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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878366/widespread-tau-seeding-activity-at-early-braak-stages
#1
Jennifer L Furman, Jaime Vaquer-Alicea, Charles L White, Nigel J Cairns, Peter T Nelson, Marc I Diamond
Transcellular propagation of tau aggregates may underlie the progression of pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Braak staging (B1, B2, B3) is based on phospho-tau accumulation within connected brain regions: entorhinal cortex (B1); hippocampus/limbic system (B2); and frontal and parietal lobes (B3). We previously developed a specific and sensitive assay that uses flow cytometry to quantify tissue seeding activity based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in cells that stably express tau reporter proteins...
November 22, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872691/locally-estimated-hemodynamic-response-function-and-activation-detection-sensitivity-in-heroin-cue-reactivity-study
#2
Somayeh Maleki-Balajoo, Gholam-Ali Hossein-Zadeh, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamed Ekhtiari
INTRODUCTION: A fixed hemodynamic response function (HRF) is commonly used for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis. However, HRF may vary from region to region and subject to subject. We investigated the effect of locally estimated HRF (in functionally homogenous parcels) on activation detection sensitivity in a heroin cue reactivity study. METHODS: We proposed a novel exploratory method for brain parcellation based on a probabilistic model to segregate the brain into spatially connected and functionally homogeneous components...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869064/transdiagnostic-brain-responses-to-disorder-related-threat-across-four-psychiatric-disorders
#3
K Feldker, C Y Heitmann, P Neumeister, S V Tupak, E Schrammen, R Moeck, P Zwitserlood, M Bruchmann, T Straube
BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing debate whether transdiagnostic neural mechanisms are shared by different anxiety-related disorders or whether different disorders show distinct neural correlates. To investigate this issue, studies controlling for design and stimuli across multiple anxiety-related disorders are needed. METHOD: The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated neural correlates of visual disorder-related threat processing across unmedicated patients suffering from panic disorder (n = 20), social anxiety disorder (n = 20), dental phobia (n = 16) and post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 11) relative to healthy controls (HC; n = 67)...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865173/accelerated-cognitive-decline-in-a-rodent-model-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#4
Sandra Schipper, Marlien W Aalbers, Kim Rijkers, Melanie Lagiere, Jan G Bogaarts, Arjan Blokland, Sylvia Klinkenberg, Govert Hoogland, Johan S H Vles
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is frequently observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. It is hypothesized that cumulative seizure exposure causes accelerated cognitive decline in patients with epilepsy. We investigated the influence of seizure frequency on cognitive decline in a rodent model for temporal lobe epilepsy. METHODS: Neurobehavioral assessment was performed before and after surgery, after the induction of self-sustaining limbic status epilepticus (SSLSE), and in the chronic phase in which rats experienced recurrent seizures...
November 16, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852375/-study-of-functional-connectivity-density-mapping-in-patients-with-acute-stress-response-by-using-resting-state-functional-mri-after-traffic-accident
#5
Y F Weng, R F Qi, X D Zhang, L Zhang, J Ke, Y Zhong, F Chen, Q Xu, G M Lu
Objective: To explore the changes of brain activity in traffic accident survivors with acute stress response within a week by using functional connectivity density (FCD) method. Method: A total of 20 traffic accidents survivors with acute stress disorders (acute stress disorder interview >3) and twenty healthy controls from Nanjing Jinling Hospital underwent the 3.0 T resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan from January 2013 to February 2016. Functional connectivity density mapping was used to compare the brain functional connective networks between acute stress response survivors and controls...
November 8, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833549/impaired-white-matter-connections-of-the-limbic-system-networks-associated-with-impaired-emotional-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Xiaoshu Li, Haibao Wang, Yanghua Tian, Shanshan Zhou, Xiaohu Li, Kai Wang, Yongqiang Yu
Background: Discrepancies persist regarding retainment of emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.In addition, the neural mechanisms are still poorly understood, little is known about emotional memory related changes in white matter (WM). Objective: To observe whether EEM is absent in amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD patients, and to investigate if emotional memory is associated with WM connections and gray matters (GM) of the limbic system networks...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797805/disconnection-between-the-default-mode-network-and-medial-temporal-lobes-in-post-traumatic-amnesia
#7
Sara De Simoni, Patrick J Grover, Peter O Jenkins, Lesley Honeyfield, Rebecca A Quest, Ewan Ross, Gregory Scott, Mark H Wilson, Paulina Majewska, Adam D Waldman, Maneesh C Patel, David J Sharp
Post-traumatic amnesia is very common immediately after traumatic brain injury. It is characterized by a confused, agitated state and a pronounced inability to encode new memories and sustain attention. Clinically, post-traumatic amnesia is an important predictor of functional outcome. However, despite its prevalence and functional importance, the pathophysiology of post-traumatic amnesia is not understood. Memory processing relies on limbic structures such as the hippocampus, parahippocampus and parts of the cingulate cortex...
October 22, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792884/altered-basal-ganglia-cortical-functional-connections-in-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#8
Li Dong, Pu Wang, Rui Peng, Sisi Jiang, Benjamin Klugah-Brown, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate alterations of basal ganglia-cortical functional connections in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). METHOD: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were gathered from 19 FLE patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Functional connectivity (FC) analysis was used to assess the functional connections between basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. Regions of interest, including the left/right caudate, putamen, pallidum and thalamus, were selected as the seeds...
October 24, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765861/brain-fdg-pet-metabolic-abnormalities-in-patients-with-long-lasting-macrophagic-myofasciitis
#9
Axel Van Der Gucht, Mehdi Aoun Sebaiti, Eric Guedj, Jessie Aouizerate, Sabrina Yara, Romain Gherardi, Eva Evangelista, Julia Chalaye, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Antoine Verger, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, Emmanuel Itti, Francois Jerome Authier
PURPOSE: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with specific muscle lesions characterized by an abnormal long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide particles within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Patients present with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to characterize brain FDG-PET metabolic abnormalities in MMF patients, and the relation with cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: FDG-PET brain imaging and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were performed in 100 consecutive MMF patients (mean age, 45...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717669/the-lgi1-adam22-protein-complex-in-synaptic-transmission-and-synaptic-disorders
#10
Yuko Fukata, Norihiko Yokoi, Yuri Miyazaki, Masaki Fukata
Physiological functioning of the brain requires fine-tuned synaptic transmission, and its dysfunction causes various brain disorders such as autism, dementia, and epilepsy. It is therefore extremely important to identify and characterize key regulators of synaptic function. In particular, disease-related synaptic proteins, such as autism-related neurexin-neuroligin and psychiatric disorder-related NMDA receptor, have attracted considerable attention. Recent basic and clinical research has highlighted critical roles of a ligand-receptor complex, LGI1-ADAM22, in synaptic transmission and brain function, as mutations in the LGI1 gene cause autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy and autoantibodies to LGI1 cause limbic encephalitis which is characterized by memory loss and seizures...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685801/prefrontal-cortex-temporal-cortex-and-hippocampus-volume-are-affected-in-suicidal-psychiatric-patients
#11
Savannah N Gosnell, Kenia M Velasquez, David L Molfese, Peter J Molfese, Alok Madan, James C Fowler, B Christopher Frueh, Philip R Baldwin, Ramiro Salas
Suicide is a leading cause of death in America, with over 40,000 reported suicides per year. Mental illness is a major risk factor for suicidality. This study attempts to validate findings of volumetric differences from studies on suicidality. Psychiatric inpatients classified as having mildly severe or severe depression were separated into two groups: suicide attempted in the past two months (SA; n=20), non-suicidal control group (DA; n=20); these patients were all depressed and not significantly different for age, gender, race, marital status, education level, anxiety level, and substance abuse...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659830/clinical-considerations-and-surgical-approaches-for-low-grade-gliomas-in-deep-hemispheric-locations-insular-lesions
#12
J Hinojosa, S Gil-Robles, B Pascual
Insula and paralimbic region represent a common location for gliomas in adulthood. However, limbic and paralimbic tumors are rare in children. Reports of pediatric insular tumors are scarce in literature, and most of them are included in adult's series, so their management and outcome can be outlined only after extracting data from these reports. Due to their predominantly low grade, they usually have a benign course for some time, what make them ideal candidates for total resection. However, their intricate location and spread to key areas, including the temporal lobe, make them a surgical challenge...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639862/functional-alterations-of-fronto-limbic-circuit-and-default-mode-network-systems-in-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-fmri-data
#13
Xue Zhong, Weidan Pu, Shuqiao Yao
BACKGROUND: The neurobiological mechanisms of depression are increasingly being explored through resting-state brain imaging studies. However, resting-state fMRI findings have varied, perhaps because of differences between study populations, which included the disorder course and medication use. The aim of our study was to integrate studies of resting-state fMRI and explore the alterations of abnormal brain activity in first-episode, drug-naïve patients with major depressive disorder...
December 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590077/voltage-gated-potassium-channel-antibody-limbic-encephalitis-a-case-illustrating-the-neuropsychiatric-and-pet-ct-features-with-clinical-and-imaging-follow-up
#14
Liesl Celliers, Te-Jui Hung, Zeyad Al-Ogaili, Girolamo Moschilla, Wally Knezevic
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the neuropsychiatric and imaging findings in a confirmed case of voltage-gated potassium channel antibody limbic encephalitis. METHOD: Case report and review of the literature. RESULTS: A 64-year-old man presented with several months' history of obsessive thoughts and compulsions associated with faciobrachial dystonic seizures. He had no significant past medical and psychiatric history. Physical examinations revealed only mildly increased tone in the left upper limb...
September 2, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566001/neuropsychological-and-fdg-pet-profiles-in-vgkc-autoimmune-limbic-encephalitis
#15
Alessandra Dodich, Chiara Cerami, Sandro Iannaccone, Alessandra Marcone, Pierpaolo Alongi, Chiara Crespi, Nicola Canessa, Francesca Andreetta, Andrea Falini, Stefano F Cappa, Daniela Perani
BACKGROUND: Limbic encephalitis (LE) is characterized by an acute or subacute onset with memory impairments, confusional state, behavioral disorders, variably associated with seizures and dystonic movements. It is due to inflammatory processes that selectively affect the medial temporal lobe structures. Voltage-gate potassium channel (VGKC) autoantibodies are frequently observed. In this study, we assessed at the individual level FDG-PET brain metabolic dysfunctions and neuropsychological profiles in three autoimmune LE cases seropositive for neuronal VGKC-complex autoantibodies...
October 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559482/-18-f-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-scan-should-be-obtained-early-in-cases-of-autoimmune-encephalitis
#16
C R Newey, A Sarwal, S Hantus
Introduction. Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a clinically challenging diagnosis with nonspecific neurological symptoms. Prompt diagnosis is important and often relies on neuroimaging. We present a case series of AE highlighting the importance of an early [(18)F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan. Methods. Retrospective review of seven consecutive cases of autoimmune encephalitis. Results. All patients had both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FDG-PET scans. Initial clinical presentations included altered mental status and/or new onset seizures...
2016: Autoimmune Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558524/effective-connectivity-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#17
K M Park, S E Kim, K J Shin, S Y Ha, J Park, T H Kim, C W Mun, B I Lee, S E Kim
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis (HS) showed differences in their limbic networks. This study aimed to evaluate the role of the thalamus in TLE patients with HS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine TLE patients with HS and 30 controls were enrolled in this study. In addition, we included eight TLE patients without HS as a disease control group. Using whole-brain T1-weighted MRIs, we analyzed the volumes of the limbic structures, including the hippocampus, thalamus, and total cortex, with FreeSurfer 5...
August 24, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536237/the-alterations-of-cortical-volume-thickness-surface-and-density-in-the-intermediate-sporadic-parkinson-s-disease-from-the-han-population-of-mainland-china
#18
Xia Deng, Meihong Zhou, Chunyan Tang, Jie Zhang, Lei Zhu, Zunchun Xie, Honghan Gong, Xiangzuo Xiao, Renshi Xu
Many symptoms of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD) can't be completely explained by the lesion of simple typical extrapyramidal circuit between striatum and substantia nigra. Therefore, we investigated the alteration of cortical volume, thickness, surface, and density in the intermediate sPD from the Han population of Mainland China in order to find the new pathological brain regions associated with the complex clinical manifestations of sPD. The cortical volume, thickness, surface and density were examined using the voxel-based cortical morphometry and corticometry on magnetic resonance image (MRI) in 67 intermediate sPD and 35 controls, the multiple adjusted comparisons analysis of all MRI data were employed to assess the relationships between the cortical morphometric alteration in the specific brain regions and sPD...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479777/ictal-fear-associations-with-age-gender-and-other-experiential-phenomena
#19
Derek J Chong, Patricia Dugan
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of fear to other auras and to gender and age using a large database. METHODS: The Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project (EPGP) is a multicenter, multicontinental cross-sectional study in which ictal symptomatology and other data were ascertained in a standardized series of questionnaires then corroborated by epilepsy specialists. Auras were classified into subgroups of symptoms, with ictal fear, panic, or anxiety as a single category...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476690/the-microsurgical-and-tractographic-anatomy-of-the-supplementary-motor-area-complex-in-human
#20
Baran Bozkurt, Kaan Yagmurlu, Erik H Middlebrooks, Ali Karadag, Talat Cem Ovalioglu, Bharathi Jagadeesan, Gauravjot Sandhu, Necmettin Tanriover, Andrew W Grande
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microsurgical anatomy of the fiber tract connections of the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas, and its potential functional role with reference to clinical trials in the literature. METHODS: 10 postmortem formalin-fixed human brains (20 sides) and 1 cadaveric head were prepared with Klingler's method. The fiber dissection was performed in a stepwise fashion, both from lateral to medial and medial to lateral under an operating microscope with 3D images captured at every stage...
July 28, 2016: World Neurosurgery
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