects in the function of cells that regulate energy homeostasis, as well as altered communication between the different tissues or organs that these cells occupy. Thus, it is desirable to use model organisms to understand the contribution of different cells, tissues and organs to metabolism. Mice are widely used for metabolic research, since well-characterised mouse strains (in terms of their genotype and phenotype) allow comparative studies and human disease modelling...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777168/the-genetic-basis-of-female-pheromone-differences-between-drosophila-melanogaster-and-d-simulans
#11
Jessica A Pardy, Howard D Rundle, Mark A Bernards, Amanda J Moehring
Chemical signals are one means by which many insect species communicate. Differences in the combination of surface chemicals called cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) can influence mating behavior and affect reproductive isolation between species. Genes influencing three CHC compounds have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the genetic basis of other CHC compounds, whether these genes affect species differences in CHCs, and the genes' resulting effect on interspecies mating, remains unknown. We used fine-scale deficiency mapping of the third chromosome to identify 43 genomic regions that influence production of CHCs in both D...
May 19, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774639/controlling-dual-molecular-pumps-electrochemically
#12
Cristian Pezzato, Minh T Nguyen, Dong Jun Kim, Ommid Anamimoghadam, Lorenzo Mosca, Fraser Stoddart
Artificial molecular machines can be operated using either physical or chemical inputs. Light-powered motors display clean and autonomous operations, whereas chemically-driven machines generate waste products and are intermittent in their motions. Herein, we show that controlled changes in applied electrochemical potentials can drive the operation of artificial molecular pumps in a semi-autonomous manner - that is, without the need for consecutive additions of chemical fuel(s). The electroanalytical approach described in this communication promotes the assembly of cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) rings along a positively charged oligomeric chain, providing easy access to the formation of multiple mechanical bonds by means of a controlled supply of electricity...
May 18, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771985/another-cat-and-mouse-game-deciphering-the-evolution-of-the-scgb-superfamily-and-exploring-the-molecular-similarity-of-major-cat-allergen-fel-d-1-and-mouse-abp-using-computational-approaches
#13
Rajesh Durairaj, Patrick Pageat, Cécile Bienboire-Frosini
The mammalian secretoglobin (SCGB) superfamily contains functionally diverse members, among which the major cat allergen Fel d 1 and mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) display similar subunits. We searched for molecular similarities between Fel d 1 and ABP to examine the possibility that they play similar roles. We aimed to i) cluster the evolutionary relationships of the SCGB superfamily; ii) identify divergence patterns, structural overlap, and protein-protein docking between Fel d 1 and ABP dimers; and iii) explore the residual interaction between ABP dimers and steroid binding in chemical communication using computational approaches...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762495/role-of-sdia-on-biofilm-formation-by-atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#14
Hebert F Culler, Samuel C F Couto, Juliana S Higa, Renato M Ruiz, Min J Yang, Vanessa Bueris, Marcia R Franzolin, Marcelo P Sircili
Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli are capable to form biofilm on biotic and abiotic surfaces, regardless of the adherence pattern displayed. Several E. coli mechanisms are regulated by Quorum sensing (QS), including virulence factors and biofilm formation. Quorum sensing is a signaling system that confers bacteria with the ability to respond to chemical molecules known as autoinducers. Suppressor of division inhibitor (SdiA) is a QS receptor present in atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) that detects acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) type autoinducers...
May 15, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761630/specifying-the-dimensions-of-aquatic-life-benchmark-values-in-clear-complete-and-justified-problem-formulations
#15
Glenn Suter
Nations that develop water quality benchmark values have relied primarily on standard data and methods. However, experience with chemicals such as Se, ammonia, and tributyltin has shown that standard methods do not adequately address some taxa, modes of exposure and effects. Development of benchmark values that are protective requires an explicit description of the issues, a problem formulation. In particular, the assessment endpoints and other dimensions should be specified for each chemical so that the necessary data will be obtained and appropriate analyses will be performed...
May 14, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760760/differences-in-the-reliance-on-cuticular-hydrocarbons-as-sexual-signaling-and-species-discrimination-cues-in-parasitoid-wasps
#16
Jan Buellesbach, Sebastian G Vetter, Thomas Schmitt
Background: Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) have been documented to play crucial roles as species- and sex-specific cues in the chemical communication systems of a wide variety of insects. However, whether they are sufficient by themselves as the sole cue triggering sexual behavior as well as preference of con- over heterospecific mating partners is rarely assessed. We conducted behavioral assays in three representative species of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to determine their reliance on CHC as species-specific sexual signaling cues...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760178/region-and-activity-dependent-regulation-of-extracellular-glutamate
#17
Nawrin F Pinky, Crystal M Wilkie, Jocelyn R Barnes, Matthew P Parsons
Transporter-mediated glutamate uptake plays an essential role in shaping synaptic neurotransmission. The rapid removal of synaptically-released glutamate ensures the high temporal dynamics characteristic of fast excitatory chemical neurotransmission and prevents the overexcitation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors that have been implicated in synaptic plasticity impairments and cell death. Despite clear regional differences in plasticity and excitotoxic thresholds, few studies have compared extracellular glutamate dynamics across different brain regions and in response to a range of neural activity including plasticity-inducing stimuli...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753409/if-technological-intelligent-extraterrestrials-exist-what-biological-traits-are-de-rigueur
#18
E R Taylor
If extraterrestrials exist in the depths of cosmic space, and are capable of interstellar communications, even space flight, there is no requirement that they be humanoid in form. However, certain humanoid capabilities would be advantageous for tool fashioning and critical to operating space craft as well as functioning under the disparate extreme conditions under which they may be forced to operate. They would have to be "gas breathing". The reasonable assumption that life based upon the same elements as Earth life requiring water stems from the unique properties of water that no other similar low molecular weight nonmetal hydride offers...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751568/cyanogenesis-in-arthropods-from-chemical-warfare-to-nuptial-gifts
#19
REVIEW
Mika Zagrobelny, Érika Cristina Pinheiro de Castro, Birger Lindberg Møller, Søren Bak
Chemical defences are key components in insect⁻plant interactions, as insects continuously learn to overcome plant defence systems by, e.g., detoxification, excretion or sequestration. Cyanogenic glucosides are natural products widespread in the plant kingdom, and also known to be present in arthropods. They are stabilised by a glucoside linkage, which is hydrolysed by the action of &beta;-glucosidase enzymes, resulting in the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide and deterrent aldehydes or ketones. Such a binary system of components that are chemically inert when spatially separated provides an immediate defence against predators that cause tissue damage...
May 3, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750798/guidelines-for-safe-handling-of-hazardous-drugs-a-systematic-review
#20
Mari A Bernabeu-Martínez, Mateo Ramos Merino, Juan M Santos Gago, Luis M Álvarez Sabucedo, Carmina Wanden-Berghe, Javier Sanz-Valero
OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific literature related to the safe handling of hazardous drugs (HDs). METHOD: Critical analysis of works retrieved from MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, CINHAL, Web of Science and LILACS using the terms "Hazardous Substances", "Antineoplastic Agents" and "Cytostatic Agents", applying "Humans" and "Guidelines" as filters. Date of search: January 2017. RESULTS: In total, 1100 references were retrieved, and from those, 61 documents were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria: 24 (39...
2018: PloS One
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