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Suzanne Grant, Bruce Guthrie
Patient safety is an increasing concern for health systems internationally. The majority of administrative work in UK general practice takes place in the context of organisational routines such as repeat prescribing and test results handling, where high workloads and increased clinician dependency on administrative staff have been identified as an emerging safety issue. Despite this trend, most research to date has focused on the redistribution of the clinical workload between doctors, nurses and allied health professionals within individual care settings...
March 2, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Yuval B Simons, Kevin Bullaughey, Richard R Hudson, Guy Sella
Human genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are revealing the genetic architecture of anthropomorphic and biomedical traits, i.e., the frequencies and effect sizes of variants that contribute to heritable variation in a trait. To interpret these findings, we need to understand how genetic architecture is shaped by basic population genetics processes-notably, by mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. Because many quantitative traits are subject to stabilizing selection and because genetic variation that affects one trait often affects many others, we model the genetic architecture of a focal trait that arises under stabilizing selection in a multidimensional trait space...
March 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
Leslie K Allison, Tim Kiemel, John J Jeka
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multisensory reweighting (MSR) deficits in older adults contribute to fall risk. Sensory-challenge balance exercises may have value for addressing the MSR deficits in fall-prone older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sensory-challenge balance exercises on MSR and clinical balance measures in fall-prone older adults. METHODS: We used a quasi-experimental, repeated-measures, within-subjects design. Older adults with a history of falls underwent an 8-week baseline (control) period...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Miranda van Lunteren, Zineb Ez-Zaitouni, Anoek de Koning, Hanne Dagfinrud, Roberta Ramonda, Lennart Jacobsson, Robert Landewé, Désirée van der Heijde, Floris A van Gaalen
OBJECTIVE: In early axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), data are lacking about the relationship between disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We assessed and quantified the association between change in Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) and HRQOL over time in early axSpA. METHODS: Baseline and 1-year data of patients with axSpA fulfilling the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis international Society (ASAS) classification criteria from the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were analyzed...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Alejandra Nieto, Holger Roehl
There has been a growing interest in recent years in the assessment of suitable vial/stopper combinations for storage and shipment of frozen drug products. Considering that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of butyl rubber stoppers used in Container Closure Systems (CCS) is between -55°C to -65°C, a storage or shipment temperature of a frozen product below the Tg of the rubber stopper, may require special attention, since below the Tg the rubber becomes more plastic-like and loses its elastic (sealing) characteristics...
March 15, 2018: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
John A Brockman, Joel Vetter, Vicky Peck, Seth A Strope
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether an enhance recovery protocol for radical cystectomy patient affected the length of stay or the number and type of readmissions that occurred after hospital discharge. METHODS: We prospectively assessed 152 cystectomy patients after initiation of the pathway. These patients were compared to the previous 147 patient operated on prior to the pathway initiation. Eligible patients were those undergoing radical cystectomy with any diversion at our institution...
March 12, 2018: Urology
Emily Wonder, Lorena Simón-Gracia, Pablo Scodeller, Ramsey N Majzoub, Venkata Ramana Kotamraju, Kai K Ewert, Tambet Teesalu, Cyrus R Safinya
Cationic liposome-nucleic acid (CL-NA) complexes, which form spontaneously, are a highly modular gene delivery system. These complexes can be sterically stabilized via PEGylation [PEG: poly (ethylene glycol)] into nanoparticles (NPs) and targeted to specific tissues and cell types via the conjugation of an affinity ligand. However, there are currently no guidelines on how to effectively navigate the large space of compositional parameters that modulate the specific and nonspecific binding interactions of peptide-targeted NPs with cells...
March 2, 2018: Biomaterials
Olivier Beauchet, Cyrille P Launay, Harmehr Sekhon, Jennifer Gautier, Julia Chabot, Elise J Levinoff, Gilles Allali
BACKGROUND: Assessment of changes in higher levels of gait control with aging is important to better understand age-related gait instability, with the perspective to improve the screening of individuals at risk for falls. The comparison between actual Timed Up and Go test (aTUG) and its imagined version (iTUG) is a simple clinical way to assess age-related changes in gait control. The modulations of iTUG performances by body positions and motor imagery (MI) strategies with normal aging have not been evaluated yet...
2018: PloS One
Katsuyuki Taguchi, Toshihide Itoh, Matthew K Fuld, Eric Fournie, Okkyun Lee, Kyo Noguchi
OBJECTIVES: A novel imaging technique ("X-map") has been developed to identify acute ischemic lesions for stroke patients using non-contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (NE-DE-CT). Using the 3-material decomposition technique, the original X-map ("X-map 1.0") eliminates fat and bone from the images, suppresses the gray matter (GM)-white matter (WM) tissue contrast, and makes signals of edema induced by severe ischemia easier to detect. The aim of this study was to address the following 2 problems with the X-map 1...
March 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Andrea Maselli, Paolo Pani, Vitor Cardoso, Tiziano Abdelsalhin, Leonardo Gualtieri, Valeria Ferrari
Several quantum-gravity models of compact objects predict microscopic or even Planckian corrections at the horizon scale. We explore the possibility of measuring two model-independent, smoking-gun effects of these corrections in the gravitational waveform of a compact binary, namely, the absence of tidal heating and the presence of tidal deformability. For events detectable by the future space-based interferometer LISA, we show that the effect of tidal heating dominates and allows one to constrain putative corrections down to the Planck scale...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Thai M Hoang, Rui Pan, Jonghoon Ahn, Jaehoon Bang, H T Quan, Tongcang Li
Nonequilibrium processes of small systems such as molecular machines are ubiquitous in biology, chemistry, and physics but are often challenging to comprehend. In the past two decades, several exact thermodynamic relations of nonequilibrium processes, collectively known as fluctuation theorems, have been discovered and provided critical insights. These fluctuation theorems are generalizations of the second law and can be unified by a differential fluctuation theorem. Here we perform the first experimental test of the differential fluctuation theorem using an optically levitated nanosphere in both underdamped and overdamped regimes and in both spatial and velocity spaces...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
M Portelli, A Lucchese, A Lo Giudice, A Militi, P Spinuzza, A M Bellocchio, R Nucera, S Croce, G Ghilardi, M Manuelli
In straight-wire mechanics, friction can significantly influence the forces expressed by wires. The aim of this study is to assess whether the aging and the sum of elastomeric ligatures affect the static friction during orthodontic space closure. A 0.017x 0.025-in SS was drawn throughout a 3-bracket experimental model and engaged with elastomeric ligatures. Before performing the test, the ligatures were soaked in artificial saliva for 48 hours (Group 1), 2 weeks (Group 2) and 4 weeks (Group 3); brand-new ligatures were also tested as control group (Group 4)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Jing Jing Wang, Yang Gao, Patrick W C Lau
Background: Childhood overweight is a crucial public health concern. Recognizing its associated factors can facilitate the establishment of effective prevention strategies. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of overweight in Hong Kong Chinese children and explore its influential factors in relation to family, early-life development and behavior-related issues. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 894 primary school students aged 9-12 years (50...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Ella Z Lattenkamp, Samuel Kaiser, Rožle Kaučič, Martina Großmann, Klemen Koselj, Holger R Goerlitz
Sensory systems experience a trade-off between maximizing the detail and amount of sampled information. This trade-off is particularly pronounced in sensory systems that are highly specialized for a single task and thus experience limitations in other tasks. We hypothesised that combining sensory input from multiple streams of information may resolve this trade-off and improve detection and sensing reliability. Specifically, we predicted that perceptive limitations experienced by animals reliant on specialised active echolocation can be compensated for by the phylogenetically older and less specialised process of passive hearing...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Isaac Winkler, Sonja J Scheffer, Matthew L Lewis, Kristina J Ottens, Andrew P Rasmussen, Géssica A Gomes-Costa, Luz Maria Huerto Santillan, Marty A Condon, Andrew A Forbes
BACKGROUND: Much evolutionary theory predicts that diversity arises via both adaptive radiation (diversification driven by selection against niche-overlap within communities) and divergence of geographically isolated populations. We focus on tropical fruit flies (Blepharoneura, Tephritidae) that reveal unexpected patterns of niche-overlap within local communities. Throughout the Neotropics, multiple sympatric non-interbreeding populations often share the same highly specialized patterns of host use (e...
March 14, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Jorge Henrique Stefaneli Marques, Yara Teresinha Corrêa Silva-Sousa, Fuad Jacob Abi Rached-Júnior, Luciana Martins Domingues de Macedo, Jardel Francisco Mazzi-Chaves, Josette Camilleri, Manoel Damião Sousa-Neto
The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different triccalcium silicate cements to retrograde cavity using a push out test. Thirty maxillary central incisors were shaped using #80 hand files and sectioned transversally. Root slices were obtained from the apical 4 mm after eliminating the apical extremity. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and positioned at 45° to the horizontal plane for preparation of root-end cavities with a diamond ultrasonic retrotip. The samples were divided into three groups according to the root-end filling material (n = 10): MTA Angelus, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine...
March 8, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Irina I Ignatova, Andrew S French, Roman V Frolov
Natural visual scenes are rarely random. Instead, intensity and wavelength change slowly in time and space over many regions of the scene, so that neighboring temporal and spatial visual inputs are more correlated, and contain less information than truly random signals. It has been suggested that sensory optimization to match these higher order correlations (HOC) occurs at the earliest visual stages, and that photoreceptors can process temporal natural signals more efficiently than random signals. We tested this early stage hypothesis by comparing the information content of Calliphora vicina photoreceptor responses to naturalistic inputs before and after removing HOC by randomizing phase...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Kevin A Day, Kristan A Leech, Ryan T Roemmich, Amy J Bastian
Acquiring new movements requires the capacity of the nervous system to remember previously experienced motor patterns. The phenomenon of faster re-learning after initial learning is termed 'savings'. Here we studied how savings of a novel walking pattern develops over several days of practice, and how this process can be accelerated. We introduced participants to a split-belt treadmill adaptation paradigm for 30 minutes for 5 consecutive days. After 5 training days, participants were able to produce near-perfect performance when switching between split and tied-belt environments...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Sjoerd Tijmons, Matěj Karásek, G C H E de Croon
Robust attitude control is an essential aspect of research on autonomous flight of flapping wing Micro Air Vehicles. The mechanical solutions by which the necessary control moments are realised come at the price of extra weight and possible loss of aerodynamic efficiency. Stable flight of these vehicles has been shown by several designs using a conventional tail, but also by tailless designs that use active control of the wings. In this study a control mechanism is proposed that provides active control over the wings...
March 14, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Stéphanie Gamache, François Routhier, Ernesto Morales, Marie-Hélène Vandersmissen, Normand Boucher
BACKGROUND: Due to the ageing population and higher prevalence of individuals living with physical disabilities, there is a critical need for inclusive practices when designing accessible pedestrian infrastructures for ensuring social participation and equal opportunities. PURPOSE: Summarize the physical characteristics of current pedestrian infrastructure design for individuals with physical disabilities (IPD - motor, visual and hearing) found in the scientific literature and assess its quality...
March 14, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
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