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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331847/longitudinal-hippocampal-and-extra-hippocampal-microstructural-and-macrostructural-changes-following-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery
#1
Cameron A Elliott, Donald W Gross, B Matt Wheatley, Christian Beaulieu, Tejas Sankar
OBJECTIVES: 1) Characterize the evolution of microstructural changes in the contralateral, non-operated hippocampus-using longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-following surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). 2) Characterize the downstream extra-hippocampal volumetric changes of the fornix and mammillary bodies after TLE surgery. 3) Examine the relationship between these measures and seizure/cognitive outcome. METHODS: Serial structural and DTI brain MRI scans were collected in 25 TLE patients pre- and post-surgery (anterior temporal lobectomy, ATL - 13; selective amygdalohippocampectomy, SelAH - 12) and in 12 healthy controls...
January 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317669/selective-targeting-of-scn8a-prevents-seizure-development-in-a-mouse-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Jennifer C Wong, Christopher D Makinson, Tyra Lamar, Qi Cheng, Jeffrey C Wingard, Ernest F Terwilliger, Andrew Escayg
We previously found that genetic mutants with reduced expression or activity of Scn8a are resistant to induced seizures and that co-segregation of a mutant Scn8a allele can increase survival and seizure resistance of Scn1a mutant mice. In contrast, Scn8a expression is increased in the hippocampus following status epilepticus and amygdala kindling. These findings point to Scn8a as a promising therapeutic target for epilepsy and raise the possibility that aberrant overexpression of Scn8a in limbic structures may contribute to some epilepsies, including temporal lobe epilepsy...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310446/resting-state-fmri-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome
#3
Wu Xing, Wei Shi, Yueshuang Leng, Xianting Sun, Tingting Guan, Weihua Liao, Xiaoyi Wang
Background The involvement of the central nervous system in primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) remains controversial. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a relatively new method that can be applied to investigate the heterogeneity of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in pSS patients through regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis. Purpose To collect data from pSS patients and healthy controls, and use ReHo analysis to elucidate the neurobiological mechanism of CNS involvement in pSS. Material and Methods Fourteen clinically diagnosed pSS patients and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305037/transauricular-vagus-nerve-stimulation-at-auricular-acupoints-kindey-co10-yidan-co11-liver-co12-and-shenmen-tf4-can-induce-auditory-and-limbic-cortices-activation-measured-by-fmri
#4
Liyan Peng, Ketao Mu, Aiguo Liu, Liangqiang Zhou, Yueyue Gao, Imrit Tejvansh Shenoy, Zhigang Mei, Qingguo Chen
The purpose of this study was to explore the central mechanism of transauricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) to human by fMRI and to find a suitable taVNS site for potential tinnitus treatment. 24 healthy subjects aged between 28 and 38 years were enrolled in the experiment. 8 subjects were stimulated in the auricular acupoints Kindey (CO10), Yidan (CO11), Liver (CO12) and Shenmen (TF4) in the left ear, 8 subjects were stimulated at the anterior wall of the auditory canal and left lower limb as an anterior stimulation group; 8 persons who were arranged in a sham group received taVNS at the left ear lobe and tail of the helix...
December 24, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289531/epileptic-seizures-are-reduced-by-autonomic-biofeedback-therapy-through-enhancement-of-fronto-limbic-connectivity-a-controlled-trial-and-neuroimaging-study
#5
Yoko Nagai, Julia Aram, Matthias Koepp, Louis Lemieux, Marco Mula, Hugo Critchley, Sanjay Sisodiya, Mara Cercignani
BACKGROUND: Thirty-percent of patients with epilepsy are drug-resistant, and might benefit from effective noninvasive therapeutic interventions. Evidence is accumulating on the efficacy of autonomic biofeedback therapy using galvanic skin response (GSR; an index of sympathetic arousal) in treating epileptic seizures. This study aimed to extend previous controlled clinical trials of autonomic biofeedback therapy with a larger homogeneous sample of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition, we used neuroimaging to characterize neural mechanisms of change in seizure frequency following the therapy...
December 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247482/commonalities-in-epileptogenic-processes-from-different-acute-brain-insults-do-they-translate
#6
REVIEW
Pavel Klein, Raymond Dingledine, Eleonora Aronica, Christophe Bernard, Ingmar Blümcke, Detlev Boison, Martin J Brodie, Amy R Brooks-Kayal, Jerome Engel, Patrick A Forcelli, Lawrence J Hirsch, Rafal M Kaminski, Henrik Klitgaard, Katja Kobow, Daniel H Lowenstein, Phillip L Pearl, Asla Pitkänen, Noora Puhakka, Michael A Rogawski, Dieter Schmidt, Matti Sillanpää, Robert S Sloviter, Christian Steinhäuser, Annamaria Vezzani, Matthew C Walker, Wolfgang Löscher
The most common forms of acquired epilepsies arise following acute brain insults such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, or central nervous system infections. Treatment is effective for only 60%-70% of patients and remains symptomatic despite decades of effort to develop epilepsy prevention therapies. Recent preclinical efforts are focused on likely primary drivers of epileptogenesis, namely inflammation, neuron loss, plasticity, and circuit reorganization. This review suggests a path to identify neuronal and molecular targets for clinical testing of specific hypotheses about epileptogenesis and its prevention or modification...
December 15, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244164/cortical-and-subcortical-brain-changes-in-children-and-adolescents-with-narcolepsy-type-1
#7
Manuela Tondelli, Fabio Pizza, Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Giuseppe Plazzi, Stefano Meletti
Study Objectives: Neuroimaging studies on structural alterations in patients with type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) have shown controversial and heterogeneous results. The purpose of this study was to investigate microstructural brain changes in patients with NT1 close to disease onset. Methods: We examined cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes in 20 drug-naïve children and adolescents with NT1 compared with 19 healthy controls; whole-brain voxel-based morphometry, shape and volumetric analyses, and cortical thickness analysis were used...
December 13, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237452/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-the-family-of-feline-leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-lgi-genes-and-mutational-analysis-in-familial-spontaneous-epileptic-cats
#8
Yoshihiko Yu, Daisuke Hasegawa, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Yuji Hamamoto, Shunta Mizoguchi, Takayuki Kuwabara, Michio Fujita
BACKGROUND: Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated (LGI) proteins play a critical role in synaptic transmission. Dysfunction of these genes and encoded proteins is associated with neurological disorders such as genetic epilepsy or autoimmune limbic encephalitis in animals and human. Familial spontaneous epileptic cats (FSECs) are the only feline strain and animal model of familial temporal lobe epilepsy. The seizure semiology of FSECs comprises recurrent limbic seizures with or without evolution into generalized epileptic seizures, while cats with antibodies against voltage-gated potassium channel complexed/LGI1 show limbic encephalitis and recurrent limbic seizures...
December 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232569/source-analysis-of-epileptiform-discharges-in-absence-epilepsy-using-magnetoencephalography-meg
#9
Veeranna Gadad, Sanjib Sinha, Narayanan Mariyappa, Jayabal Velmurugan, G Chaitanya, Jitender Saini, Kandivel Thennarasu, Parthasarathy Satishchandra
PURPOSE: Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to record and localize the sources of the epileptiform discharges, in absence epilepsy, at three different time intervals to infer the sources of involvement during generation and propagation. METHODS: Twenty patients with absence epilepsy (M:F=1:1; age: 10.2±3.4years), which included 12 patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and 8 patients with juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE), were recruited in this prospective MEG based study...
December 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223539/losartan-suppresses-the-kainate-induced-changes-of-angiotensin-at1-receptor-expression-in-a-model-of-comorbid-hypertension-and-epilepsy
#10
Dimitrinka Atanasova, Jana Tchekalarova, Natasha Ivanova, Zlatina Nenchovska, Ekaterina Pavlova, Nina Atanassova, Nikolai Lazarov
AIMS: Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that components of renin-angiotensin system are elevated in the hippocampus in epileptogenic conditions. In the present work, we explored the changes in the expression of angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AT1 receptor) in limbic structures, as well as the effect of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan in a model of comorbid hypertension and epilepsy. MAIN METHODS: The expression of AT1 receptors was compared between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar rats by using immunohistochemistry in the kainate (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
December 6, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213509/comparative-analysis-of-the-electroencephalogram-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-diffuse-axonal-injury-patients-and-healthy-controls-using-loreta-analysis
#11
Jéssica Natuline Ianof, Francisco José Fraga, Leonardo Alves Ferreira, Renato Teodoro Ramos, José Luiz Carlos Demario, Regina Baratho, Luís Fernando Hindi Basile, Ricardo Nitrini, Renato Anghinah
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a dementia that affects a large contingent of the elderly population characterized by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a non-degenerative injury caused by an external mechanical force. One of the main causes of TBI is diffuse axonal injury (DAI), promoted by acceleration-deceleration mechanisms. Objective: To understand the electroencephalographic differences in functional mechanisms between AD and DAI groups...
April 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199095/analysis-of-white-matter-characteristics-with-tract-based-spatial-statistics-according-to-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-early-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Xiang-Rong Li, Yan-De Ren, Bo Cao, Xuan-Li Huang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the microstructure of brain white matter according to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based on tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) in early Parkinson's disease (PD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 31 age- and sex-matched early PD patients and 22 healthy volunteers were recruited in the present study. DTI was performed, and the data analyzed with fsl4.0 software. The fractional anisotropy (FA) was compared between both groups with an independent t test, and the differential area was analyzed...
November 30, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175201/neuroanatomical-substrate-of-noise-sensitivity
#13
Marina Kliuchko, Tuomas Puoliväli, Marja Heinonen-Guzejev, Mari Tervaniemi, Petri Toiviainen, Mikko Sams, Elvira Brattico
Recent functional studies suggest that noise sensitivity, a trait describing attitudes towards noise and predicting noise annoyance, is associated with altered processing in the central auditory system. In the present work, we examined whether noise sensitivity could be related to the structural anatomy of auditory and limbic brain areas. Anatomical MR brain images of 80 subjects were parcellated with FreeSurfer to measure grey matter volume, cortical thickness, cortical area and folding index of anatomical structures in the temporal lobe and insular cortex...
November 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155879/subtypes-of-breast-cancer-show-different-spatial-distributions-of-brain-metastases
#14
Sunghyon Kyeong, Yoon Jin Cha, Sung Gwe Ahn, Sang Hyun Suh, Eun Ju Son, Sung Jun Ahn
The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that the spatial distribution of breast cancer brain metastases (BM) differ according to their biological subtypes. MR images of 100 patients with BM from primary breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided according to the biological subtype of the primary tumor, (triple-negative: 24, HER2 positive: 48, luminal: 28). All images marked with BMs were standardized to the human brain MRI atlas provided by the Montreal Neurological Institute 152 database...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145186/the-kl%C3%A3-ver-bucy-syndrome
#15
Douglas J Lanska
In 1937, Heinrich Klüver and Paul Bucy described a dramatic behavioral syndrome in monkeys after bilateral temporal lobectomy. The full Klüver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) - hyperorality, placidity, hypermetamorphosis, dietary changes, altered sexual behavior, and visual agnosia - is evident within 3 weeks following operation. Some KBS features (i.e., hyperorality, placidity, hypermetamorphosis) persist indefinitely, whereas others gradually resolve over several years. Klüver and Bucy were initially unaware of an earlier report of KBS by Sanger Brown and Edward Schäfer in 1888...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107610/altered-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#16
Min Jung Koh, Jaeho Seol, Jee In Kang, Bong-Soo Kim, Kee Namkoong, Jin Woo Chang, Se Joo Kim
Aberrant cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuits have been implicated in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the neurobiological basis of OCD remains unclear. We compared patterns of functional connectivity in patients with OCD and in healthy controls using resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG). Participants comprised 24 patients with OCD (21 men, 3 women) and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (19 men, 3 women). Resting-state measurements were obtained over a 6-min period using a 152-channel whole-head MEG system...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101217/epigenetic-histone-deacetylation-inhibition-prevents-the-development-and-persistence-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Sandesh D Reddy, Bryan C Clossen, Doodipala Samba Reddy
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease characterized by repeated unprovoked seizures. Currently, no drug therapy exists for curing epilepsy or disease-modification in people at risk. Despite several emerging mechanisms, there have been few studies of epigenetic signaling in epileptogenesis, the process whereby a normal brain becomes progressively epileptic because of precipitating factors. Here, we report a novel role of histone deacetylation as critical epigenetic mechanism in epileptogenesis. Experiments were conducted using the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate in the hippocampus kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a classic model heavily used to approve drugs for treatment of epilepsy...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093718/selective-limbic-blood-brain-barrier-breakdown-in-a-feline-model-of-limbic-encephalitis-with-lgi1-antibodies
#18
Anna R Tröscher, Andrea Klang, Maria French, Lucía Quemada-Garrido, Sibylle Maria Kneissl, Christian G Bien, Ákos Pákozdy, Jan Bauer
Human leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 encephalitis (LGI1) is an autoimmune limbic encephalitis in which serum and cerebrospinal fluid contain antibodies targeting LGI1, a protein of the voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex. Recently, we showed that a feline model of limbic encephalitis with LGI1 antibodies, called feline complex partial seizures with orofacial involvement (FEPSO), is highly comparable to human LGI1 encephalitis. In human LGI1 encephalitis, neuropathological investigations are difficult because very little material is available...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093543/a-study-of-the-brain-functional-network-of-post-stroke-depression-in-three-different-lesion-locations
#19
Yu Shi, Yanyan Zeng, Lei Wu, Ziping Liu, Shanshan Zhang, Jianming Yang, Wen Wu
Research on the mechanism of post stroke depression (PSD) is the key way to improve the treatment of PSD. However, the functional brain network of PSD has not been entirely supported by the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The aims of this study are to investigate the brain response of PSD in three different lesions. The brain responses of the three PSD subgroups were similar. However, each subgroup had its own characteristics of the brain network. In the temporal lobe subgroup, the right thalamus had increased degree centrality (DC) values which were different from the other two subgroups...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082505/long-term-effect-of-intensive-lifestyle-intervention-on-cerebral-blood-flow
#20
Mark A Espeland, Jose A Luchsinger, Rebecca H Neiberg, Owen Carmichael, Paul J Laurienti, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Rena R Wing, Delilah Cook, Edward Horton, Ramon Casanova, Kirk Erickson, R Nick Bryan
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether long-term behavioral intervention targeting weight loss through increased physical activity and reduced caloric intake would alter cerebral blood flow (CBF) in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Postrandomization assessment of CBF. SETTING: Action for Health in Diabetes multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were overweight or obese and aged 45 to 76 (N = 310)...
October 30, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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