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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805643/the-evolution-of-cuticular-fertility-signals-in-eusocial-insects
#1
REVIEW
Adrian A Smith, Jürgen Liebig
A reproductive division of labor is a definitive characteristic of eusocial insect societies and it requires a means through which colony members can assess the presence and productivity of reproductive individuals. Cuticular hydrocarbons are the primary means of doing so across eusocial hymenopterans. However, recent experimental work presents conflicting views on how these chemical signals function, are interpreted by workers, and evolve. These recent advances include demonstrations of hydrocarbons as evolutionarily conserved 'queen pheromones' and as species-divergent 'fertility signals' used by both queens and workers...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802833/new-pro-resolving-n-3-mediators-bridge-resolution-of-infectious-inflammation-to-tissue-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Charles N Serhan, Nan Chiang, Jesmond Dalli
While protective, the acute inflammatory response when uncontrolled can lead to further tissue damage and chronic inflammation that is now widely recognized to play important roles in many commonly occurring diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic syndrome, and many other diseases of significant public health concern. The ideal response to initial challenges of the host is complete resolution of the acute inflammatory response, which is now recognized to be a biosynthetically active process governed by specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM)...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799716/rational-design-of-membrane-pore-forming-peptides
#3
Max Pillong, Jan A Hiss, Petra Schneider, Yen-Chu Lin, Gernot Posselt, Bernhard Pfeiffer, Markus Blatter, Alex T Müller, Simon Bachler, Claudia S Neuhaus, Petra S Dittrich, Karl-Heinz Altmann, Silja Wessler, Gisbert Schneider
Specific interactions of peptides with lipid membranes are essential for cellular communication and constitute a central aspect of the innate host defense against pathogens. A computational method for generating innovative membrane-pore-forming peptides inspired by natural templates is presented. Peptide representation in terms of sequence- and topology-dependent hydrophobic moments is introduced. This design concept proves to be appropriate for the de novo generation of first-in-class membrane-active peptides with the anticipated mode of action...
August 11, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799595/neutron-vibrational-spectroscopic-studies-of-novel-tire-derived-carbon-materials
#4
Yunchao Li, Yongqiang Cheng, Luke L Daemen, Gabriel M Veith, Alan M Levine, Richard J Lee, Shannon M Mahurin, Sheng Dai, Amit K Naskar, Mariappan Parans Paranthaman
Sulfonated tire-derived carbons have been demonstrated to be high value-added carbon products of tire recycling in several energy storage system applications including lithium, sodium, potassium ion batteries and supercapacitors. In this communication, we compared different temperature pyrolyzed sulfonated tire-derived carbons with commercial graphite and unmodified/non-functionalized tire-derived carbon by studying the surface chemistry and properties, vibrational spectroscopy of the molecular structure, chemical bonding such as C-H bonding, and intermolecular interactions of the carbon materials...
August 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798760/striking-the-right-chord-signaling-enigma-during-root-gravitropism
#5
REVIEW
Manjul Singh, Aditi Gupta, Ashverya Laxmi
Plants being sessile can often be judged as passive acceptors of their environment. However, plants are actually even more active in responding to the factors from their surroundings. Plants do not have eyes, ears or vestibular system like animals, still they "know" which way is up and which way is down? This is facilitated by receptor molecules within plant which perceive changes in internal and external conditions such as light, touch, obstacles; and initiate signaling pathways that enable the plant to react...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796169/cell-surface-and-nuclear-receptors-in-the-colon-as-targets-for-bacterial-metabolites-and-its-relevance-to-colon-health
#6
REVIEW
Sathish Sivaprakasam, Yangzom D Bhutia, Sabarish Ramachandran, Vadivel Ganapathy
The symbiotic co-habitation of bacteria in the host colon is mutually beneficial to both partners. While the host provides the place and food for the bacteria to colonize and live, the bacteria in turn help the host in energy and nutritional homeostasis, development and maturation of the mucosal immune system, and protection against inflammation and carcinogenesis. In this review, we highlight the molecular mediators of the effective communication between the bacteria and the host, focusing on selective metabolites from the bacteria that serve as messengers to the host by acting through selective receptors in the host colon...
August 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795697/perovskite-based-photodetectors-materials-and-devices
#7
REVIEW
Huan Wang, Dong Ha Kim
While the field of perovskite-based optoelectronics has mostly been dominated by photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, and transistors, semiconducting properties peculiar to perovskites make them interesting candidates for innovative and disruptive applications in light signal detection. Perovskites combine effective light absorption in the broadband range with good photo-generation yield and high charge carrier mobility, a combination that provides promising potential for exploiting sensitive and fast photodetectors that are targeted for image sensing, optical communication, environmental monitoring or chemical/biological detection...
August 10, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794919/where-are-the-svhcs-10%C3%A2-years-consumer-s-right-to-know-about-substances-of-very-high-concern
#8
Ursula Klaschka
BACKGROUND: The European chemicals regulation REACH includes the legal duty for suppliers to inform consumers on request about the presence of substances of very high concern (SVHCs) in articles. Since this requirement has been in force now for 10 years, the intention of this study was to find out whether information on SVHCs is adequately communicated to the consumer today. Data on the presence of SVHCs in articles were collected as a prerequisite for the subsequent requests for a targeted choice of articles to examine the operability of the 'right to know...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794442/the-conserved-lysine-265-allosterically-modulates-nucleotide-and-actin-binding-site-coupling-in-myosin-2
#9
Vincent A Behrens, Stefan Münnich, Georg Adler-Gunzelmann, Claudia Thiel, Arnon Henn, Sharissa L Latham, Manuel H Taft
Myosin motor proteins convert chemical energy into force and movement through their interactions with nucleotide and filamentous actin (F-actin). The evolutionarily conserved lysine-265 (K265) of the myosin-2 motor from Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd) is proposed to be a key residue in an allosteric communication pathway that mediates actin-nucleotide coupling. To better understand the role of K265, point mutations were introduced within the Dd myosin-2 M765-2R framework, replacing this lysine with alanine (K265A), glutamic acid (K265E) or glutamine (K265Q), and the functional and kinetic properties of the resulting myosin motors were assessed...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792732/integrated-magneto-chemical-sensor-for-on-site-food-allergen-detection
#10
Hsing-Ying Lin, Chen-Han Huang, Jongmin Park, Divya Pathania, Cesar M Castro, Alessio Fasano, Ralph Weissleder, Hakho Lee
Adverse food reactions, including food allergies, food sensitivities, and autoimmune reaction (e.g., celiac disease) affect 5-15% of the population and remain a considerable public health problem requiring stringent food avoidance and epinephrine availability for emergency events. Avoiding problematic foods is practically difficult, given current reliance on prepared foods and out-of-home meals. In response, we developed a portable, point-of-use detection technology, termed integrated Exogenous Antigen Testing (iEAT)...
August 9, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791869/study-of-compression-induced-supramolecular-nanostructures-of-an-imidazole-derivative-by-langmuir-blodgett-technique
#11
Bapi Dey, Pintu Debnath, Santanu Chakraborty, Barnali Deb, Debajyoti Bhattacharjee, Swapan Majumdar, Syed Arshad Hussain
In this communication we report the design and synthesis, as well as supramolecular assembly behaviour of a 2, 4, 5-triaryl imidazole derivative (compound 1) at air-water interface and in thin films using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The main idea for such chemical structure is that the long alkyl chain and N-H of imidazole core may help to form supra-molecular architecture through hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding respectively. Accordingly the interfacial behaviour as well as morphology of 1 in thin film were studied through a series of characterization methods such as surface pressure-area (π-A) isotherm, hysteresis analysis, UV-Vis absorption and steady state fluorescence spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements etc...
August 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791674/release-from-prey-preservation-behavior-via-prey-switch-allowed-diversification-of-cuticular-hydrocarbon-profiles-in-digger-wasps
#12
Mareike Wurdack, Carlo Polidori, Alexander Keller, Heike Feldhaar, Thomas Schmitt
The cuticle of insects is covered by a layer of hydrocarbons (CHCs), whose original function is the protection from desiccation and pathogens. However, in most insects CHC profiles are species-specific. While this variability among species was largely linked to communication and recognition functions, additional selective forces may shape insect CHC profiles. Here we show that in Philanthinae digger wasps (Crabronidae) the CHC profile co-evolved with a peculiar brood-care strategy. In particular, we found that the behavior to embalm prey stored in the nest with hydrocarbons is adaptive to protect larval food from fungi in those species hunting for Hymenoptera...
August 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791515/a-multiscale-fluidic-device-for-the-study-of-dendrite-mediated-cell-to-cell-communication
#13
Sean McCutcheon, Robert Majeska, Mitchell Schaffler, Maribel Vazquez
Many cell types communicate by means of dendritic extensions via a multi-tiered set of geometric and chemical cues. Until recently, mimicking the compartmentalized in vivo cellular environment of dendrite-expressing cells such as osteocytes and motor neurons in a spatially and temporally controllable manner was limited by the challenges of in vitro device fabrication at submicron scales. Utilizing the improved resolution of current fabrication technology, we have designed a multiscale device, the Macro-micro-nano system, or Mμn, composed of two distinct cell-seeding and interrogation compartments separated by a nanochannel array...
August 8, 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777346/food-processing-the-influence-of-the-maillard-reaction-on-immunogenicity-and-allergenicity-of-food-proteins
#14
REVIEW
Malgorzata Teodorowicz, Joost van Neerven, Huub Savelkoul
The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus influence consumers' choices. However, in recent years, MRPs have been linked to the increasing prevalence of diet- and inflammation-related non-communicable diseases including food allergy. Although during the last years a better understanding of immunogenicity of MRPs has been achieved, still only little is known about the structural/chemical characteristics predisposing MRPs to interact with antigen presenting cells (APCs)...
August 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777091/the-quorum-quenching-lactonase-from-alicyclobacter-acidoterrestris-purification-kinetic-characterization-crystallization-and-crystallographic-analysis
#15
Celine Bergonzi, Michael Schwab, Eric Chabriere, Mikael Elias
Lactonases comprise a class of enzymes that hydrolyze lactones, including acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs); the latter are used as chemical signaling molecules by numerous Gram-negative bacteria. Lactonases have therefore been demonstrated to quench AHL-based bacterial communication. In particular, lactonases are capable of inhibiting bacterial behaviors that depend on these chemicals, such as the formation of biofilms or the expression of virulence factors. A novel representative from the metallo-β-lactamase superfamily, named AaL, was isolated from the thermoacidophilic bacterium Alicyclobacter acidoterrestris...
August 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775371/scalable-and-transfer-free-fabrication-of-mos2-sio2-hybrid-nanophotonic-cavity-arrays-with-quality-factors-exceeding-4000
#16
Sebastian Hammer, H Moritz Mangold, Ariana E Nguyen, Dominic Martinez-Ta, Sahar Naghibi Alvillar, Ludwig Bartels, Hubert J Krenner
We report the fully-scalable fabrication of a large array of hybrid molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) - silicon dioxide (SiO2) one-dimensional, free-standing photonic-crystal cavities capable of enhancement of the MoS2 photoluminescence at the narrow cavity resonance. We demonstrate continuous tunability of the cavity resonance wavelength across the entire emission band of MoS2 simply by variation of the photonic crystal periodicity. Device fabrication started by substrate-scale growth of MoS2 using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on non-birefringent thermal oxide on a silicon wafer; it was followed by lithographic fabrication of a photonic crystal nanocavity array on the same substrate at more than 50% yield of functional devices...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772390/physico-chemical-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-a-3d-unidirectional-porous-hydroxyapatite-scaffold-for-bone-regeneration
#17
Manabu Tanaka, Hisao Haniu, Takayuki Kamanaka, Takashi Takizawa, Atsushi Sobajima, Kazushige Yoshida, Kaoru Aoki, Masanori Okamoto, Hiroyuki Kato, Naoto Saito
The unidirectional porous hydroxyapatite HAp (UDPHAp) is a scaffold with continuous communicated pore structure in the axial direction. We evaluated and compared the ability of the UDPHAp as a three-dimensional (3D) bone tissue engineering scaffold to the interconnected calcium porous HAp ceramic (IP-CHA). To achieve this, we evaluated in vitro the compressive strength, controlled rhBMP-2 release behavior, adherent cell morphology, cell adhesion manner, and cell attachment of UDPHAp. As a further in vivo experiment, UDPHAp and IP-CHA with rhBMP-2 were transplanted into mouse calvarial defects to evaluate their bone-forming ability...
January 3, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771646/assessing-disaster-preparedness-among-select-children-s-summer-camps-in-the-united-states-and-canada
#18
Megan Chang, Alan Sielaff, Stuart Bradin, Kevin Walker, Michael Ambrose, Andrew Hashikawa
OBJECTIVE: Children's summer camps are at risk for multiple pediatric casualties during a disaster. The degree to which summer camps have instituted disaster preparedness is unknown. We assessed disaster preparedness among selected camps nationally for a range of disasters. METHODS: We partnered with a national, web-based electronic health records system to send camp leadership of 315 camp organizations a 14-question online survey of disaster preparedness. One response from each camp was selected in the following order of importance: owner, director, physician, nurse, medical technician, office staff, and other...
August 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768882/connexin-membrane-materials-as-potent-inhibitors-of-breast-cancer-cell-migration
#19
Silvia Ferrati, Avinash K Gadok, Ashlee D Brunaugh, Chi Zhao, Lara A Heersema, Hugh D C Smyth, Jeanne C Stachowiak
Gap junction (GJ) channels facilitate cell-cell communication through the exchange of chemical and mechanical signals, ensuring proper tissue development and homeostasis. The complex, disease stage-dependent role of connexins in breast cancer progression has been extensively studied over the past two decades. In the early stages of breast cancer, substantial evidence supports the role of GJ channels, formed by connexins at the interfaces between neighbouring cells, as suppressors of cell migration and proliferation...
August 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765367/polycomb-mediated-chromatin-loops-revealed-by-a-subkilobase-resolution-chromatin-interaction-map
#20
Kyle P Eagen, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Roger D Kornberg
The locations of chromatin loops in Drosophila were determined by Hi-C (chemical cross-linking, restriction digestion, ligation, and high-throughput DNA sequencing). Whereas most loop boundaries or "anchors" are associated with CTCF protein in mammals, loop anchors in Drosophila were found most often in association with the polycomb group (PcG) protein Polycomb (Pc), a subunit of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1). Loops were frequently located within domains of PcG-repressed chromatin. Promoters located at PRC1 loop anchors regulate some of the most important developmental genes and are less likely to be expressed than those not at PRC1 loop anchors...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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