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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155879/subtypes-of-breast-cancer-show-different-spatial-distributions-of-brain-metastases
#1
Sunghyon Kyeong, Yoon Jin Cha, Sung Gwe Ahn, Sang Hyun Suh, Eun Ju Son, Sung Jun Ahn
The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that the spatial distribution of breast cancer brain metastases (BM) differ according to their biological subtypes. MR images of 100 patients with BM from primary breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided according to the biological subtype of the primary tumor, (triple-negative: 24, HER2 positive: 48, luminal: 28). All images marked with BMs were standardized to the human brain MRI atlas provided by the Montreal Neurological Institute 152 database...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145186/the-kl%C3%A3-ver-bucy-syndrome
#2
Douglas J Lanska
In 1937, Heinrich Klüver and Paul Bucy described a dramatic behavioral syndrome in monkeys after bilateral temporal lobectomy. The full Klüver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) - hyperorality, placidity, hypermetamorphosis, dietary changes, altered sexual behavior, and visual agnosia - is evident within 3 weeks following operation. Some KBS features (i.e., hyperorality, placidity, hypermetamorphosis) persist indefinitely, whereas others gradually resolve over several years. Klüver and Bucy were initially unaware of an earlier report of KBS by Sanger Brown and Edward Schäfer in 1888...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107610/altered-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#3
Min Jung Koh, Jaeho Seol, Jee In Kang, Bong-Soo Kim, Kee Namkoong, Jin Woo Chang, Se Joo Kim
Aberrant cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuits have been implicated in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the neurobiological basis of OCD remains unclear. We compared patterns of functional connectivity in patients with OCD and in healthy controls using resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG). Participants comprised 24 patients with OCD (21 men, 3 women) and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (19 men, 3 women). Resting-state measurements were obtained over a 6-min period using a 152-channel whole-head MEG system...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101217/epigenetic-histone-deacetylation-inhibition-prevents-the-development-and-persistence-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#4
Sandesh D Reddy, Bryan C Clossen, Doodipala Samba Reddy
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease characterized by repeated unprovoked seizures. Currently, no drug therapy exists for curing epilepsy or disease-modification in people at risk. Despite several emerging mechanisms, there have been few studies of epigenetic signaling in epileptogenesis, the process whereby a normal brain becomes progressively epileptic because of precipitating factors. Here, we report a novel role of histone deacetylation as critical epigenetic mechanism in epileptogenesis. Experiments were conducted using the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate in the hippocampus kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a classic model heavily used to approve drugs for treatment of epilepsy...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093718/selective-limbic-blood-brain-barrier-breakdown-in-a-feline-model-of-limbic-encephalitis-with-lgi1-antibodies
#5
Anna R Tröscher, Andrea Klang, Maria French, Lucía Quemada-Garrido, Sibylle Maria Kneissl, Christian G Bien, Ákos Pákozdy, Jan Bauer
Human leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 encephalitis (LGI1) is an autoimmune limbic encephalitis in which serum and cerebrospinal fluid contain antibodies targeting LGI1, a protein of the voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex. Recently, we showed that a feline model of limbic encephalitis with LGI1 antibodies, called feline complex partial seizures with orofacial involvement (FEPSO), is highly comparable to human LGI1 encephalitis. In human LGI1 encephalitis, neuropathological investigations are difficult because very little material is available...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093543/a-study-of-the-brain-functional-network-of-post-stroke-depression-in-three-different-lesion-locations
#6
Yu Shi, Yanyan Zeng, Lei Wu, Ziping Liu, Shanshan Zhang, Jianming Yang, Wen Wu
Research on the mechanism of post stroke depression (PSD) is the key way to improve the treatment of PSD. However, the functional brain network of PSD has not been entirely supported by the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The aims of this study are to investigate the brain response of PSD in three different lesions. The brain responses of the three PSD subgroups were similar. However, each subgroup had its own characteristics of the brain network. In the temporal lobe subgroup, the right thalamus had increased degree centrality (DC) values which were different from the other two subgroups...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082505/long-term-effect-of-intensive-lifestyle-intervention-on-cerebral-blood-flow
#7
Mark A Espeland, Jose A Luchsinger, Rebecca H Neiberg, Owen Carmichael, Paul J Laurienti, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Rena R Wing, Delilah Cook, Edward Horton, Ramon Casanova, Kirk Erickson, R Nick Bryan
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether long-term behavioral intervention targeting weight loss through increased physical activity and reduced caloric intake would alter cerebral blood flow (CBF) in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Postrandomization assessment of CBF. SETTING: Action for Health in Diabetes multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were overweight or obese and aged 45 to 76 (N = 310)...
October 30, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066556/seizures-and-sleep-in-the-thalamus-focal-limbic-seizures-show-divergent-activity-patterns-in-different-thalamic-nuclei
#8
Li Feng, Joshua E Motelow, Chanthia Ma, William Biche, Cian McCafferty, Nicholas Smith, Mengran Liu, Qiong Zhan, Ruonan Jia, Bo Xiao, Alvaro Duque, Hal Blumenfeld
The thalamus plays diverse roles in cortical-subcortical brain activity patterns. Recent work suggests that focal temporal lobe seizures depress subcortical arousal systems and convert cortical activity into a pattern resembling slow wave sleep. The potential simultaneous and paradoxical role of the thalamus in both limbic seizure propagation, and in sleep-like cortical rhythms has not been investigated. We recorded neuronal activity from the central lateral (CL), anterior (ANT) and ventral posteromedial (VPM) nuclei of the thalamus in an established female rat model of focal limbic seizures...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053037/possible-autoantibody-negative-limbic-encephalitis-after-anterior-temporal-lobectomy-for-hippocampal-sclerosis
#9
Sara Casciato, Alfredo D'Aniello, Addolorata Mascia, Pier Paolo Quarato, Marco De Risi, Liliana G Grammaldo, Vincenzo Esposito, Marco Zoccarato, Giancarlo Di Gennaro
Amnestic syndromes are acknowledged to be associated to bilateral hippocampal damage. We briefly report the case of a young man who underwent anterior left temporal lobectomy for a medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis with an excellent seizure and neuropsychological outcome. Approximately 10 years later, he presented with a subacute severe global amnesia and MRI findings of a damage involving the contralateral mesial temporal lobe structures. A diagnosis of a possible autoimmune encephalitis was made...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050866/seizure-semiology-in-leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-protein-1-antibody-associated-limbic-encephalitis
#10
Chao Chen, Xiu Wang, Chao Zhang, Tao Cui, Wei-Xiong Shi, Hong-Zhi Guan, Hai-Tao Ren, Xiao-Qiu Shao
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to advance the characterization of seizure semiology in leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) antibody-associated limbic encephalitis (LE). METHODS: Eighteen patients diagnosed with LGI1 LE were identified. Seizure semiology, demographic features, MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), electroencephalograms, and outcomes following immunotherapy were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients were divided into the following groups based on seizure semiology: faciobrachial dystonic seizure only (FBDS-only, n=4), epileptic seizure without FBDS (Non-FBDS, n=6), and FBDS plus epileptic seizure (FBDS+, n=8)...
October 16, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038494/a-study-of-the-brain-abnormalities-of-post-stroke-depression-in-frontal-lobe-lesion
#11
Yu Shi, Yanyan Zeng, Lei Wu, Wei Liu, Ziping Liu, Shanshan Zhang, Jianming Yang, Wen Wu
Post stroke depression (PSD) is a serious complication of stroke. Brain imaging is an important method of studying the mechanism of PSD. However, few studies have focused on the single lesion location. The aim of this study was to investigate the brain mechanism of frontal lobe PSD using combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In total, 30 first-time ischemic frontal lobe stroke patients underwent T1 weighted MRI and resting-state fMRI scans. Clinical assessments included the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and the Mini-Mental State Examination...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036183/mri-assessed-atrophy-subtypes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-the-cognitive-reserve-hypothesis
#12
Karin Persson, Rannveig Sakshaug Eldholm, Maria Lage Barca, Lena Cavallin, Daniel Ferreira, Anne-Brita Knapskog, Geir Selbæk, Anne Brækhus, Ingvild Saltvedt, Eric Westman, Knut Engedal
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MRI assessment of the brain has demonstrated four different patterns of atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD): typical AD, limbic-predominant AD, hippocampal-sparing AD, and a subtype with minimal atrophy, previously referred to as no-atrophy AD. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe the differences between these four AD subtypes in a longitudinal memory-clinic study. METHODS: The medial temporal lobes, the frontal regions, and the posterior regions were assessed with MRI visual rating scales to categorize 123 patients with mild AD according to ICD-10 and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and the clinical dementia rating scale (CDR) into atrophy subtypes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018380/college-binge-drinking-associated-with-decreased-frontal-activation-to-negative-emotional-distractors-during-inhibitory-control
#13
Julia E Cohen-Gilbert, Lisa D Nickerson, Jennifer T Sneider, Emily N Oot, Anna M Seraikas, Michael L Rohan, Marisa M Silveri
The transition to college is associated with an increase in heavy episodic alcohol use, or binge drinking, during a time when the prefrontal cortex and prefrontal-limbic circuitry continue to mature. Traits associated with this immaturity, including impulsivity in emotional contexts, may contribute to risky and heavy episodic alcohol consumption. The current study used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) multiband functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess brain activation during a task that required participants to ignore background images with positive, negative, or neutral emotional valence while performing an inhibitory control task (Go-NoGo)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988973/comparative-connectomics-mapping-the-inter-individual-variability-of-connections-within-the-regions-of-the-human-brain
#14
Csaba Kerepesi, Balázs Szalkai, Bálint Varga, Vince Grolmusz
The human braingraph, or connectome is a description of the connections of the brain: the nodes of the graph correspond to small areas of the gray matter, and two nodes are connected by an edge if a diffusion MRI-based workflow finds fibers between those brain areas. We have constructed 1015-vertex graphs from the diffusion MRI brain images of 392 human subjects and compared the individual graphs with respect to several different areas of the brain. The inter-individual variability of the graphs within different brain regions was discovered and described...
October 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988523/immunopathology-in-drug-resistant-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-different-types-of-hippocampal-sclerosis
#15
F Irsel Tezer, Aysegul Firat, Erdem Tuzun, Isik Unal, Figen Soylemezoglu, Burcak Bilginer, Figen Kaymaz, Kader K Oguz, Serap Saygi
PURPOSE: There is evidence that autoimmunity has a specific role in temporal lobe seizures of limbic encephalitis patients. Our aim in this study was to investigate any histopathological clues of autoimmune process in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with different pathologically proven hippocampal sclerosis (HS) types. METHODS: 22 patients who had undergone to epilepsy surgery due to mesial TLE-HS were included. The sera of patients are tested for neuronal antibodies to NMDAR, LGI1, CASPR2, AMPAR, GABABR and GAD...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976002/structural-co-variance-patterns-in-migraine-a-cross-sectional-study-exploring-the-role-of-the-hippocampus
#16
Catherine D Chong, Gina M Dumkrieger, Todd J Schwedt
OBJECTIVE: To interrogate hippocampal morphology and structural co-variance patterns in migraine patients and to investigate whether structural co-variance patterns relate to migraine disease characteristics. BACKGROUND: Migraine is associated with structural alterations in widespread cortical and subcortical regions associated with the sensory, cognitive, and affective components of pain processing. Recent studies have shown that migraine patients have differences in hippocampal structure and function relative to healthy control subjects, but whether hippocampal structure relates to disease characteristics including frequency of attacks, years lived with migraine and symptoms of allodynia remains unknown...
November 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974152/encephalitis-with-antibodies-against-the-gabab-receptor-seizures-as-the-most-common-presentation-at-admission
#17
Xueping Chen, Fan Liu, Jin-Mei Li, Xiao-Qi Xie, Qiong Wang, Dong Zhou, Huifang Shang
OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against gamma-aminobutyric-acid B receptor (GABABR) has not been described in detail in Chinese patients. METHODS: Patients with anti-GABABR encephalitis treated between January 2013 and December 2015 were analyzed in terms of clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, tumor presence, autoantibody patterns, treatment response and outcomes. RESULTS: Eleven patients were identified (male, N = 8; female, N = 3), with the median age of 51 years...
November 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947576/interneuronal-network-activity-at-the-onset-of-seizure-like-events-in-entorhinal-cortex-slices
#18
Laura Librizzi, Gabriele Losi, Iacopo Marcon, Michele Sessolo, Paolo Scalmani, Giorgio Carmignoto, Marco de Curtis
The onset of focal seizures in humans and in different animal models of focal epilepsy correlates with reduction of neuronal firing and enhanced interneuronal network activity. Whether this phenomenon contributes to seizure generation is still unclear. We used the in vitro entorhinal cortex slices bathed in 4-aminopirydine (4-AP) as an experimental paradigm model to evaluate the correlation between interneuronal GABAergic network activity and seizure-like events. Epileptiform discharges were recorded in layer V-VI pyramidal neurons and fast-spiking interneurons in slices from male and female mice and in the isolated female guinea pig brain preparation during perfusion with 4-AP...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944298/hippocampal-diencephalic-cingulate-networks-for-memory-and-emotion-an-anatomical-guide
#19
Emma J Bubb, Lisa Kinnavane, John P Aggleton
This review brings together current knowledge from tract tracing studies to update and reconsider those limbic connections initially highlighted by Papez (1937) for their presumed role in emotion. These connections link hippocampal and parahippocampal regions with the mammillary bodies, the anterior thalamic nuclei, and the cingulate gyrus, all structures now strongly implicated in memory functions. An additional goal of this review is to describe the routes taken by the various connections within this network...
August 4, 2017: Brain and neuroscience advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926420/seronegative-paraneoplastic-limbic-encephalitis-associated-with-thymoma
#20
Jaime Toro, David Cuellar-Giraldo, Alejandra Duque, Karla Minota, Jorge Patiño, Manuel García
Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is an autoimmune syndrome characterized by the acute or subacute onset of encephalopathy, memory loss, confusion, temporal lobe seizures, and behavioral and mood changes. Although most patients with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis have antineuronal antibodies, advances in the field now permit the diagnosis without autoantibody test results. In this case illustrating the new diagnostic criteria, we report a 70-year-old woman who was brought to the emergency room after the acute onset of cognitive impairment, altered mental status, and choreoathetoid movements...
September 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
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