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Gluten sensitivity and diabetes

Antigone Kouris-Blazos, Regina Belski
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The 68th United Nations General Assembly declared 2016 the International Year of Pulses. Therefore it is timely to review the current evidence of the benefits of legumes for human health with a focus on Australian sweet lupins. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library were searched to identify cross-sectional/epidemiological studies, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews. RESULTS: The strongest evidence appears to be for links between eating legumes and reduced risk of colorectal cancer as well as eating soy foods and reduced LDL cholesterol...
2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
P R Shewry, S J Hey
Wheat is a staple food throughout the temperate world and an important source of nutrients for many millions of people. However, the last few years have seen increasing concerns about adverse effects of wheat on health, particularly in North America and Europe, with the increasing adoption of wheat-free or gluten-free diets. This relates to two concerns: that wheat products are disproportionally responsible for increases in obesity and type 2 diabetes and that wheat gluten proteins cause a range of adverse reactions, including allergies, coeliac disease and 'non-coeliac gluten sensitivity'...
March 2016: Nutrition Bulletin
Mitra-Azra Aldaghi, Seyed-Mohsen Dehghani, Mahmood Haghighat
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is an immune-mediated inflammation of the small intestine caused by sensitivity to dietary gluten in genetically sensitive individuals. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the predictive value of tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibodies for the diagnosis of celiac disease in a pediatric population in order to determine if duodenal biopsy can be avoided. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The subjects were selected among individuals with probable celiac disease, referring to a gastrointestinal clinic...
February 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Knut E A Lundin, Cisca Wijmenga
Coeliac disease is a treatable, gluten-induced disease that often occurs concurrently with other autoimmune diseases. In genetic studies since 2007, a partial genetic overlap between these diseases has been revealed and further insights into the pathophysiology of coeliac disease and autoimmunity have been gained. However, genetic screening is not sensitive and specific enough to accurately predict disease development. The current method to diagnose individuals with coeliac disease is serological testing for the presence of autoantibodies whilst the patient is on a regular, gluten-containing diet, followed by gastroduodenoscopy with duodenal biopsy...
September 2015: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Omar N Nadhem, Ghassan Azeez, Roger D Smalligan, Steven Urban
Celiac disease, or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is defined as a state of heightened immunologic responsiveness to ingested gluten (from wheat, barley, or rye) in genetically susceptible individuals. Ingestion of the offending proteins leads to inflammation and intestinal mucosal damage, which may result in a spectrum of gastrointestinal symptoms, nutritional abnormalities, and systemic complications ranging from anemia and osteoporosis to secondary autoimmunity and malignancy. The genetic influence in the pathogenesis of celiac disease is indicated by its familial occurrence...
April 2015: Postgraduate Medicine
M Rostami Nejad, K Rostami, Mh Emami, Mr Zali, R Malekzadeh
Celiac disease (CD) was traditionally believed to be a chronic enteropathy, almost exclusively affecting people of European origin. Celiac disease is the permanent intolerance to dietary gluten, the major protein component of wheat. The availability of new, simple, very sensitive and specific serological tests has shown that CD is as common in Middle Eastern countries as in Europe, Australia and New Zealand where the major dietary staple is wheat. A high prevalence of CD has been found in Iran, in both the general population and the at-risk groups, i...
March 2011: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
Amy S Oxentenko, Joseph A Murray
There are 10 things that all gastroenterologists should know about celiac disease (CD). (1) The immunoglobulin A tissue transglutaminase is the single best serologic test to use for the detection of CD. (2) CD can be recognized endoscopically, and water immersion enhances villi detection, although a normal endoscopic appearance does not preclude the diagnosis. (3) It is recommended that 4 biopsies be taken from the second part of the duodenum and 2 bulb biopsies be taken at the 9 o'clock and 12 o'clock positions to maximize the sensitivity for histologic confirmation of CD...
August 2015: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Aaron Cohn, Anthony M Sofia, Sonia S Kupfer
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD) are autoimmune diseases with clinical and pathogenic overlap. The mean prevalence of CD in patients with T1D is about 8 %. Classic intestinal symptoms of CD may not be present in T1D leading to the recommendation for active case finding in this higher risk group. Screening is done with sensitive and specific serologies including tissue transglutaminase (tTG) IgA and deaminated gliadin peptide (DGP) IgA and IgG. Positive serologies are confirmed by the presence of villous atrophy and increased intraepithelial lymphocytes on duodenal biopsy...
August 2014: Current Diabetes Reports
Detlef Schuppan, Klaus-Peter Zimmer
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is an inflammatory disease of, the small intestine with a prevalence of roughly 0.5%-1%. Its symptoms arise in response to gluten consumption by genetically predisposed persons (HLA-DQ2/8). The autoantigen tissue transglutaminase (TG2) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease. METHOD: Selective review of pertinent literature, including guidelines from Germany and abroad. RESULTS: Celiac disease can present at any age with gastrointestinal or extraintestinal manifestations (e...
December 6, 2013: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Jemima Sharp, Barry Pizer, George Kokai, Marcus K H Auth
Screening for coeliac disease is recommended for children from certain risk groups, with implications for diagnostic procedures and dietetic management. The risk of a malignant complication in untreated coeliac disease is not considered high in children. We present the case of a girl with type I diabetes who developed weight loss, fatigue, and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Four years before, when she was asymptomatic, a screening coeliac tTG test was positive, but gluten was not eliminated from her diet. Based on clinical examination, a duodenal biopsy, and an inguinal lymph node biopsy were performed, which confirmed both coeliac disease and an anaplastic large-cell lymphoma...
2012: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Piotr Miśkiewicz, Anna Kępczyńska-Nyk, Tomasz Bednarczuk
Abstract Coeliac disease (CD, sometimes called gluten-sensitive enteropathy or nontropical sprue) is an inflammatory disorder of the small intestine of autoimmune origin. It occurs in genetically predisposed people and is induced by a gluten protein, which is a component of wheat. The prevalence of histologically confirmed CD is estimated in screening studies of adults in the United States and Europe to be between 0.2% and 1.0%. The results of previous studies have indicated that the prevalence of CD is increased in patients with other autoimmune disorders such as: autoimmune thyroid diseases, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and Addison's disease...
2012: Endokrynologia Polska
Gabriel Samaşca, Mihaela Iancu, Adrian Băican, Manuela Bruchental, Paraschiva Cherecheş-Panţa, Otilia Fufezan, Angela Butnariu, Dorin Farcău, Lucia Burac, Tudor Pop, Alexandru Pîrvan, Lucia Slăvescu, Nicolae Miu, Mariana Andreica, Doina Matinca, Dan Gheban, Romulus Nechit, Michaela Ponta, Ileana Constantinescu, Doru Dejica, Victor Cristea
Last consensus in celiac disease in 2008 conducted under the aegis of the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition jointly with North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition reveals the following: "celiac disease is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy characterized by sensitization to gluten. That can affect any organ or system, with a wide range of clinical manifestations of variable severity". Thus, in recent years, clinical picture of celiac disease has changed the old paradigm--bowel disease with villous atrophy and malnutrition, being replaced with the new paradigm--multi-organ autoimmune disease, affecting many organs and systems throughout but with more less specific symptoms, which undiagnosed leads to delayed diagnosis, at a late-onset disease and long-term major complications as the risk of cancer...
October 2011: Roumanian Archives of Microbiology and Immunology
Matthew Metzgar
The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) publishes their MyPyramid plan as a recommended eating model for all Americans. As part of this model, grain consumption is emphasized. This grain consumption has the potential to generate positive externalities, such as reduced rates of obesity, diabetes and other chronic diseases. Such positive externalities can potentially produce tangible economic benefits in terms of public health. In contrast, newer nutritional research shows that grain consumption may have negative effects on health for certain population groups...
June 2012: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Gabriel Samaşca, Mihaela Iancu, Dorin Farcău, Angela Butnariu, Tudor Pop, Alexandru Pîrvan, Mariana Andreica, Nicolae Miu, Victor Cristea, Doru Dejica
BACKGROUND: According to the 2008 celiac disease working group run by Dr. A. Fassano under the auspices of the Federation of International Societies of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, celiac disease is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy characterized by gluten sensitivity, which can affect any organ or system, having a wide range of clinical manifestations of variable severity. The serological diagnosis of celiac disease is based on high sensitivity and specificity tests...
2011: Clinical Laboratory
Shama Sud, Margaret Marcon, Esther Assor, Denis Daneman, Farid H Mahmud
BACKGROUND: Despite the advent of sensitive testing to detect celiac disease (CD), screening in type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains controversial. Many diabetes clinics are apprehensive about the prospect of introducing a second illness requiring intensive lifestyle changes in patients and families already managing a chronic condition, especially in asymptomatic patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of managing CD + T1D on quality of life in families, with attention to the effect of adherence with a gluten-free diet (GFD) and metabolic control...
March 2012: Pediatric Diabetes
Karsten Buschard
To study type 1 diabetes (T1D), excellent animal models exist, both spontaneously diabetic and virus-induced. Based on knowledge from these, this review focuses on the environmental factors leading to T1D, concentrated into four areas which are: (1) The thymus-dependent immune system: T1D is a T cell driven disease and the beta cells are destroyed in an inflammatory insulitis process. Autoimmunity is breakdown of self-tolerance and the balance between regulator T cells and aggressive effector T cells is disturbed...
July 2011: APMIS. Supplementum
R Troncone, B Jabri
Coeliac disease (CD) is a systemic immune-mediated disorder elicited by gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The common factor for all patients with CD is the presence of a variable combination of gluten-dependent clinical manifestations, specific autoantibodies (anti-tissue transglutaminase/anti-endomysium), HLA-DQ2 and/or DQ8 haplotypes and different degrees of enteropathy. Recently, gluten sensitivity has received much interest, although the limits and possible overlap between gluten sensitivity and CD remain poorly defined...
June 2011: Journal of Internal Medicine
Erdoğan Soyucen, Sema Yilmaz, Coşkun Çeltık, Ulfet Vatansever, Naci Öner, Serap Karasalıhoğlu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of celiac disease, a gluten-sensitive enteropathy, and autoimmune thyroiditis in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Thrace region of Turkey. METHODS: The population studied consisted of 33 children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 41 healthy children with demographic features similar to the study subjects. Free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody, anti-thyroglobulin antibody, IgA, anti-endomysium IgA, and anti-gliadin IgA were measured in all cases and controls...
September 2010: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Shama Sud, Margaret Marcon, Esther Assor, Mark R Palmert, Denis Daneman, Farid H Mahmud
Despite the advent of sensitive and specific serologic testing, routine screening for celiac disease (CD) in diabetic populations may not be universal practice, and many clinicians struggle to find the optimal approach to managing CD in pediatric Type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. While some clinicians advocate screening for CD in all patients with T1D, others are unsure whether this is warranted. The diagnosis of patients who present with symptomatic CD, including malabsorption and obvious pathology upon biopsy, remains straightforward, with improvements noted on a gluten-free diet...
2010: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology
M Hadjivassiliou, D Aeschlimann, R A Grünewald, D S Sanders, B Sharrack, N Woodroofe
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of gluten sensitivity in patients with stiff-person syndrome (SPS) lead us to investigate the relationship between gluten sensitivity and GAD-antibody-associated diseases. METHODS: We used ELISA assays for anti-GAD and for serological markers of gluten sensitivity. Patients were recruited from clinics based at the Royal Hallamshire hospital, Sheffield, UK. Patients with gluten sensitivity were followed up after the introduction of a gluten-free diet and serological testing was repeated...
March 2011: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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