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Chemical communication

Mingming Wang, Wei Zhan
The grand scale, ultimate efficiency, and sustainability of natural photosynthesis have inspired generations of researchers in biomimetic light energy utilization. As an essential and ubiquitous component in all photosynthetic machinery, lipids and their assemblies have long been recognized as powerful molecular scaffolds in building artificial photosynthetic systems. Model lipid bilayers, such as black lipid membranes and liposomes (vesicles), have been extensively used to host natural as well as synthetic photo- and redox-active species, thereby enabling key photosynthetic processes, such as energy transfer and photoinduced electron transfer, to be examined in well-defined, natural-like membrane settings...
October 19, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Min-Qiang Wang, Cui Ye, Shu-Juan Bao, Zhao-Yang Chen, Ya-Nan Yu, Yan Zhang, Mao-Wen Xu
In this communication, a novel platanus hispanica-like, highly integrated hierarchical electrocatalyst, with Co-carbon nanotubes anchored through porous Co embedded carbon sphere frameworks (Co-CNTFs), was fabricated using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. More importantly, the prepared Co-CNTFs demonstrate even better activity than commercial Pt electrocatalysts in an alkaline medium. This presented CVD approach provides an effective way to grow metal-CNTs in situ through various metal-complex-derived functional nanomaterials and can be expanded to metallic oxide, metallic sulfide, and metallic phosphide, among others, to introduce carbon nanotube frameworks with a multitude of potential applications...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
A Rodríguez-Seijo, A Cachada, A Gavina, A C Duarte, F A Vega, M L Andrade, R Pereira
Soil pollution at firing ranges is an issue of growing importance, due to the accumulation in soils of contaminants derived from ammunition and clay targets. The concentration of Pb and PAHs was determined in five soils of an abandoned shooting range in Galicia (northwest Spain), and an ecotoxicological characterization was performed in order to obtain an assessment of risks. Therefore, the retention capacity of soils was assessed using test organisms of different trophic levels, and the role of soils as habitat for soil invertebrates was assessed by reproduction tests and bioaccumulation assays with earthworms...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Faten K Abd El-Hady, Walid Fayad, Carmine Iodice, Zeinab A El-Shahid, Mohamed S Abdel-Aziz, Egle Crudele, Giuseppina Tommonaro
Marine organisms have been considered as the richest sources of novel bioactive metabolites, which can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. In the last years, the interest for marine microorganisms has grown for their enormous biodiversity and for the evidence that many novel compounds isolated from marine invertebrates are really synthesized by their associated bacteria. Nevertheless, the discovery of a chemical communication Quorum sensing (QS) between bacterial cells and between bacteria and host has gained the researchers to expand the aim of their study toward the role of bacteria associated with marine invertebrates, such as marine sponge...
October 14, 2016: Current Microbiology
Adam Capon, Margaret Rolfe, James Gillespie, Wayne Smith
INTRODUCTION: Manufactured nanomaterials in Australia are managed predominantly through existing chemical regulatory frameworks. Many Australian government regulators have suggested the framing of manufactured nanomaterials as 'chemicals' when communicating about manufactured nanomaterials to the general public. This paper aims to determine whether the Australian public perception of manufactured nanomaterials differs to that of 'chemicals', and to examine the relationship between attitudes towards chemicals and perceptions of nanomaterial risk...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Nambin Yim, Chulhee Choi
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are natural carriers of biomolecules that play central roles in cell-to-cell communications. Based on this, there have been many attempts to use EVs as therapeutic drug carriers. Various macromolecules, from chemical reagents to nucleic acids, were successfully loaded into EVs; however, loading of proteins with high molecular weight has been huddled with several problems. Purification of recombinant proteins is expensive and time consuming, and easily results in modification of proteins by physical or chemical forces...
October 13, 2016: BMB Reports
Shahzad Hussain, Zainab Khattak, Sidra Mahmood, Farnaz Malik, Humayun Riaz, Syed Atif Raza, Samiullah Khan
The microbial and chemical analysis of illicit drug samples from different areas of Pakistan i.e. Quetta, Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad was conducted in a cross-sectional study at National Institute of Health, Islamabad. The drug samples were confiscated by Anti Narcotics Force (ANF), Pakistan. Microbial analysis was done by estimating bioburden which revealed the presence of gram negative and positive bacteria's, fungus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus species. Trypton soya agar was used for total aerobic count, MacConkey agar for gram-negative bacteria, Sabouraud dextrose agar for fungus and Vogel-Johnson agar for Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Konrad Gizynski, Gerd Gruenert, Peter Dittrich, Jerzy Gorecki
Unconventional computing devices operating on nonlinear chemical media offer an interesting alternative to standard, semiconductor-based computers. In this work we study in-silico a chemical medium composed of communicating droplets that functions as a database classifier. The droplet network can be "programmed" by an externally provided illumination pattern. The complex relationship between the illumination pattern and the droplet behavior makes manual programming hard. We introduce an evolutionary algorithm that automatically finds the optimal illumination pattern for a given classification problem...
October 11, 2016: Evolutionary Computation
Divesh K Baxani, Alex J L Morgan, William D Jamieson, Christopher J Allender, David A Barrow, Oliver K Castell
The ability to make artificial lipid bilayers compatible with a wide range of environments, and with sufficient structural rigidity for manual handling, would open up a wealth of opportunities for their more routine use in real-world applications. Although droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) have been demonstrated in a host of laboratory applications, from chemical logic to biosynthesis reaction vessels, their wider use is hampered by a lack of mechanical stability and the largely manual methods employed in their production...
October 11, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Cintia A Oi, Jocelyn G Millar, Jelle S van Zweden, Tom Wenseleers
Social insects are known for their reproductive division of labor between queens and workers, whereby queens lay the majority of the colony's eggs, and workers engage mostly in non-reproductive tasks. Queens produce pheromones that signal their presence and fertility to workers, which in turn generally remain sterile. Recently, it has been discovered that specific queen-characteristic cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) function as queen pheromones across multiple lineages of social insects. In the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, several long-chain linear alkanes and 3-methylalkanes were shown to act as queen signals...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Antoine Boullis, Claire Detrain, Frédéric Francis, François J Verheggen
Understanding how climate change will affect species interactions is a challenge for all branches of ecology. We have only limited understanding of how increasing temperature and atmospheric CO2 and O3 levels will affect pheromone-mediated communication among insects. Based on the existing literature, we suggest that the entire process of pheromonal communication, from production to behavioural response, is likely to be impacted by increases in temperature and modifications to atmospheric CO2 and O3 levels...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Aurelio P Nardozza, Andreas G Ladurner
DNA damage induces chemical and structural changes in our chromatin-embedded genome. In a recent issue of Nature Communications, Grundy et al. (2016) identify a role for PARP3 in the repair of single-strand breaks and reveal that PARP3 mono-ADP-ribosylates nucleosomal histone H2B.
October 6, 2016: Molecular Cell
Xiaolong Luo, Thanh Vo, Fahad Jambi, Phu Pham, John S Choy
We report an in situ biofabrication strategy that conveniently partitions microfluidic networks into physically separated while chemically communicating microchannels with semipermeable biopolymer membranes, which enable the facile generation of static gradients for biomedical applications. The biofabrication of parallel biopolymer membranes was initiated with the dissipation of trapped air bubbles in parallel apertures in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices, followed by tunable membrane growth with precise temporal and spatial control to the desired thickness...
September 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Seon Joo Park, Seung Hwan Lee, Heehong Yang, Chul Soon Park, Chang-Soo Lee, Oh Seok Kwon, Tai Hyun Park, Jyongsik Jang
In the brain and central nervous system, dopamine plays a crucial function as a neurotransmitter or a local chemical messenger for interneuronal communication. Dopamine is associated with renal, hormonal, and cardiovascular systems. Additionally, dopamine dysfunction is known to cause serious illnesses, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, dopamine detection is essential for medical diagnosis and disease prevention, which require a novel strategy with high sensitivity and selectivity, and with a rapid response...
October 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yuanzhao Ding, Yufan Zhou, Juan Yao, Craig Szymanski, James K Fredrickson, Liang Shi, Bin Cao, Zihua Zhu, Xiao-Ying Yu
Molecular mapping of live biofilms at submicron resolution presents a grand challenge. Here, we present the first chemical mapping results of biofilm extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) components in biofilms using correlative imaging be-tween super resolution florescence microscopy and liquid time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). She-wanella oneidensis is used as a model organism. Heavy metal anions chromate (Cr2O72-) consisting of chromium Cr (VI) was a model environmental stressor used to treat the biofilms...
October 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Jongcheol Yang, Goeun Choe, Sumi Yang, Hyerim Jo, Jae Young Lee
BACKGROUND: Hydrogels that possess hydrophilic and soft characteristics have been widely used in various biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering scaffolds and drug delivery. Conventional hydrogels are not electrically conductive and thus their electrical communication with biological systems is limited. METHOD: To create electrically conductive hydrogels, we fabricated composite hydrogels of hyaluronic acid and polypyrrole. In particular, we synthesized and used pyrrole-hyaluronic acid-conjugates and further chemically polymerized polypyrrole with the conjugates for the production of conductive hydrogels that can display suitable mechanical and structural properties...
2016: Biomaterials Research
Barry K Lavine, Collin G White, Matthew D Allen, Andrew Weakley
Multilayered automotive paint fragments, which are one of the most complex materials encountered in the forensic science laboratory, provide crucial links in criminal investigations and prosecutions. To determine the origin of these paint fragments, forensic automotive paint examiners have turned to the paint data query (PDQ) database, which allows the forensic examiner to compare the layer sequence and color, texture, and composition of the sample to paint systems of the original equipment manufacturer (OEM)...
October 5, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
Zhudong Liu, Yucui Xin, Bingbing Xu, Kenneth F Raffa, Jianghua Sun
For insects that aggregate on host plants, both attraction and antiaggregation among conspecifics can be important mechanisms for overcoming host resistance and avoiding overcrowding, respectively. These mechanisms can involve multiple sensory modalities, such as sound and pheromones. We explored how acoustic and chemical signals are integrated by the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens to limit aggregation in China. In its native North American range, this insect conducts nonlethal attacks on weakened trees at very low densities, but in its introduced zone in China, it uses mixtures of host tree compounds and the pheromone component frontalin to mass attack healthy trees...
October 5, 2016: Chemical Senses
J C Polonio, A D Polli, J L Azevedo, J A Pamphile
Endophytic microorganisms, mainly bacteria and fungi, have intrinsic relationships with the host plants, involving complex chemical and genetic communication networks. The relationship among these organisms involves the development of regulatory mechanisms of gene expression that control their development and response to different interactions. Although RNA molecules are already being used in studies of microorganism diversity and taxonomy, for example, using comparisons of rRNA regions, they may also be useful tools in the exploration of gene regulation and modeling of other molecules, such as the analysis of microRNA and small interfering RNAs...
September 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Hans Reynders, Ann Colles, Bert Morrens, Maja Mampaey, Dries Coertjens, Gudrun Koppen, Greet Schoeters, Ilse Loots, Hana Chovanova, Wim Winderickx, Karen Van Campenhout
Since 2002, the Flemish Government decided to carry out the Flemish Environment and Health Survey (FLEHS), an extended human biomonitoring (HBM) program, which is integrated in the environmental health policy. Through the FLEHS studies, a vast amount of data such as biomarkers of exposure and effect, exposure-effect associations, time trends and geographical differences, became available to the Flemish policy makers. In order to facilitate the policy interpretation, a phased action-plan was developed collaboratively by FLEHS researchers and policy makers...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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