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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434208/dietary-interventions-for-adults-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
Suetonia C Palmer, Jasjot K Maggo, Katrina L Campbell, Jonathan C Craig, David W Johnson, Bernadet Sutanto, Marinella Ruospo, Allison Tong, Giovanni Fm Strippoli
BACKGROUND: Dietary changes are routinely recommended in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the basis of randomised evidence in the general population and non-randomised studies in CKD that suggest certain healthy eating patterns may prevent cardiovascular events and lower mortality. People who have kidney disease have prioritised dietary modifications as an important treatment uncertainty. OBJECTIVES: This review evaluated the benefits and harms of dietary interventions among adults with CKD including people with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) treated with dialysis or kidney transplantation...
April 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434203/topiramate-monotherapy-for-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#2
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang, Yu-Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Topiramate is a newer broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug (AED). Some studies have shown the benefits of topiramate monotherapy in the treatment of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). However, there are no current systematic reviews to determine the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate monotherapy in people with JME. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in Issue 12, 2015. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate monotherapy in the treatment of JME...
April 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434191/the-effect-of-parotid-gland-sparing-imrt-on-salivary-composition-flow-rate-and-xerostomia-measures
#3
Thomas M Richards, Tara Hurley, Lorna Grove, Kevin J Harrington, Guy H Carpenter, Gordon B Proctor, Christopher M Nutting
OBJECTIVES: To describe parotid gland (PG) saliva organic and inorganic composition and flow rate changes, after curative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC) and analyse the relationship between PG saliva analytes and xerostomia measures. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-six patients recruited to five prospective phase 2 or 3 trials which assessed toxicity and efficacy of IMRT by HNC subsite, provided longitudinal PG salivas. Salivary flow rate, subjective and objective xerostomia measures were prospectively collected and salivas tested for inorganic and organic analytes...
April 23, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434177/eating-disorders-and-food-addiction-in-men-with-heroin-use-disorder-a-controlled-study
#4
Fatih Canan, Servet Karaca, Suna Sogucak, Omer Gecici, Murat Kuloglu
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the prevalence estimates of binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, and food addiction in men with heroin use disorder and a matched sample of control participants. METHODS: A group of 100 men with heroin use disorder, consecutively admitted to a detoxification and therapy unit, were screened for DSM-5 eating disorders, along with a group of 100 male controls of similar age, education, and body mass index. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the Barratt Impulsivity Scale-version 11, and the Eating Attitudes Test were used for data collection...
April 22, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434173/the-effect-of-resilience-on-task-persistence-and-performance-during-repeated-exposure-to-heat-pain
#5
P Maxwell Slepian, Christopher R France
The Pain Resilience Scale was recently developed to assess dimensions of resilience critical to pain-related adaptation and was found to predict experimental pain sensitivity in a pain-free population. Pain resilience has also been theoretically linked to behavioral persistence despite pain. To date, however, this hypothesis has not been experimentally tested. To address this gap in the literature, in the current study 105 healthy young adults underwent a baseline administration of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), a stressful mental arithmetic task, delivered with somatosensory distraction (i...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434161/can-valproic-acid-regulate-neurogenesis-from-nestin-cells-in-the-adult-midbrain
#6
Parisa Farzanehfar, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) causes the motor symptoms (e.g. tremor, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability) of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is generally agreed that replacing these neurons will provide better motor symptom relief and fewer side effects than current pharmacotherapies. One potential approach to this is up-regulating endogenous DA neurogenesis in SNc. In the present study, we conducted bioinformatics analyses to identify signalling pathways that control expression of Pax6 and Msx1 genes, which have been identified as potentially important neurogenic regulators in the adult midbrain...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434158/physical-performance-in-newly-diagnosed-hypothyroidism-a-pilot-study
#7
D Gallo, E Piantanida, G Veronesi, A Lai, L Sassi, V Lombardi, E Masiello, P Premoli, E Bianconi, C Cusini, S Rosetti, M L Tanda, A Toniolo, M Ferrario, L Bartalena
OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism is complicated by neuromuscular symptoms (myalgias, slowness of movements, and tiredness) and signs (easy fatigability and cramps), which may have a negative impact on general well-being and quality of life. In a pilot, prospective, controlled study, we investigated the features of muscle dysfunction in hypothyroidism by disease questionnaire, biochemical measures, and physical performance tests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven consecutive patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism were enrolled, 27 subclinical (S-Hypo) and 30 overt (O-Hypo)...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434154/protective-effects-of-cell-free-supernatant-and-live-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-thai-pigs-against-a-pandemic-strain-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#8
Wandee Sirichokchatchawan, Gun Temeeyasen, Dachrit Nilubol, Nuvee Prapasarakul
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a coronavirus which causes severe diarrhea and fatal dehydration in piglets. In general, probiotic supplements could enhance recovery and protect piglets against enteric pathogens. Seven local lactic acid bacteria (LAB), (Ent. faecium 79N and 40N, Lact. plantarum 22F, 25F and 31F, Ped. acidilactici 72N and Ped. pentosaceus 77F) from pig feces were well-characterized as high potential probiotics. Cell-free supernatants (CFS) and live LAB were evaluated for antiviral activities by co-incubation on Vero cells and challenged with a pandemic strain of PEDV isolated from pigs in Thailand...
April 22, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434142/cancer-genetic-counseling-and-testing-in-an-era-of-rapid-change
#9
Gillian W Hooker, Keelia Rhoads Clemens, John Quillin, Kristen J Vogel Postula, Pia Summerour, Rebecca Nagy, Adam H Buchanan
The impacts of the Association for Molecular Pathology vs. Myriad Supreme Court decision regarding patenting DNA segments and multi-gene testing on cancer genetic counseling practice have not been well described. We aimed to assess genetic counselors' perceptions of how their genetic testing-related practices for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) changed after these events. One-hundred fifty-two genetic counselors from the National Society of Genetic Counselors Cancer Special Interest Group completed an anonymous, online, mixed-methods survey in November 2013...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434131/knowing-how-and-knowing-why-testing-the-effect-of-instruction-designed-for-cognitive-integration-on-procedural-skills-transfer
#10
Jeffrey J H Cheung, Kulamakan M Kulasegaram, Nicole N Woods, Carol-Anne Moulton, Charlotte V Ringsted, Ryan Brydges
Transfer is a desired outcome of simulation-based training, yet evidence for how instructional design features promote transfer is lacking. In clinical reasoning, transfer is improved when trainees experience instruction integrating basic science explanations with clinical signs and symptoms. To test whether integrated instruction has similar effects in procedural skills (i.e., psychomotor skills) training, we studied the impact of instruction that integrates conceptual (why) and procedural (how) knowledge on the retention and transfer of simulation-based lumbar puncture (LP) skill...
April 22, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434129/phage-displayed-peptides-that-mimic-epitopes-of-hepatitis-e-virus-capsid
#11
Osmany Larralde, Juraj Petrik
Hepatitis E is an emerging zoonotic infection of increasing public health threat for the UK, especially for immunosuppressed individuals. A human recombinant vaccine has been licensed only in China and is not clear whether it protects against hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3, the most prevalent in Europe. The aim of this study was to use phage display technology as a tool to identify peptides that mimic epitopes of HEV capsid (mimotopes). We identified putative linear and conformational mimotopes using sera from Scottish blood donors that have the immunological imprint of past HEV infection...
April 22, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434127/intranasal-vitamin-a-is-beneficial-in-post-infectious-olfactory-loss
#12
Thomas Hummel, Katherine L Whitcroft, Gina Rueter, Antje Haehner
Vitamin A plays a decisive role in the regeneration of olfactory receptor neurons. In this retrospective study we investigated the effectiveness of topical vitamin A in patients with post-infectious and posttraumatic smell disorders. Retrospective cohort. A total of 170 patients (age range 18-70 years, mean age 52 years) participated. Forty-six patients were treated with smell training only. The remaining 124 patients received smell training and topical vitamin A. Olfactory function was assessed using the Sniffin' Sticks test kit, a validated technique to measure odor thresholds, discrimination and identification...
April 22, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434121/intracellular-position-of-mitochondria-in-mesophyll-cells-differs-between-c3-and-c4-grasses
#13
Yuto Hatakeyama, Osamu Ueno
In C3 plants, part of the CO2 fixed during photosynthesis in chloroplasts is released from mitochondria during photorespiration by decarboxylation of glycine via glycine decarboxylase (GDC), thereby reducing photosynthetic efficiency. The apparent positioning of most mitochondria in the interior (vacuole side of chloroplasts) of mesophyll cells in C3 grasses would increase the efficiency of refixation of CO2 released from mitochondria by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/​oxygenase (Rubisco) in chloroplasts...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434094/a-systematic-review-of-psychosocial-interventions-for-colorectal-cancer-patients
#14
REVIEW
Catherine E Mosher, Joseph G Winger, Barbara A Given, Safi Shahda, Paul R Helft
PURPOSE: A significant minority of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients experience clinically meaningful distress that may warrant intervention. The goal of this systematic review was to assess the impact of psychosocial interventions on quality-of-life and psychosocial outcomes for CRC patients. METHODS: A systematic search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES was undertaken to obtain relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published through October 2016...
April 22, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434076/%C3%AE-synuclein-nonhuman-primate-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
David J Marmion, Jeffrey H Kordower
Proper understanding of the mechanism(s) by which α-synuclein misfolds and propagates may hold the key to unraveling the complex pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. A more complete understanding of the disease itself, as well as establishing animal models that fully recapitulate pathological and functional disease progression, are needed to develop treatments that will delay, halt or reverse the disease course. Traditional neurotoxin-based animal models fail to mimic crucial aspects of Parkinson's and thus are not relevant for the study of neuroprotection and disease-modifying therapies...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434075/associations-of-self-reported-smoking-cotinine-levels-and-epigenetic-smoking-indicators-with-oxidative-stress-among-older-adults-a-population-based-study
#16
Xu Gao, Xīn Gào, Yan Zhang, Lutz Philipp Breitling, Ben Schöttker, Hermann Brenner
Tobacco smoking and oxidative stress (OS) are both related to a wide spectrum of adverse age-related health outcomes, but their association is not yet well-established. We examined the associations of self-reported smoking indicators, serum cotinine levels and smoking-related DNA methylation biomarkers with two urinary proxy markers of OS, 8-isoprostane (8-iso) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), in two independent subsets of older adults recruited in Germany (discovery set: n = 978, validation set: n = 531)...
April 22, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434066/toxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-three-antimicrobials-commonly-used-in-veterinary-medicine
#17
Anahí Magdaleno, Sofía Carusso, Juan Moretton
The toxicity of chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and enrofloxacin (ENF) was tested on two green algal species: the international standard Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the native Argentine species Ankistrodesmus fusiformis. All three antibiotics inhibited the algal growth. The most sensitive species was P. subcapitata, for which the EC50 for CTC, OTC and ENF were 1.19 ± 0.53, 0.92 ± 0.30 and 5.18 ± 3.80 mg L(-1), respectively. The EC50 for A. fusiformis, were 3.23 ± 0...
April 22, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434056/beyond-the-primary-endpoint-paradigm-a-test-of-intervention-effect-in-hiv-behavioral-intervention-trials-with-numerous-correlated-outcomes
#18
Jessica M Harwood, Robert E Weiss, W Scott Comulada
Behavioral interventions are increasingly based on holistic approaches to health with an understanding that health-related behaviors are linked. A motivating example is provided by the Philani study, an intervention trial conducted to improve the health of South African mothers and their children. Inter-related health problems around maternal alcohol use, malnutrition, and HIV were addressed; multiple endpoints were targeted. The traditional hypothesis testing paradigm that tests significance on one primary outcome did not suffice...
April 22, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434053/chinese-beliefs-in-luck-are-linked-to-gambling-problems-via-strengthened-cognitive-biases-a-mediation-test
#19
Matthew S M Lim, Robert D Rogers
Problematic patterns of gambling and their harms are known to have culturally specific expressions. For ethnic Chinese people, patterns of superstitious belief in this community appear to be linked to the elevated rates of gambling-related harms; however, little is known about the mediating psychological mechanisms. To address this issue, we surveyed 333 Chinese gamblers residing internationally and used a mediation analysis to explore how gambling-related cognitive biases, gambling frequency and variety of gambling forms ('scope') mediate the association between beliefs in luck and gambling problems...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434051/evidence-of-a-link-between-fever-and-microscopic-hematuria-in-children
#20
Rama Schwartz, Rotem Distal, Arthur Shapiro, Yehezkel Waisman
Despite the common conception that febrile illnesses are associated with microscopic hematuria in children, a review of the literature failed to disclose supportive evidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate this relationship. Background data were collected for a convenience sample of children aged 4-18 years who presented to the emergency department (ED) of a tertiary pediatric medical center. Vital signs were measured and a midstream urine specimen was collected. Specimens positive for the presence of blood (>5 erythrocytes/μl; Combur 10 Test Strips) were examined microscopically...
April 22, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
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