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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098821/tumor-microenvironment-modulation-via-gold-nanoparticles-targeting-malicious-exosomes-implications-for-cancer-diagnostics-and-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Catarina Roma-Rodrigues, Luís R Raposo, Rita Cabral, Fabiana Paradinha, Pedro V Baptista, Alexandra R Fernandes
Exosomes are nanovesicles formed in the endosomal pathway with an important role in paracrine and autocrine cell communication. Exosomes secreted by cancer cells, malicious exosomes, have important roles in tumor microenvironment maturation and cancer progression. The knowledge of the role of exosomes in tumorigenesis prompted a new era in cancer diagnostics and therapy, taking advantage of the use of circulating exosomes as tumor biomarkers due to their stability in body fluids and targeting malignant exosomes' release and/or uptake to inhibit or delay tumor development...
January 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097605/elevated-carbon-dioxide-concentration-reduces-alarm-signaling-in-aphids
#2
Antoine Boullis, Bérénice Fassotte, Landry Sarles, Georges Lognay, Stéphanie Heuskin, Maryse Vanderplanck, Stefan Bartram, Eric Haubruge, Frédéric Francis, François J Verheggen
Insects often rely on olfaction to communicate with conspecifics. While the chemical language of insects has been deciphered in recent decades, few studies have assessed how changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations might impact pheromonal communication in insects. Here, we hypothesize that changes in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide affect the whole dynamics of alarm signaling in aphids, including: (1) the production of the active compound (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf), (2) emission behavior when under attack, (3) perception by the olfactory apparatus, and (4) the escape response...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094501/artificial-cells-synthetic-compartments-with-life-like-functionality-and-adaptivity
#3
Bastiaan C Buddingh', Jan C M van Hest
Cells are highly advanced microreactors that form the basis of all life. Their fascinating complexity has inspired scientists to create analogs from synthetic and natural components using a bottom-up approach. The ultimate goal here is to assemble a fully man-made cell that displays functionality and adaptivity as advanced as that found in nature, which will not only provide insight into the fundamental processes in natural cells but also pave the way for new applications of such artificial cells. In this Account, we highlight our recent work and that of others on the construction of artificial cells...
January 17, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093986/antimicrobial-polymers-mimicking-amino-acid-functionality-sequence-control-and-three-dimensional-structure-of-host-defense-peptides
#4
Matthias Hartlieb, Elizabeth G L Williams, Agnès Kuroki, Sébastien Perrier, Katherine E S Locock
Peptides and proteins control and direct all aspects of cellular function and communication. Having been honed by nature for millions of years, they also typically display an unsurpassed specificity for their biological targets. This underlies the continued focus on peptides as promising drug candidates. However, the development of peptides into viable drugs is hampered by their lack of chemical and pharmacokinetic stability and the cost of large scale production. One method to overcome such hindrances is to develop polymer systems that are able to retain the important structural features of these biologically active peptides, while being cheaper and easier to produce and manipulate chemically...
January 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088752/microfluidic-approaches-for-isolation-detection-and-characterization-of-extracellular-vesicles-current-status-and-future-directions
#5
REVIEW
Shima Gholizadeh, Mohamed Shehata Draz, Maryam Zarghooni, Amir Sanati-Nezhad, Saeid Ghavami, Hadi Shafiee, Mohsen Akbari
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived vesicles present in body fluids that play an essential role in various cellular processes, such as intercellular communication, inflammation, cellular homeostasis, survival, transport, and regeneration. Their isolation and analysis from body fluids have a great clinical potential to provide information on a variety of disease states such as cancer, cardiovascular complications and inflammatory disorders. Despite increasing scientific and clinical interest in this field, there are still no standardized procedures available for the purification, detection, and characterization of EVs...
December 30, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080210/pathogen-control-at-the-intestinal-mucosa-h2o2-to-the-rescue
#6
Ulla G Knaus, Rosanne Hertzberger, Gratiela G Pircalabioru, S Parsa M Yousefi, Filipe Branco Dos Santos
Intestinal infections are a global challenge, connected to malnutrition and inadequate hygiene in developing countries, and to expanding antibiotic resistance in developed countries. In general, a healthy host is capable of fighting off gut pathogens or at least to recover from infections quickly. The underlying protective mechanism, termed colonization resistance, is provided by indigenous commensal communities (microbiota) that are shaped and aided by the host's epithelial and innate immune system. (1) Commensal-pathogen interactions are governed by competition for a suitable niche for replication and stable colonization, nutrient availability, species-specific alterations of the metabolic environment, changes in oxygen tension and release of chemicals and proteinaceous toxins (bacteriocins)...
January 12, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073535/new-oxylipins-produced-at-the-end-of-a-diatom-bloom-and-their-effects-on-copepod-reproductive-success-and-gene-expression-levels
#7
Chiara Lauritano, Giovanna Romano, Vittoria Roncalli, Angela Amoresano, Carolina Fontanarosa, Mauro Bastianini, Federica Braga, Ylenia Carotenuto, Adrianna Ianora
Diatoms are dominant photosynthetic organisms in the world's oceans and are considered essential in the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. However, these unicellular organisms produce secondary metabolites deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids, collectively termed oxylipins, with negative effects on predators, such as copepods, that feed on them (e.g. reduction in survival, egg production and hatching success) and, indirectly, on higher trophic levels. Here, a multidisciplinary study (oxylipin measurements, copepod fitness, gene expression analyses, chlorophyll distribution, phytoplankton composition, physico-chemical characteristics) was carried out at the end of the spring diatom bloom in April 2011 in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea) in order to deeply investigate copepod-diatom interactions, chemical communication and response pathways...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073253/harnessing-insect-microbe-chemical-communications-to-control-insect-pests-of-agricultural-systems
#8
John J Beck, Rachel L Vannette
Insect pests cause serious economic, yield, and food safety problems to managed crops worldwide. Compounding these problems, insect pests often vector pathogenic or toxigenic microbes to plants. Previous work has considered plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions separately. Although insects are well-understood to use plant volatiles to locate hosts, microorganisms can produce distinct and abundant volatile compounds that in some cases strongly attract insects. In this paper, we focus on the microbial contribution to plant volatile blends, highlighting the compounds emitted and the potential for variation in microbial emission...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068069/re-engineering-extracellular-vesicles-as-smart-nanoscale-therapeutics
#9
James P K Armstrong, Margaret N Holme, Molly M Stevens
In the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a key cell-free strategy for the treatment of a range of pathologies, including cancer, myocardial infarction, and inflammatory diseases. Indeed, the field is rapidly transitioning from promising in vitro reports toward in vivo animal models and early clinical studies. These investigations exploit the high physicochemical stability and biocompatibility of EVs as well as their innate capacity to communicate with cells via signal transduction and membrane fusion...
January 9, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057827/phylogeny-environment-and-sexual-communication-across-the-drosophila-genus
#10
REVIEW
Jacob A Jezovit, Joel D Levine, Jonathan Schneider
Social behaviour emerges from the local environment but is constrained by the animal's life history and its evolutionary lineage. In this perspective, we consider the genus Drosophila and provide an overview of how these constraints can shape how individuals interact. Our focus is restricted to visual and chemical signals and how their use varies across species during courtship - currently the only social behaviour well-studied across many Drosophila species. We broadly categorize species into four climatic groups - cosmopolitan, tropical, temperate and arid - which serve as discussion points as we review comparative behavioural and physiological studies and relate them to the abiotic conditions of a species environment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045244/vacuum-deposited-porphyrin-protective-films-on-graphite-electrochemical-atomic-force-microscopy-investigation-during-anion-intercalation
#11
Rossella Yivlialin, Gianlorenzo Bussetti, Marta Penconi, Alberto Bossi, Franco Ciccacci, Marco Finazzi, Lamberto Duò
The development of graphene products promotes a renewed interest toward the use of graphite in addition to the historical one for its proven viability as battery electrode. However, when exposed to harsh conditions, the graphite surface ages in ways that still need to be fully characterized. In applications to batteries, to optimize the electrode performances in acid solutions, different surface functionalizations have been studied. Among them, aromatic molecules have been recently proposed. In this communication, we report on the protective effect exerted by a physical-vapor-deposited porphyrin layer...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045046/an-allosteric-conduit-facilitates-dynamic-multisite-substrate-recognition-by-the-scf-cdc4-ubiquitin-ligase
#12
Veronika Csizmok, Stephen Orlicky, Jing Cheng, Jianhui Song, Alaji Bah, Neda Delgoshaie, Hong Lin, Tanja Mittag, Frank Sicheri, Hue Sun Chan, Mike Tyers, Julie D Forman-Kay
The ubiquitin ligase SCF(Cdc4) mediates phosphorylation-dependent elimination of numerous substrates by binding one or more Cdc4 phosphodegrons (CPDs). Methyl-based NMR analysis of the Cdc4 WD40 domain demonstrates that Cyclin E, Sic1 and Ash1 degrons have variable effects on the primary Cdc4(WD40) binding pocket. Unexpectedly, a Sic1-derived multi-CPD substrate (pSic1) perturbs methyls around a previously documented allosteric binding site for the chemical inhibitor SCF-I2. NMR cross-saturation experiments confirm direct contact between pSic1 and the allosteric pocket...
January 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040487/a-waterborne-chemical-cue-from-gulf-toadfish-opsanus-beta-prompts-pulsatile-urea-excretion-in-conspecifics
#13
Jeremy Fulton, Christophe M R LeMoine, Carol Bucking, Kevin V Brix, Patrick J Walsh, M Danielle McDonald
The Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) has a fully functional ornithine urea cycle (O-UC) that allows it to excrete nitrogenous waste in the form of urea. Interestingly, urea is excreted in a pulse across the gill that lasts 1-3h and occurs once or twice a day. Both the stress hormone, cortisol, and the neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) are involved in the control of pulsatile urea excretion. This and other evidence suggests that urea pulsing may be linked to toadfish social behavior. The hypothesis of the present study was that toadfish urea pulses can be triggered by waterborne chemical cues from conspecifics...
December 28, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040473/electrochemical-reverse-engineering-a-systems-level-tool-to-probe-the-redox-based-molecular-communication-of-biology
#14
Jinyang Li, Yi Liu, Eunkyoung Kim, John C March, William E Bentley, Gregory F Payne
The intestine is the site of digestion and forms a critical interface between the host and the outside world. This interface is composed of host epithelium and a complex microbiota which is "connected" through an extensive web of chemical and biological interactions that determine the balance between health and disease for the host. This biology and the associated chemical dialogues occur within a context of a steep oxygen gradient that provides the driving force for a variety of reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions...
December 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031399/neurons-derived-from-different-brain-regions-are-inherently-different-in-vitro-a-novel-multiregional-brain-on-a-chip
#15
Stephanie Dauth, Ben M Maoz, Sean P Sheehy, Matthew A Hemphill, Tara Murty, Mary Kate Macedonia, Angie M Greer, Bogdan Budnik, Kevin Kit Parker
Brain in vitro models are critically important to developing our understanding of basic nervous system cellular physiology, potential neurotoxic effects of chemicals, and specific cellular mechanisms of many disease states. In this study, we sought to address key shortcomings of current brain in vitro models: The scarcity of comparative data for cells originating from distinct brain regions and the lack of multiregional brain in vitro models. We demonstrated that rat neurons from different brain regions exhibit unique profiles regarding their cell composition, protein expression, metabolism, and electrical activity in vitro...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030363/new-dimensions-of-connectomics-and-network-plasticity-in-the-central-nervous-system
#16
Diego Guidolin, Manuela Marcoli, Guido Maura, Luigi F Agnati
Cellular network architecture plays a crucial role as the structural substrate for the brain functions. Therefore, it represents the main rationale for the emerging field of connectomics, defined as the comprehensive study of all aspects of central nervous system connectivity. Accordingly, in the present paper the main emphasis will be on the communication processes in the brain, namely wiring transmission (WT), i.e. the mapping of the communication channels made by cell components such as axons and synapses, and volume transmission (VT), i...
December 28, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027302/stereotypical-escape-behavior-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-allows-quantification-of-effective-heat-stimulus-level
#17
Kawai Leung, Aylia Mohammadi, William S Ryu, Ilya Nemenman
A goal of many sensorimotor studies is to quantify the stimulus-behavioral response relation for specific organisms and specific sensory stimuli. This is especially important to do in the context of painful stimuli since most animals in these studies cannot easily communicate to us their perceived levels of such noxious stimuli. Thus progress on studies of nociception and pain-like responses in animal models depends crucially on our ability to quantitatively and objectively infer the sensed levels of these stimuli from animal behaviors...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008633/a-microfluidic-paper-based-device-to-assess-acetylcholinesterase-activity
#18
Chunye Liu, Frank A Gomez
Neurotransmitters play key roles in cell-to-cell communication. These chemical messengers are involved in many functional processes including growth, reproduction, memory, and behavior. In this communication, we describe a novel microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) to detect acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and inhibitor screening through a colorimetric analysis. The μPAD is easily fabricated via a wax printing process whereby wax is deposited onto the surface of chromatographic paper, and heated to create a hydrophobic barrier...
December 23, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005005/immediate-perception-of-a-reward-is-distinct-from-the-reward-s-long-term-salience
#19
John P McGinnis, Huoqing Jiang, Moutaz Ali Agha, Consuelo Perez Sanchez, Jeffrey J Lange, Zulin Yu, Frederic Marion-Poll, Kausik Si
Reward perception guides all aspects of animal behavior. However, the relationship between the perceived value of a reward, the latent value of a reward, and the behavioral response remains unclear. Here we report that, given a choice between two sweet and chemically similar sugars-L- and D-arabinose-Drosophila melanogaster prefers D- over L-arabinose, but forms long-term memories of L-arabinose (the isomer present in ripening fruits) more reliably. Behavioral assays indicate that L-arabinose-generated memories require sugar receptor Gr43a, and calcium imaging and electrophysiological recording indicate that L- and D-arabinose differentially activate Gr43a-expressing neurons...
December 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004641/understanding-spatial-and-temporal-patterning-of-astrocyte-calcium-transients-via-interactions-between-network-transport-and-extracellular-diffusion
#20
Elizabeth Shtrahman, Daniel Maruyama, Eva Olariu, Christian Fink, Michal Zochowski
Astrocytes form interconnected networks in the brain and communicate via calcium signaling. We investigate how modes of coupling between astrocytes influence the spatio-temporal patterns of calcium signaling within astrocyte networks and specifically how these network interactions promote coordination within this group of cells. To investigate these complex phenomena, we study reduced cultured networks of astrocytes and neurons. We image the spatial temporal patterns of astrocyte calcium activity and quantify how perturbing the coupling between astrocytes influences astrocyte activity patterns...
December 22, 2016: Physical Biology
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