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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346117/on-the-communicative-function-of-body-odors
#1
Jasper H B de Groot, Gün R Semin, Monique A M Smeets
Humans use multiple senses to navigate the social world, and the sense of smell is arguably the most underestimated one. An intriguing aspect of the sense of smell is its social communicative function. Research has shown that human odors convey information about a range of states (e.g., emotions, sickness) and traits (e.g., individuality, gender). Yet, what underlies the communicability of these states and traits via smell? We fill this explanatory gap with a framework that highlights the dynamic and flexible aspects of human olfactory communication...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337129/novel-neuromodulation-techniques-to-assess-interhemispheric-communication-in-neural-injury-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Samuel S Shin, Galit Pelled
Interhemispheric interaction has a major role in various neurobehavioral functions. Its disruption is a major contributor to the pathological changes in the setting of brain injury such as traumatic brain injury, peripheral nerve injury, and stroke, as well as neurodegenerative diseases. Because interhemispheric interaction has a crucial role in functional consequence in these neuropathological states, a review of noninvasive and state-of-the-art molecular based neuromodulation methods that focus on or have the potential to elucidate interhemispheric interaction have been performed...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334404/calcium-homeostasis-modulator-1-like-currents-in-rat-fungiform-taste-cells-expressing-amiloride-sensitive-sodium-currents
#3
Albertino Bigiani
Salt reception by taste cells is still the less understood transduction process occurring in taste buds, the peripheral sensory organs for the detection of food chemicals. Although there is evidence suggesting that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) works as sodium receptor, yet it is not clear how salt-detecting cells signal the relevant information to nerve endings. Taste cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami substances release ATP as neurotransmitter through a nonvesicular mechanism. Three different channel proteins have been proposed as conduit for ATP secretion: pannexin channels, connexin hemichannels, and calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) channels...
March 10, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333395/small-molecules-belowground-the-role-of-specialized-metabolites-in-the-rhizosphere
#4
Hassan Massalha, Elisa Korenblum, Dorothea Tholl, Asaph Aharoni
Soil communities are diverse taxonomically and functionally. This ecosystem experiences highly complex networks of interactions, but may also present functionally independent entities. Plant roots, a metabolically active hotspot in the soil, take an essential part in belowground interactions. While plants are known to release an extremely high portion of the fixated carbon to the soil, less is known about the composition and role of C-containing compounds in the rhizosphere, in particular those involved in chemical communication...
March 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332837/molecular-recognition-based-dna-nanoassemblies-on-the-surfaces-of-nanosized-exosomes
#5
Shuo Wan, Liqin Zhang, Sai Wang, Yuan Liu, Cuichen Wu, Cheng Cui, Hao Sun, Muling Shi, Ying Jiang, Long Li, Liping Qiu, Weihong Tan
Exosomes are membrane-enclosed extracellular vesicles derived from cells, carrying biomolecules that include pro-teins and nucleic acids for intercellular communication. Owning to their advantages of size, structure, stability and biocompatibility, exosomes have been used widely as natu-ral nanocarriers for intracellular delivery of theranostic agents. Meanwhile, surface modifications needed to endow exosomes with additional functionalities remain challeng-ing by their small size and the complexity of their mem-brane surfaces...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328079/intraspecific-chemical-communication-in-microalgae
#6
REVIEW
Marianna Venuleo, John A Raven, Mario Giordano
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. References SUMMARY: The relevance of infochemicals in the relationships between organisms is emerging as a fundamental aspect of aquatic ecology. Exchanges of chemical cues are likely to occur not only between organisms of different species, but also between conspecific individuals. Especially intriguing is the investigation of chemical communication in microalgae, because of the relevance of these organisms for global primary production and their key role in trophic webs...
March 22, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319665/synthesis-of-four-disulfide-insulin-analogs-via-sequential-disulfide-bond-formation
#7
Fangzhou Wu, John P Mayer, Vasily G Gelfanov, Fa Liu, Richard D DiMarchi
Naturally-occurring, multiple cysteine-containing peptides are a structurally unique class of compounds with a wide range of therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The development of reliable, and precise chemical methods for their preparation is of paramount importance to facilitate exploration of their utility. We report an efficient approach based on stepwise, sequentially directed disulfide bond formation, exemplified here by the synthesis of four-disulfide bond containing insulin analogs. The cysteine protections consisted of tert-butylthiol (StBu), thiol-trimethoxyphenyl (STmp), trityl (Trt), 4-methoxytrityl (Mmt), S-acetamidomethyl (Acm) and tert-butyl (tBu)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317880/antidromic-rectifying-gap-junctions-amplify-chemical-transmission-at-functionally-mixed-electrical-chemical-synapses
#8
Ping Liu, Bojun Chen, Roger Mailler, Zhao-Wen Wang
Neurons communicate through chemical synapses and electrical synapses (gap junctions). Although these two types of synapses often coexist between neurons, little is known about whether they interact, and whether any interactions between them are important to controlling synaptic strength and circuit functions. By studying chemical and electrical synapses between premotor interneurons (AVA) and downstream motor neurons (A-MNs) in the Caenorhabditis elegans escape circuit, we found that disrupting either the chemical or electrical synapses causes defective escape response...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303197/heterogeneous-tempo-and-mode-of-evolutionary-diversification-of-compounds-in-lizard-chemical-signals
#9
Roberto García-Roa, Manuel Jara, Pilar López, José Martín, Daniel Pincheira-Donoso
Important part of the multivariate selection shaping social and interspecific interactions among and within animal species emerges from communication. Therefore, understanding the diversification of signals for animal communication is a central endeavor in evolutionary biology. Over the last decade, the rapid development of phylogenetic approaches has promoted a stream of studies investigating evolution of communication signals. However, comparative research has primarily focused on visual and acoustic signals, while the evolution of chemical signals remains largely unstudied...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299688/all-electrical-graphene-dna-sensor-array
#10
Jeffrey Abbott, Donhee Ham, Guangyu Xu
Electrical sensing of biomolecules has been an important pursuit due to the label-free operation and chip-scale construct such sensing modality can enable. In particular, electrical biomolecular sensors based on nanomaterials such as semiconductor nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and graphene have demonstrated high sensitivity, which in the case of nanowires and carbon nanotubes can surpass typical optical detection sensitivity. Among these nanomaterials, graphene is well suited for a practical candidate for implementing a large-scale array of biomolecular sensors, as its two-dimensional morphology is readily compatible with industry standard top-down fabrication techniques...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298352/the-interactions-of-ants-with-their-biotic-environment
#11
EDITORIAL
Guillaume Chomicki, Susanne S Renner
This special feature results from the symposium 'Ants 2016: ant interactions with their biotic environments' held in Munich in May 2016 and deals with the interactions between ants and other insects, plants, microbes and fungi, studied at micro- and macroevolutionary levels with a wide range of approaches, from field ecology to next-generation sequencing, chemical ecology and molecular genetics. In this paper, we review key aspects of these biotic interactions to provide background information for the papers of this special feature After listing the major types of biotic interactions that ants engage in, we present a brief overview of ant/ant communication, ant/plant interactions, ant/fungus symbioses, and recent insights about ants and their endosymbionts...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298345/the-influence-of-slavemaking-lifestyle-caste-and-sex-on-chemical-profiles-in-temnothorax-ants-insights-into-the-evolution-of-cuticular-hydrocarbons
#12
Isabelle Kleeberg, Florian Menzel, Susanne Foitzik
Chemical communication is central for the formation and maintenance of insect societies. Generally, social insects only allow nest-mates into their colony, which are recognized by their cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). Social parasites, which exploit insect societies, are selected to circumvent host recognition. Here, we studied whether chemical strategies to reduce recognition evolved convergently in slavemaking ants, and whether they extend to workers, queens and males alike. We studied CHCs of three social parasites and their related hosts to investigate whether the parasitic lifestyle selects for specific chemical traits that reduce host recognition...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295002/-ultrastructural-characteristics-of-gap-junctions-in-human-glial-brain-tumors
#13
E Yu Kirichenko, A F Savchenko, D V Kozachenko, A E Matsionis, A K Logvinov
AIM: to conduct an electron microscopic study of intercellular communication in the samples of gemistocytic astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and glioblastoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Surgically resected tumor tissue fragments were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution, afterfixed in 1% OsO4 solution, dehydrated, and embedded in epoxy resin. Ultrathin sections were examined using a Jem 1011 electron microscope (Jeol, Japan). RESULTS: Solitary and closely spaced gap junctions (GJs) formed by the thin processes that have the ultrastructure of an astroglial processes were identified in the astrocytoma samples...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294685/star-anise-illicium-verum-hook-f-as-quorum-sensing-and-biofilm-formation-inhibitor-on-foodborne-bacteria-study-in-milk
#14
Md Ramim Tanver Rahman, Zaixiang Lou, Jun Zhang, Fuhao Yu, Yakindra Prasad Timilsena, Caili Zhang, Yi Zhang, Amr M Bakry
Bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) systems to communicate with each other and regulate microbial group behavior, such as the secretion of virulence factors, including biofilm formation. In order to explore safe, edible agents, the potential of star anise (SA) as an anti-QS and antibiofilm agent and its possible application in milk safety were investigated. Staphylococcus aureus , Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and biosensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum were selected as test strains for QS, biofilm, and exopolysaccharide assays...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292238/fungal-production-and-manipulation-of-plant-hormones
#15
Sandra Fonseca, Dhanya Radhakrishnan, Kalika Prasad, Andrea Chini
Living organisms are part of a highly interconnected web of interactions, characterised by species nurturing, competing, parasitizing and preying on one another. Plants have evolved cooperative as well as defensive strategies to interact with neighbour organisms. Among these, the plant-fungus associations are very diverse, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. Our current knowledge of plant-fungus interactions suggests a sophisticated co-evolution to ensure dynamic plant responses to evolving fungal mutualistic/pathogenic strategies...
March 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291785/transcriptome-difference-and-potential-crosstalk-between-liver-and-mammary-tissue-in-mid-lactation-primiparous-dairy-cows
#16
Dengpan Bu, Massimo Bionaz, Mengzhi Wang, Xuemei Nan, Lu Ma, Jiaqi Wang
Liver and mammary gland are among the most important organs during lactation in dairy cows. With the purpose of understanding both the different and the complementary roles and the crosstalk of those two organs during lactation, a transcriptome analysis was performed on liver and mammary tissues of 10 primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation. The analysis was performed using a 4×44K Bovine Agilent microarray chip. The transcriptome difference between the two tissues was analyzed using SAS JMP Genomics using ANOVA with a false discovery rate correction (FDR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287468/swarms-ontology-a-common-information-model-for-the-cooperation-of-underwater-robots
#17
Xin Li, Sonia Bilbao, Tamara Martín-Wanton, Joaquim Bastos, Jonathan Rodriguez
In order to facilitate cooperation between underwater robots, it is a must for robots to exchange information with unambiguous meaning. However, heterogeneity, existing in information pertaining to different robots, is a major obstruction. Therefore, this paper presents a networked ontology, named the Smart and Networking Underwater Robots in Cooperation Meshes (SWARMs) ontology, to address information heterogeneity and enable robots to have the same understanding of exchanged information. The SWARMs ontology uses a core ontology to interrelate a set of domain-specific ontologies, including the mission and planning, the robotic vehicle, the communication and networking, and the environment recognition and sensing ontology...
March 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282132/quantifying-allosteric-communication-via-both-concerted-structural-changes-and-conformational-disorder-with-cards
#18
Sukrit Singh, Gregory R Bowman
Allosteric (i.e. long-range) communication within proteins is crucial for many biological processes, such as the activation of signaling cascades in response to specific stimuli. However, the physical basis for this communication remains unclear. Existing computational methods for identifying allostery focus on the role of concerted structural changes, but recent experimental work demonstrates that disorder is also an important factor. Here, we introduce the Correlation of All Rotameric and Dynamical States (CARDS) framework for quantifying correlations between both the structure and disorder of different regions of a protein...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280778/two-way-chemical-communication-between-artificial-and-natural-cells
#19
Roberta Lentini, Noël Yeh Martín, Michele Forlin, Luca Belmonte, Jason Fontana, Michele Cornella, Laura Martini, Sabrina Tamburini, William E Bentley, Olivier Jousson, Sheref S Mansy
Artificial cells capable of both sensing and sending chemical messages to bacteria have yet to be built. Here we show that artificial cells that are able to sense and synthesize quorum signaling molecules can chemically communicate with V. fischeri, V. harveyi, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa. Activity was assessed by fluorescence, luminescence, RT-qPCR, and RNA-seq. Two potential applications for this technology were demonstrated. First, the extent to which artificial cells could imitate natural cells was quantified by a type of cellular Turing test...
February 22, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276712/chemically-induced-hypoxia-promotes-differential-outcomes-over-preadipocyte-or-adipocyte-macrophage-communication
#20
K Avila-George, K Ramos-Olivares, K Vasquez-Munoz, V Villanueva-Morales, M Reyes-Farias, P Quintero, L Garcia, D F Garcia-Diaz
Expansion of white adipose tissue induce insufficient vascularization, driving hypoxia and low-grade inflammation. Resident preadipocytes are thought to be involved. We evaluated the effects of hypoxia over preadipocytes and adipocytes, to determine which cellular type impacts the most over macrophages activation. 3T3-L1 cells were either differentiated, or maintained undifferentiated. Each group was subjected to the presence or absence of chemical hypoxia (200 μM CoCl2) for 24 h. Conditioned media were used as treatment for murine RAW264...
February 14, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
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