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Chemical communication

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644003/chemical-sensor-based-upon-stress-induced-changes-in-the-permeability-of-a-magnetoelastic-wire
#1
Nahla A Hatab, Nichole A Crane, David K Mee, L Neville Howell, Larry R Mooney, Russell L Hallman, Michael J Sepaniak, Vincent E Lamberti
We introduce a chemical sensing technology, named ChIMES (Chemical Identification through Magneto-Elastic Sensing), that can detect a broad range of targets and that has the capability of untethered communication through a metallic or nonmetallic barrier. These features enable many applications in which penetrations into the sampled environment are unwanted or infeasible because of health, safety, or environmental concerns, such as following the decomposition of a dangerous material in a sealed container. The sensing element is passive and consists of a target response material hard-coupled to a magnetoelastic wire...
June 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643868/the-potassium-battery-a-mobile-energy-source-for-transport-processes-in-plant-vascular-tissues
#2
REVIEW
Ingo Dreyer, Judith Lucia Gomez-Porras, Janin Riedelsberger
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: Plant roots absorb potassium ions from the soil and transport them in the xylem via the transpiration stream to the shoots. There, in source tissues where sufficient chemical energy (ATP) is available, K(+) is loaded into the phloem and then transported with the phloem stream to other parts of the plant; in part, transport is also back to the roots. This, at first sight, futile cycling of K(+) has been uncovered to be part of a sophisticated mechanism that (1) enables the shoot to communicate its nutrient demand to the root, (2) contributes to the K(+) nutrition of transport phloem tissues and (3) transports energy stored in the K(+) gradient between phloem cytosol and the apoplast...
June 23, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642945/nonribosomal-peptide-synthetase-biosynthetic-clusters-of-eskape-pathogens
#3
REVIEW
Andrew M Gulick
Covering: up to 2017.Natural products are important secondary metabolites produced by bacterial and fungal species that play important roles in cellular growth and signaling, nutrient acquisition, intra- and interspecies communication, and virulence. A subset of natural products is produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), a family of large, modular enzymes that function in an assembly line fashion. Because of the pharmaceutical activity of many NRPS products, much effort has gone into the exploration of their biosynthetic pathways and the diverse products they make...
June 23, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641511/microbial-lipase-mediated-by-health-beneficial-modification-of-cholesterol-and-flavors-in-food-products-a-review
#4
Ranjana Sharma, Nivedita Sharma
BACKGROUND: The tremendous need of lipase in varied applications in biotechnological increases its economical value in food and allied industries. Lipase has an impressive number of applications viz. enhancements of flavor in food products (Cheese, butter, alcoholic beverages, milk chocolate and diet control food stuffs), detergent industry in removing oil, grease stain, organic chemical processing, textile industry, oleochemical industry, cosmetic industry and also as therapeutic agents in pharmaceutical industries...
June 14, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638084/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-chemosensory-receptor-genes-in-an-aphid-endoparasitoid-aphidius-gifuensis
#5
Zhi-Wei Kang, Hong-Gang Tian, Fang-Hua Liu, Xiang Liu, Xiang-Feng Jing, Tong-Xian Liu
Olfaction and gustation play critical roles during the host-location search process of insects. Several chemosensory receptor genes are thought to be involved in providing specificity to the olfactory sensory neuron responses. The aphid endoparasitoid, Aphidius gifuensis, has been used as a biological control agent against a variety of aphid species; this parasitoid is able to detect its target host(s) effectively during the parasitic process. To understand the mechanism of host detection in A. gifuensis, we assembled specific antennal transcriptomes of each sex through next generation sequencing technology to identify the major chemosensory receptor genes...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637918/direct-enzymatic-bioelectrocatalysis-differentiating-between-myth-and-reality
#6
REVIEW
Ross D Milton, Shelley D Minteer
Enzymatic bioelectrocatalysis is being increasingly exploited to better understand oxidoreductase enzymes, to develop minimalistic yet specific biosensor platforms, and to develop alternative energy conversion devices and bioelectrosynthetic devices for the production of energy and/or important chemical commodities. In some cases, these enzymes are able to electronically communicate with an appropriately designed electrode surface without the requirement of an electron mediator to shuttle electrons between the enzyme and electrode...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635122/sketching-the-invisible-to-predict-the-visible-from-drawing-to-modeling-in-chemistry
#7
Melanie M Cooper, Mike Stieff, Dane DeSutter
Sketching as a scientific practice goes beyond the simple act of inscribing diagrams onto paper. Scientists produce a wide range of representations through sketching, as it is tightly coupled to model-based reasoning. Chemists in particular make extensive use of sketches to reason about chemical phenomena and to communicate their ideas. However, the chemical sciences have a unique problem in that chemists deal with the unseen world of the atomic-molecular level. Using sketches, chemists strive to develop causal mechanisms that emerge from the structure and behavior of molecular-level entities, to explain observations of the macroscopic visible world...
June 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634722/three-novel-bile-alcohols-of-mature-male-sea-lamprey-petromyzon-marinus-act-as-chemical-cues-for-conspecifics
#8
Ke Li, Anne M Scott, Joseph J Riedy, Skye Fissette, Zoe E Middleton, Weiming Li
Sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, rely heavily on chemical cues that mediate their life history events, such as migration and reproduction. Here, we describe petromyzone A-C (1-3), three novel bile alcohols that are highly oxidized and sulfated, isolated from water conditioned with spermiated male sea lamprey. Structures of these compounds were unequivocally established by spectroscopic analyses and by comparison with spectra of known compounds. Electro-olfactogram recordings showed that 1 at 10(-11) M was stimulatory to the adult sea lamprey olfactory epithelium, while 2 and 3 were stimulatory at 10(-13) M...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631865/chemical-communication-between-molecules
#9
REVIEW
Patricia Remón, Uwe Pischel
In this Minireview conceptual approaches towards the communication between (supra)molecular species are illustrated. The reviewed mechanisms include photophysical communication through energy transfer and communication mediated by chemical species that are released from precursors upon application of an external stimulus. The focus is on the stimulation by (reversible) photoreactions. Special attention has been given to supramolecular systems that illustrate the idea of chemical communication and information transfer in a very descriptive manner...
June 20, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630027/talking-over-the-extracellular-matrix-how-do-cells-communicate-mechanically
#10
REVIEW
Liel Sapir, Shelly Tzlil
The communication between cells enables them to coordinate their activity and is key for the differentiation, development, and function of tissues and multicellular organisms. Cell-cell communication is discussed almost exclusively as having a chemical or electrical origin. Only recently, a new mode of cell communication was elucidated: mechanical communication through the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cells can communicate mechanically by responding either to mechanical deformations generated by their neighbors or to a change in the mechanical properties of the ECM induced by a neighboring cell...
June 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627040/a-facile-approach-toward-scalable-fabrication-of-reversible-shape-memory-polymers-with-bonded-elastomer-microphases-as-internal-stress-provider
#11
Long Fei Fan, Min Zhi Rong, Ming Qiu Zhang, Xu Dong Chen
The present communication reports a novel strategy to fabricate reversible shape-memory polymer that operates without the aid of external force on the basis of a two-phase structure design. The proof-of-concept material, crosslinked styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS, dispersed phase)/polycaprolactone-based polyurethane (PU, continuous phase) blend, possesses a closely connected microphase separation structure. That is, SBS phases are chemically bonded to crosslinked PU by means of a single crosslinking agent and two-step crosslinking process for increasing integrity of the system...
June 19, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626563/chemistry-with-semi-classical-electrons-reaction-trajectories-auto-generated-by-sub-atomistic-force-fields
#12
Chen Bai, Seyit Kale, Judith Herzfeld
For a century now, "Lewis dots" have been a mainstay of chemical thinking, teaching and communication. However, chemists have assumed that this semi-classical picture of electrons needs to be abandoned for quantitative work, and the recourse in computational simulations has been to the extremes of first principles treatments of electrons on the one hand and force fields that avoid explicit electrons on the other hand. Given both the successes and limitations of these highly divergent approaches, it seems worth considering whether the Lewis dot picture might be made quantitative after all...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623662/advances-in-the-analysis-of-water-and-wastewater-samples-using-various-sensing-protocols-and-microfluidic-devices-based-on-pad-and-%C3%AE-tas-systems
#13
Krzysztof Piaskowski, Renata Świderska-Dąbrowska, Aleksandra Kaleniecka, Paweł K Zarzycki
The main goal of this review is to summarize practical approaches concerning the application of microfluidic systems for the analysis of various biomarkers and pollutants, as well as microbes, in water and wastewater matrixes. This problem involves multidisciplinary expertise combining research knowledge from various areas, including wet chemistry, biochemistry, physical chemistry, molecular biology, genetics, signal processing, microelectronics material science, and separation science. It has been documented that fairly primitive but fast and inexpensive screening methods involving paper-based analytical devices (PADs) and micro total analytical systems (μTAS) can be considered as serious alternatives to their more advanced counterparts such as GC, HPLC, and capillary electrophoresis coupled to various sophisticated detectors (e...
June 16, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621451/knockdown-of-a-metathoracic-scent-gland-desaturase-enhances-the-production-of-e-4-oxo-2-hexenal-and-suppresses-female-sexual-attractiveness-in-the-plant-bug-adelphocoris-suturalis
#14
J Luo, Z Li, C Ma, Z Zhang, J J Hull, C Lei, S Jin, L Chen
Insect sex pheromones (SPs) are central to mate-finding behaviour, and play an essential role in the survival and reproduction of organisms. Understanding the roles, biosynthetic pathways and evolution of insect chemical communication systems has been an exciting challenge for biologists. Compared with Lepidoptera, little is known about the mechanisms underlying pheromone biosynthesis in Hemiptera. In this study, we isolated and characterized two new desaturase-like genes, termed Asutdes1 and Asutdes2, from Adelphocoris suturalis, an important agricultural pest in China...
June 16, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618121/specificity-traits-consistent-with-legume-rhizobia-coevolution-displayed-by-ensifer-meliloti-rhizosphere-colonization
#15
María Eugenia Salas, Mauricio Javier Lozano, José Luis López, Walter Draghi, Javier Serrania, Gonzalo Arturo Torres Tejerizo, Francisco Javier Albicoro, Juliet Fernanda Nilsson, Mariano Pistorio, María Florencia Del Papa, Gustavo Parisi, Anke Becker, Antonio Lagares
Rhizobia are α- and ß-Proteobacteria that associate with legumes in symbiosis to fix atmospheric nitrogen. The chemical communication between roots and rhizobia begins in the rhizosphere. Using signature-tagged-Tn5 mutagenesis (STM) we performed a genome-wide screening for Ensifer meliloti genes that participate in colonizing the rhizospheres of alfalfa and other legumes. The analysis of ca. 6,000 mutants indicated that genes relevant for rhizosphere colonization account for nearly 2% of the rhizobial genome and that most (ca...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617451/biological-and-chemical-strategies-for-exploring-inter-and-intra-kingdom-communication-mediated-via-bacterial-volatile-signals
#16
Mohamed A Farag, Geun Cheol Song, Yong-Soon Park, Bianca Audrain, Soohyun Lee, Jean-Marc Ghigo, Joseph W Kloepper, Choong-Min Ryu
Airborne chemical signals emitted by bacteria influence the behavior of other bacteria and plants. We present an overview of in vitro methods for evaluating bacterial and plant responses to bacterial volatile compounds (BVCs). Three types of equipment have been used to physically separate the bacterial test strains from either other bacterial strains or plants (in our laboratory we use either Arabidopsis or tobacco plant seedlings): a Petri dish containing two compartments (BI Petri dish); two Petri dishes connected with tubing; and a microtiter-based assay...
July 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616889/risk-communication-emergency-response-preparedness-contextual-assessment-of-the-protective-action-decision-model
#17
Robert L Heath, Jaesub Lee, Michael J Palenchar, Laura L Lemon
Studies are continuously performed to improve risk communication campaign designs to better prepare residents to act in the safest manner during an emergency. To that end, this article investigates the predictive ability of the protective action decision model (PADM), which links environmental and social cues, predecision processes (attention, exposure, and comprehension), and risk decision perceptions (threat, alternative protective actions, and stakeholder norms) with protective action decision making. This current quasi-longitudinal study of residents (N = 400 for each year) in a high-risk (chemical release) petrochemical manufacturing community investigated whether PADM core risk perceptions predict protective action decision making...
June 14, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615497/excavation-and-aggregation-as-organizing-factors-in-de-novo-construction-by-mound-building-termites
#18
Ben Green, Paul Bardunias, J Scott Turner, Radhika Nagpal, Justin Werfel
Termites construct complex mounds that are orders of magnitude larger than any individual and fulfil a variety of functional roles. Yet the processes through which these mounds are built, and by which the insects organize their efforts, remain poorly understood. The traditional understanding focuses on stigmergy, a form of indirect communication in which actions that change the environment provide cues that influence future work. Termite construction has long been thought to be organized via a putative 'cement pheromone': a chemical added to deposited soil that stimulates further deposition in the same area, thus creating a positive feedback loop whereby coherent structures are built up...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607369/social-odours-covary-with-bacterial-community-in-the-anal-secretions-of-wild-meerkats
#19
Sarah Leclaire, Staffan Jacob, Lydia K Greene, George R Dubay, Christine M Drea
The fermentation hypothesis for animal signalling posits that bacteria dwelling in an animal's scent glands metabolize the glands' primary products into odorous compounds used by the host to communicate with conspecifics. There is, however, little evidence of the predicted covariation between an animal's olfactory cues and its glandular bacterial communities. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we first identified the volatile compounds present in 'pure' versus 'mixed' anal-gland secretions ('paste') of adult meerkats (Suricata suricatta) living in the wild...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606853/proteomic-analysis-of-the-kissing-bug-rhodnius-prolixus-antenna
#20
Daniele S Oliveira, Nathalia F Brito, Fabio C S Nogueira, Monica F Moreira, Walter S Leal, Marcia R Soares, Ana C A Melo
Reception of odorants is essential in insects' life since the chemical signals in the environment (=semiochemicals) convey information about availability of hosts for a blood meal, mates for reproduction, sites for oviposition and other relevant information for fitness in the environment. Once they reach the antennae, these semiochemicals bind to odorant-binding proteins and are transported through the sensillar lymph until reach the odorant receptors. Such perireceptor events, particularly the interactions with transport proteins, are the liaison between the external environment and the entire neuroethological system and, therefore, a potential target to disrupt insect chemical communication...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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