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Carolina Garrido, Adam M Spivak, Natalia Soriano-Sarabia, Mary Ann Checkley, Edward Barker, Jonathan Karn, Vicente Planelles, David M Margolis
In an effort to clear persistent HIV infection and achieve a durable therapy-free remission of HIV disease, extensive pre-clinical studies and early pilot clinical trials are underway to develop and test agents that can reverse latent HIV infection and present viral antigen to the immune system for clearance. It is, therefore, critical to understand the impact of latency-reversing agents (LRAs) on the function of immune effectors needed to clear infected cells. We assessed the impact of LRAs on the function of natural killer (NK) cells, the main effector cells of the innate immune system...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Maurizio S Riga, Vicent Teruel-Martí, Connie Sánchez, Pau Celada, Francesc Artigas
Vortioxetine (VOR) is a multimodal antidepressant drug. VOR is a 5-HT3-R, 5-HT7-R and 5-HT1D-R antagonist, 5-HT1B-R partial agonist, 5-HT1A-R agonist, and serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitor. VOR shows pro-cognitive activity in animal models and beneficial effects on cognitive dysfunction in major depressive patients. Here we compared the effects of 14-day treatments with VOR and escitalopram (ESC, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) on neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Ten groups of rats (5 standard, 5 depleted of 5-HT with p-chlorophenylalanine -pCPA-, used as model of cognitive impairment) were fed with control food or with two doses of VOR-containing food...
September 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Thomas Politzer, Amy Berryman, Karen Rasavage, Lawrence Snell, Allan Weintraub, Donald J Gerber
BACKGROUND: Oculomotor deficits in smooth pursuit, saccades, vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR), vergence, and fixation are common problems seen after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). No scale currently exists to rate all of these together. The Craig Hospital Eye Evaluation Rating Scale (CHEERS) was designed to systematically quantify frequency and severity of eye movement deficits in TBI. OBJECTIVE: To assess the intra- and interrater reliability of a new rating scale for detecting the presence and degree of 5 oculomotor abnormalities after TBI...
September 21, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Yasumitsu Takimoto, Takao Imai, Makoto Kondo, Yukiko Hanada, Atsuhiko Uno, Yusuke Ishida, Takefumi Kamakura, Tadashi Kitahara, Hidenori Inohara, Shoichi Shimada
Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent commonly used for the treatment of solid tumors, and its side-effects include vestibulotoxicity. Previous studies have reported cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity in various animal models, but no study has investigated in vivo mouse vestibular dysfunction after cisplatin. The aim of this study was to investigate cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity in C57BL/6J mice. Vestibular function was assessed by recording the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). This was done during sinusoidal rotations in the horizontal plane at three frequencies (0...
September 19, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Kornthip Jeephet, Siriporn Kamsa-Ard, Vajarabhongsa Bhudhisawasdi, Supot Kamsa-Ard, Varisara Luvira, Vor Luvira
BACKGROUND: Thailand remains a primarily agricultural country and Thai farmers are heavy users of pesticides. Coincidentally the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is high in parts of the country, but no previous study has examined any association between the two. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present matched, case-control study covered patients admitted to Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The case group comprised 210 cases diagnosed with CCA and the control group 840 diagnosed with other diseases...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Shin C Beh, Teresa C Frohman, Elliot M Frohman
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum plays a central role in the online, real-time control, and long-term modulation of eye movements. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We reviewed the latest (fifth) edition of Leigh and Zee's textbook, The Neurology of Eye Movements, and literature in PUBMED using the following terms: cerebellum, flocculus, paraflocculus, vermis, oculomotor vermis, dorsal vermis, caudal fastigial nucleus, fastigial oculomotor region, uvula, nodulus, ansiform lobule, eye movements, saccades, ipsipulsion, contrapulsion, smooth pursuit, vergence, convergence, divergence, gaze-holding, down beat nystagmus, vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), angular VOR, translational VOR, skew deviation, velocity storage...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Qin Xu, Dakshesh Patel, Xian Zhang, Richard D Veenstra
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are small molecule anti-cancer therapeutics that exhibit limiting cardiotoxicities including QT interval prolongation and life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Because the molecular mechanisms for HDAC inhibitor-induced cardiotoxicity are poorly understood, we performed whole cell patch voltage clamp experiments to measure cardiac sodium currents (INa) from wild-type neonatal mouse ventricular or human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes treated with trichostatin A (TSA), vorinostat (VOR), or romidepsin (FK228)...
September 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
M Strupp, K Feil, M Dieterich, T Brandt
The leading symptoms of bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) are postural imbalance and unsteadiness of gait that worsens in darkness and on uneven ground. There are typically no symptoms while sitting or lying under static conditions. A minority of patients also have movement-induced oscillopsia, in particular while walking. The diagnosis of BVP is based on a bilaterally reduced or absent function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). This deficit is diagnosed for the high-frequency range of the angular VOR by a bilaterally pathologic bedside head impulse test (HIT) and for the low-frequency range by a bilaterally reduced or absent caloric response...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
M Fetter
Sudden unilateral loss of vestibular function is the most severe condition that can occur in the vestibular system. The clinical syndrome is caused by the physiologic properties of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) arc. In the normal situation, the two peripheral vestibular end organs are connected to a functional unit in coplanar pairs of semicircular canals working in a push-pull mode. "Push-pull" mode means that, when one side is excited, the other side is inhibited, and vice versa due to two mechanisms...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
J M Furman
The natural stimulus for the semicircular canals is rotation of the head, which also might stimulate the otolith organs. Vestibular stimulation usually induces eye movements via the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The orientation of the subject with respect to the axis of rotation and the orientation of the axis of rotation with respect to gravity together determine which labyrinthine receptors are stimulated for particular motion trajectories. Rotational testing usually includes the measurement of eye movements via a video system but might use a subject's perception of motion...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
A M Bronstein
This chapter provides an introduction to the topic of multisensory integration in balance control in, both, health and disease. One of the best-studied examples is that of visuo-vestibular interaction, which is the ability of the visual system to enhance or suppress the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR suppression). Of clinical relevance, examination of VOR suppression is clinically useful because only central, not peripheral, lesions impair VOR suppression. Visual, somatosensory (proprioceptive), and vestibular inputs interact strongly and continuously in the control of upright balance...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Michael Urban, Marc Vor der Brüggen, Robert Tampé
Membrane protein transport on the single protein level still evades detailed analysis, if the substrate translocated is non-electrogenic. Considerable efforts have been made in this field, but techniques enabling automated high-throughput transport analysis in combination with solvent-free lipid bilayer techniques required for the analysis of membrane transporters are rare. This class of transporters however is crucial in cell homeostasis and therefore a key target in drug development and methodologies to gain new insights desperately needed...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
P Zyluk-Gadowska, A Zyluk
Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, unter Berücksichtigung der in Pubmed und Medline veröffentlichten Ergebnisse nach Eingriffen am Karpalkanal zu ermitteln, inwieweit ausgewählte Faktoren wie das Patientenalter, die Dauer der Symptome, die Ausprägung der klinischen und elektrophysiologischen Befunde, das Vorliegen von Begleiterkrankungen und medikolegale Momente die Ergebnisse beeinflussen. Letztlich konnte für keinen der zahlreichen untersuchten Faktoren ein signifikanter Einfluss auf das Langzeitergebnis nachgewiesen werden...
August 2016: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
Georgios Mantokoudis, Ali S Saber Tehrani, Aaron L Wong, Yuri Agrawal, Angela Wenzel, John P Carey
OBJECTIVE: To describe vestibulo-ocular function and compensatory mechanisms in the immediate postoperative period after superior canal dehiscence surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study. SETTING: Tertiary medical center. PATIENTS: Five patients who underwent plugging of superior semicircular canal via middle cranial fossa approach. INTERVENTIONS: Bedside quantitative video head impulse testing (vHIT)...
October 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Andreas Bierstedt, Jens Riedel
A novel direct sampling ionisation scheme for ambient mass spectrometry is presented. Desorption and ionisation are achieved by a quasi-continuous laser induced plasma in air. Since there are no solid or liquid electrodes involved the ion source does not suffer from chemical interferences or fatigue originating from erosive burning or from electrode consumption. The overall plasma maintains electro-neutrality, minimising charge effects and accompanying long term drift of the charged particles trajectories. In the airborne plasma approach the ambient air not only serves as the plasma medium but at the same time also slows down the nascent ions via collisional cooling...
2016: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Md Rokunuzzaman, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Wayne S T Rowe, Salehin Kibria, Mandeep Jit Singh, Norbahiah Misran
A semi-circle looped vertically omnidirectional radiation (VOR) patterned tag antenna for UHF (919-923 MHz for Malaysia) frequency is designed to overcome the impedance mismatch issue in this paper. Two impedance matching feeding strips are used in the antenna structure to tune the input impedance of the antenna. Two dipole shaped meandered lines are used to achieve a VOR pattern. The proposed antenna is designed for 23-j224 Ω chip impedance. The antenna is suitable for 'place and tag' application. A small size of 77...
2016: PloS One
Franziska Conrad, Thomas Winkens, Martin Kaatz, Steven Goetze, Martin Freesmeyer
HINTERGRUND UND ZIELE: Bei der (18) F-Fluordeoxyglucose-Positronenemissionstomographie/Computertomographie (FDG-PET/CT) ergeben sich häufig Zufallsbefunde. In der vorliegenden Studie konzentrierten wir uns auf mittels FDG-PET/CT erhaltene Zufallsbefunde bei Patienten mit kutanem Melanom und überprüften deren Relevanz hinsichtlich weiterer diagnostischer Maßnahmen und Interventionen. PATIENTEN UND METHODEN: Die Krankenakten von 181 konsekutiven Melanom-Patienten wurden retrospektiv ausgewertet, um das Management von Zufallsbefunden zu dokumentieren...
August 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Nader Nassif, Cristiano Balzanelli, Luca Oscar Redaelli de Zinis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the lateral semicircular canal high frequency vestibulo-oculomotor reflex (LSC HF VOR) in children with cochlear implant. METHODS: 16 children (10 females and 6 males, age range = 5-17 years) receiving a unilateral (n = 12) or a bilateral (n = 4) cochlear implant were included and compared to a control group of 20 age-matched normal-hearing (NH) children. Both implanted and NH children received a vestibular function test battery, including a Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) gain assessment by means of a video-Head Impulse Test (vHIT), which represented the main outcome measure...
September 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Maria Cristina Ghezzi, Giammarco Raponi, Grazia Brunetti, Carolina Marsiglia, Stefania Fallani, Andrea Novelli, Mario Venditti
INTRODUCTION: Infections are still the most common complications of cerebral shunt procedures. Even though fungal etiologies are considered to be rare, they are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Due to their uncommonness, diagnostic procedures and optimal therapy are poorly defined. We report a case of Candida tropicalis infection of ventriculo-peritoneal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt in a 49-year-old immune competent male treated with voriconazole (VOR). METHODS: Microbiological and CSF markers (1,3-b-D-glucan-BDG) of fungal infection, biofilm production capacity, sensitivity of serial isolates of the pathogen, and the concentration of the antifungal drug have been monitored and related to the clinical course of this infection...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Eric R Anson, Robin T Bigelow, John P Carey, Quan-Li Xue, Stephanie Studenski, Michael C Schubert, Konrad P Weber, Yuri Agrawal
OBJECTIVE: Rotational vestibular function declines with age resulting in saccades as a compensatory mechanism to improve impaired gaze stability. Small reductions in rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain that would be considered clinically normal have been associated with compensatory saccades. We evaluated whether compensatory saccade characteristics varied as a function of age, independent of semicircular canal function as quantified by VOR gain. METHODS: Horizontal VOR gain was measured in 243 participants age 27-93 from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging using video head impulse testing...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
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