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Limbic lobe

Axel Van Der Gucht, Mehdi Aoun Sebaiti, Eric Guedj, Jessie Aouizerate, Sabrina Yara, Romain Gherardi, Eva Evangelista, Julia Chalaye, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Antoine Verger, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, Emmanuel Itti, Francois Jerome Authier
PURPOSE: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with specific muscle lesions characterized by an abnormal long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide particles within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Patients present with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to characterize brain FDG-PET metabolic abnormalities in MMF patients, and the relation with cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: FDG-PET brain imaging and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were performed in 100 consecutive MMF patients (mean age, 45...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Yuko Fukata, Norihiko Yokoi, Yuri Miyazaki, Masaki Fukata
Physiological functioning of the brain requires fine-tuned synaptic transmission, and its dysfunction causes various brain disorders such as autism, dementia, and epilepsy. It is therefore extremely important to identify and characterize key regulators of synaptic function. In particular, disease-related synaptic proteins, such as autism-related neurexin-neuroligin and psychiatric disorder-related NMDA receptor, have attracted considerable attention. Recent basic and clinical research has highlighted critical roles of a ligand-receptor complex, LGI1-ADAM22, in synaptic transmission and brain function, as mutations in the LGI1 gene cause autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy and autoantibodies to LGI1 cause limbic encephalitis which is characterized by memory loss and seizures...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Savannah N Gosnell, Kenia M Velasquez, David L Molfese, Peter J Molfese, Alok Madan, James C Fowler, B Christopher Frueh, Philip R Baldwin, Ramiro Salas
Suicide is a leading cause of death in America, with over 40,000 reported suicides per year. Mental illness is a major risk factor for suicidality. This study attempts to validate findings of volumetric differences from studies on suicidality. Psychiatric inpatients classified as having mildly severe or severe depression were separated into two groups: suicide attempted in the past two months (SA; n=20), non-suicidal control group (DA; n=20); these patients were all depressed and not significantly different for age, gender, race, marital status, education level, anxiety level, and substance abuse...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
J Hinojosa, S Gil-Robles, B Pascual
Insula and paralimbic region represent a common location for gliomas in adulthood. However, limbic and paralimbic tumors are rare in children. Reports of pediatric insular tumors are scarce in literature, and most of them are included in adult's series, so their management and outcome can be outlined only after extracting data from these reports. Due to their predominantly low grade, they usually have a benign course for some time, what make them ideal candidates for total resection. However, their intricate location and spread to key areas, including the temporal lobe, make them a surgical challenge...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Xue Zhong, Weidan Pu, Shuqiao Yao
BACKGROUND: The neurobiological mechanisms of depression are increasingly being explored through resting-state brain imaging studies. However, resting-state fMRI findings have varied, perhaps because of differences between study populations, which included the disorder course and medication use. The aim of our study was to integrate studies of resting-state fMRI and explore the alterations of abnormal brain activity in first-episode, drug-naïve patients with major depressive disorder...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Liesl Celliers, Te-Jui Hung, Zeyad Al-Ogaili, Girolamo Moschilla, Wally Knezevic
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the neuropsychiatric and imaging findings in a confirmed case of voltage-gated potassium channel antibody limbic encephalitis. METHOD: Case report and review of the literature. RESULTS: A 64-year-old man presented with several months' history of obsessive thoughts and compulsions associated with faciobrachial dystonic seizures. He had no significant past medical and psychiatric history. Physical examinations revealed only mildly increased tone in the left upper limb...
September 2, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Alessandra Dodich, Chiara Cerami, Sandro Iannaccone, Alessandra Marcone, Pierpaolo Alongi, Chiara Crespi, Nicola Canessa, Francesca Andreetta, Andrea Falini, Stefano F Cappa, Daniela Perani
BACKGROUND: Limbic encephalitis (LE) is characterized by an acute or subacute onset with memory impairments, confusional state, behavioral disorders, variably associated with seizures and dystonic movements. It is due to inflammatory processes that selectively affect the medial temporal lobe structures. Voltage-gate potassium channel (VGKC) autoantibodies are frequently observed. In this study, we assessed at the individual level FDG-PET brain metabolic dysfunctions and neuropsychological profiles in three autoimmune LE cases seropositive for neuronal VGKC-complex autoantibodies...
October 2016: Brain and Cognition
C R Newey, A Sarwal, S Hantus
Introduction. Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a clinically challenging diagnosis with nonspecific neurological symptoms. Prompt diagnosis is important and often relies on neuroimaging. We present a case series of AE highlighting the importance of an early [(18)F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan. Methods. Retrospective review of seven consecutive cases of autoimmune encephalitis. Results. All patients had both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FDG-PET scans. Initial clinical presentations included altered mental status and/or new onset seizures...
2016: Autoimmune Diseases
K M Park, S E Kim, K J Shin, S Y Ha, J Park, T H Kim, C W Mun, B I Lee, S E Kim
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis (HS) showed differences in their limbic networks. This study aimed to evaluate the role of the thalamus in TLE patients with HS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine TLE patients with HS and 30 controls were enrolled in this study. In addition, we included eight TLE patients without HS as a disease control group. Using whole-brain T1-weighted MRIs, we analyzed the volumes of the limbic structures, including the hippocampus, thalamus, and total cortex, with FreeSurfer 5...
August 24, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Xia Deng, Meihong Zhou, Chunyan Tang, Jie Zhang, Lei Zhu, Zunchun Xie, Honghan Gong, Xiangzuo Xiao, Renshi Xu
Many symptoms of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD) can't be completely explained by the lesion of simple typical extrapyramidal circuit between striatum and substantia nigra. Therefore, we investigated the alteration of cortical volume, thickness, surface, and density in the intermediate sPD from the Han population of Mainland China in order to find the new pathological brain regions associated with the complex clinical manifestations of sPD. The cortical volume, thickness, surface and density were examined using the voxel-based cortical morphometry and corticometry on magnetic resonance image (MRI) in 67 intermediate sPD and 35 controls, the multiple adjusted comparisons analysis of all MRI data were employed to assess the relationships between the cortical morphometric alteration in the specific brain regions and sPD...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Derek J Chong, Patricia Dugan
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of fear to other auras and to gender and age using a large database. METHODS: The Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project (EPGP) is a multicenter, multicontinental cross-sectional study in which ictal symptomatology and other data were ascertained in a standardized series of questionnaires then corroborated by epilepsy specialists. Auras were classified into subgroups of symptoms, with ictal fear, panic, or anxiety as a single category...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Baran Bozkurt, Kaan Yagmurlu, Erik H Middlebrooks, Ali Karadag, Talat Cem Ovalioglu, Bharathi Jagadeesan, Gauravjot Sandhu, Necmettin Tanriover, Andrew W Grande
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microsurgical anatomy of the fiber tract connections of the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas, and its potential functional role with reference to clinical trials in the literature. METHODS: 10 postmortem formalin-fixed human brains (20 sides) and 1 cadaveric head were prepared with Klingler's method. The fiber dissection was performed in a stepwise fashion, both from lateral to medial and medial to lateral under an operating microscope with 3D images captured at every stage...
July 28, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Sueun Lee, Miyoung Yang, Jinwook Kim, Sohi Kang, Juhwan Kim, Jong-Choon Kim, Chaeyong Jung, Taekyun Shin, Sung-Ho Kim, Changjong Moon
Trimethyltin (TMT), a toxic organotin compound, induces neurodegeneration selectively involving the limbic system and especially prominent in the hippocampus. Neurodegeneration-associated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperactivity, aggression, cognitive deficits, and epileptic seizures, occur in both exposed humans and experimental animal models. Previously, TMT had been used generally in industry and agriculture, but the use of TMT has been limited because of its dangers to people. TMT has also been used to make a promising in vivo rodent model of neurodegeneration because of its region-specific characteristics...
July 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Johanna Seitz, Kayle S Sawyer, George Papadimitriou, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Isaac Ng, Antoni Kubicki, Palig Mouradian, Susan M Ruiz, Marek Kubicki, Gordon J Harris, Nikos Makris
Alcoholism can lead to a complex mixture of cognitive and emotional deficits associated with abnormalities in fronto-cortico-striatal-limbic brain circuitries. Given the broad variety of neurobehavioral symptoms, one would also expect alterations of postrolandic neocortical systems. Thus, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to study the integrity of the middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF), a major postrolandic association white matter tract that extends from the superior temporal gyrus to the parietal and occipital lobes, in individuals with a history of chronic alcohol abuse...
July 22, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Alberto E Musto, Robert F Rosencrans, Chelsey P Walker, Surjyadipta Bhattacharjee, Chittalsinh M Raulji, Ludmila Belayev, Zhide Fang, William C Gordon, Nicolas G Bazan
Temporal lobe epilepsy or limbic epilepsy lacks effective therapies due to a void in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that set in motion aberrant neuronal network formations during the course of limbic epileptogenesis (LE). Here we show in in vivo rodent models of LE that the phospholipid mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF) increases in LE and that PAF receptor (PAF-r) ablation mitigates its progression. Synthetic PAF-r antagonists, when administered intraperitoneally in LE, re-establish hippocampal dendritic spine density and prevent formation of dysmorphic dendritic spines...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sergio L Schmidt, Juliana J Schmidt, Julio C Tolentino, Carlos G Ferreira, Sergio A de Almeida, Regina P Alvarenga, Eunice N Simoes, Guilherme J Schmidt, Nathalie H S Canedo, Leila Chimelli
BACKGROUND: Limbic encephalitis was originally described as a rare clinical neuropathological entity involving seizures and neuropsychological disturbances. In this report, we describe cerebral patterns visualized by positron emission tomography in a patient with limbic encephalitis and cholangiocarcinoma. To our knowledge, there is no other description in the literature of cerebral positron emission tomography findings in the setting of limbic encephalitis and subsequent diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Rachael Gardner, Rajesh Rangaswamy, Yen-Yi Peng
With the increased availability of laboratory tests, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody-positive limbic encephalitis has become an emerging diagnosis. The myriad symptoms of limbic encephalitis make the diagnosis challenging. Symptoms range from seizures, memory loss, dementia, confusion, to psychosis. We present a case of a 21-year-old female with GAD65 antibody-positive limbic encephalitis. The case is unique because the clinical course suggests that non-convulsive seizures are the major cause of this patient's clinical manifestations...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Igor S Melo, Yngrid M O Santos, Maísa A Costa, Amanda L D Pacheco, Nívea K G T Silva, L Cardoso-Sousa, U P Pereira, L R Goulart, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Marcelo Duzzioni, Daniel L G Gitaí, Cristiane Q Tilelli, Robinson Sabino-Silva, Olagide W Castro
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures, starting from secondary functional disorders due to several insults, including self-sustaining continuous seizures identified as status epilepticus (SE). Although hypoglycemia has been associated with SE, the effect of inhibition of the Na(+)/glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) on hippocampus during SE is still unknown. Here we evaluated the functional role of SGLT in the pattern of limbic seizures and neurodegeneration process after pilocarpine (PILO)-induced SE...
August 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Benjamin N Conrad, Baxter P Rogers, Bassel Abou-Khalil, Victoria L Morgan
Quantification of volumetric correlation may be sensitive to disease alterations undetected by standard voxel based morphometry (VBM) such as subtle, synchronous alterations in regional volumes, and may provide complementary evidence of the structural impact of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) on the brain. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences of regional volumetric correlation in right (RTLE) and left (LTLE) TLE patients compared to healthy controls. A T1 weighted 3T MRI was acquired (1mm(3)) in 44 drug resistant unilateral TLE patients (n=26 RTLE, n=18 LTLE) and 44 individually age and gender matched healthy controls...
October 2016: Epilepsy Research
Bastien Joubert, Margaux Saint-Martin, Nelly Noraz, Géraldine Picard, Veronique Rogemond, François Ducray, Virginie Desestret, Dimitri Psimaras, Jean-Yves Delattre, Jean-Christophe Antoine, Jérôme Honnorat
IMPORTANCE: Autoantibodies against contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) are observed in several neurological syndromes, including neuromyotonia (NMT), Morvan syndrome (MoS), and limbic encephalitis. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinical and biological presentations of patients with anti-CASPR2 antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 18 patients who had anti-CASPR2 antibodies in their CSF between March 2009 and November 2015 at the Centre National de Référence pour les Syndromes Neurologiques Paranéoplasiques in Lyon, France...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
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