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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444617/computational-theory-underlying-acute-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-motor-learning-with-cerebellar-long-term-depression-and-long-term-potentiation
#1
Keiichiro Inagaki, Yutaka Hirata
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) can be viewed as an adaptive control system that maintains compensatory eye movements during head motion. As the cerebellar flocculus is intimately involved in this adaptive motor control of the VOR, the VOR has been a popular model system for investigating cerebellar motor learning. Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses are considered to play major roles in cerebellar motor learning. A recent study using mutant mice demonstrated cerebellar motor learning with hampered LTD; the study concluded that the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell LTD is not essential...
April 25, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436631/-video-head-impulse-test-for-evaluation-of-vestibular-function-in-patients-with-vestibular-neuritis-and-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo
#2
Qiongfeng Guan, Lisan Zhang, Wenke Hong, Yi Yang, Zhaoying Chen, Dan Zhang, Xingyue Hu
Objective: To assess the clinical application of video head impulse test (vHIT) for vestibular function in vestibular neuritis (VN) and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) patients. Methods: Thirty-three patients with VN and 43 patients with BPPV were enrolled from Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital and Ningbo Second Hospital from March 15 to September 10, 2015; and 50 healthy controls were also enrolled in the study. vHIT was used to quantitatively test the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gains of a pair of horizontal semicircular canals...
January 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434022/effects-of-vestibular-disorders-on-vestibular-reflex-and-imagery
#3
B S Cohen, J Provasi, P Leboucher, I Israël
The aim of this study was to establish the effect of vestibular lesion on vestibular imagery. Subjects were required to estimate verbally their passively travelled rotation angles in complete darkness, i.e., to activate vestibular imagery. During motion, the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was measured. Thus, we examined the coherence between the vestibulo-ocular reflex and self-rotation imagery, with vestibular-lesioned patients and healthy participants. Unilateral acute and chronic patients, bilateral patients, and healthy subjects were compared...
April 22, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431905/dynamic-interhemispheric-competition-and-vestibulo-cortical-control-in-humans-a-theoretical-proposition
#4
REVIEW
Qadeer Arshad
Neuroscientific research has made a concerted effort to determine cortical localisation using various functional imaging techniques. This approach has undoubtedly yielded important novel anatomical knowledge, albeit at times contradictory, regarding the structural organisation of the vestibular cortex. Unfortunately however, this knowledge has not translated to our understanding regarding how neural mechanisms control vestibular function. Based upon recent functional imaging, lesion and neuro-physiological data that has demonstrated (i) the close behavioural and neuro-anatomical relationship between cortical processing of vestibular and spatial attention signals, and (ii) that inducing interhemispheric competition can in-turn strongly modulate vestibular function akin to that observed in cortical lesion patients, I herewith propose the hypothesis that vestibular cortical processing is controlled, as per for spatial attention, via dynamic interhemispheric competition...
April 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404827/new-insights-into-vestibular-saccade-interaction-based-on-covert-corrective-saccades-in-patients-with-unilateral-vestibular-deficits
#5
Paolo Colagiorgio, Maurizio Versino, Silvia Colnaghi, Silvia Quaglieri, Marco Manfrin, Ewa Zamaro, Georgios Mantokoudis, David S Zee, Stefano Ramat
In response to passive high-acceleration head impulses patients with low vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gains often produce covert (executed while the head is still moving) corrective saccades in the direction of deficient slow phases. Here we examined 23 patients using passive, and nine also active, head impulses with acute (< 10 days from onset) unilateral vestibular neuritis and low VOR gains. We found that when corrective saccades are larger than 10°, the slow-phase component of the VOR is inhibited, even though inhibition increases further the time to reacquire the fixation target...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393118/postural-compensation-strategy-depends-on-the-severity-of-vestibular-damage
#6
Lara A Thompson, Csilla Haburcakova, Richard F Lewis
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of various levels of vestibular function on balance in two, free-standing rhesus monkeys. We hypothesized that postural control strategy depended on the severity of vestibular damage. More specifically, that increased muscle stiffness (via short-latency mechanisms) was adequate to compensate for mild damage, but long-latency mechanisms must be utilized for more severe vestibular damage. One animal was studied for pre-ablated and mild vestibular dysfunction states, while a second animal was studied in a pre-ablated and severe vestibular dysfunction state...
March 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386500/diagnostic-bedside-vestibuloocular-reflex-evaluation-in-the-setting-of-a-false-negative-fistula-test-in-cholesteatoma-of-the-middle-ear
#7
Ricardo D'Albora, Ligia Silveira, Sergio Carmona, Nicolas Perez-Fernandez
Background. False negative fistula testing in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media is a dilemma when proceeding to surgery. It is imperative to rule out a dead labyrinth or a mass effect secondary to the cholesteatoma in an otherwise normally functioning inner ear. We present a case series of three patients in whom a bedside vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) evaluation using a head impulse test was used successfully for further evaluation prior to surgery. Results. In all three cases with a false negative fistula test we were able to further evaluate at the bedside and were not only able to register the abnormal VOR but also localize its deterioration to a particular semicircular canal eroded by the fistula...
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380076/strength-of-baseline-inter-trial-correlations-forecasts-adaptive-capacity-in-the-vestibulo-ocular-reflex
#8
Kara H Beaton, Aaron L Wong, Steven B Lowen, Mark Shelhamer
Individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability may permit customized training protocols for optimum learning. Here, we sought to forecast individual adaptive capabilities in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Subjects performed 400 head-rotation steps (400 trials) during a baseline test, followed by 20 min of VOR gain adaptation. All subjects exhibited mean baseline VOR gain of approximately 1.0, variable from trial to trial, and showed desired reductions in gain following adaptation with variation in extent across individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378469/die-histologischen-typen-der-lymphomatoiden-papulose-ein-vorschlag-f%C3%A3-r-die-vereinfachung-des-buchstabenchaos
#9
REVIEW
Werner Kempf, Christina Mitteldorf, Laszlo J Karai, Alistair Robson
Die lymphomatoide Papulose (LYP) ist klinisch durch rezidivierende papulonoduläre Läsionen charakterisiert. Im Gegensatz zu dieser stereotypen klinischen Präsentation zeigt die Erkrankung ein breites histologisches Spektrum mit verschiedenen Infiltratmustern, unterschiedlichen Tumorzellgrößen und variablen Phänotypen. Die revidierte WHO-Klassifikation 2016 umfasst die histologischen LYP-Typen A bis E und einen sechsten Typ, dem eine spezielle Mutation zugrunde liegt. Darüber hinaus werden jedoch immer wieder neue Typen vorgeschlagen, wobei sich die Ausweitung nicht ausschließlich auf histologische Muster bezieht, sondern sich auch auf klinische und genetische Aspekte ausdehnt...
April 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365885/the-spectrum-of-vestibular-and-ocular-motor-abnormalities-in-thiamine-deficiency
#10
REVIEW
Jorge C Kattah
PURPOSE: The first aim of this review is to summarize recent ocular motor signs in pre-encephalopathy patients with nutritional deficiency at risk of thiamine deficiency. Timely recognition of thiamine depletion in these patients, who may have a normal brain MRI, could lead to appropriate management and prevention of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) with full recovery. The second aim is to incorporate recent diagnostic testing on the revised WE diagnostic criteria and the identification of patients who may show slow, partial, or no response to treatment...
May 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365709/therapie-des-metastasierten-kastrationsresistenten-prostatakarzinoms-mit-abirateronacetat-im-klinischen-alltag
#11
Johannes Maria Wolff
Abirateronacetat, das in Kombination mit Prednison/Prednisolon verabreicht wird, spielt eine wichtige Rolle in der Therapie des metastasierten kastrationsresistenten Prostatakarzinoms. Im Folgenden wurden besondere Aspekte der Therapie im klinischen Alltag zusammengestellt. Sie betreffen unter anderem die Dosierung - auch vor dem Hintergrund der Markteinführung einer neuen Formulierung von Abirateronacetat. Hinzu kommt die Verträglichkeit, vor allem in Bezug auf kardiovaskuläre und Kortikoid-bedingte Nebenwirkungen...
2017: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359149/hydroheteroarylation-of-unactivated-alkenes-using-n-methoxyheteroarenium-salts
#12
Xiaoshen Ma, Hester Dang, John A Rose, Paul Rablen, Seth B Herzon
We report the first reductive coupling of unactivated alkenes with N-methoxy pyridazinium, imidazolium, quinolinium, and isoquinolinium salts under hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) conditions, and an expanded scope for the coupling of alkenes with N-methoxy pyridinium salts. N-Methoxy pyridazinium, imidazolium, quinolinium, and isoquinolinium salts are accessible in 1-2 steps from the commercial arenes or arene N-oxides (25-99%). N-Methoxy imidazolium salts are accessible in three steps from commercial amines (50-85%)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336357/assessment-of-vestibulo-ocular-function-without-measuring-eye-movements
#13
Kara H Beaton, Michael Schubert, Mark Shelhamer
BACKGROUND: The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) maintains stable gaze during head motion. Deficiencies lead to apparent world motion due to incomplete stabilization of eyes in space. VOR measurement requires specialized apparatus, trained operators, and significant setup time. NEW METHOD: We present a system (VON: vestibulo-ocular nulling) for rapid vestibulo-ocular assessment without measuring eye movements per se. VON uses a head-mounted motion sensor, laptop computer with user input control, and laser target whose position is controlled by the computer...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324698/eye-stabilization-reflexes-in-traumatic-and-non-traumatic-chronic-neck-pain-patients
#14
Britta K Ischebeck, Jurryt de Vries, Malou Janssen, Jan Paul van Wingerden, Gert-Jan Kleinrensink, Jos N van der Geest, Maarten A Frens
BACKGROUND: Many chronic neck pain patients experience problems with vision. These problems are possibly induced by deviations of the eye stabilization reflexes. It is not known whether these eye reflex alterations occur both in traumatic and non-traumatic neck pain patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the cervico-ocular reflex (COR) and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) are changed in tertiary care patients with prolonged, chronic neck pain with various origin of complaints...
March 16, 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318060/integrating-postural-and-vestibular-dimensions-to-depict-impairment-in-moderate-to-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-patients
#15
Alessandro Micarelli, Claudio Liguori, Andrea Viziano, Francesca Izzi, Fabio Placidi, Marco Alessandrini
Vestibular dysfunction was linked to moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients in literature. However, due to a lack of knowledge among valid and recent implementations conceived to study postural control on static posturography (SP) and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain under physiological conditions (video Head Impulse Test; vHIT), the aim of this work was to integrate (i) VOR changes via vHIT implementation, (ii) postural arrangement by studying both classical parameters and frequency spectra (PS) and (iii) correlation between these findings, polygraphic (PG) and subjective scores along Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303261/long-lasting-visuo-vestibular-mismatch-in-freely-behaving-mice-reduces-the-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-and-leads-to-neural-changes-in-the-direct-vestibular-pathway
#16
Julie Carcaud, Filipa França de Barros, Erwin Idoux, Daniel Eugène, Lionel Reveret, Lee E Moore, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Mathieu Beraneck
Calibration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) depends on the presence of visual feedback. However, the cellular mechanisms associated with VOR modifications at the level of the brainstem remain largely unknown. A new protocol was designed to expose freely behaving mice to a visuo-vestibular mismatch during a 2-week period. This protocol induced a 50% reduction of the VOR. In vivo pharmacological experiments demonstrated that the VOR reduction depends on changes located outside the flocculus/paraflocculus complex...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292832/functional-organization-of-vestibulo-ocular-responses-in-abducens-motoneurons
#17
Haike Dietrich, Stefan Glasauer, Hans Straka
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) are the dominating contributors to gaze stabilization in all vertebrates. During horizontal head movements, abducens motoneurons form the final element of the reflex arc that integrates visuovestibular inputs into temporally precise motor commands for the lateral rectus eye muscle. Here, we studied a possible differentiation of abducens motoneurons into subtypes by evaluating their morphology, discharge properties, and synaptic pharmacology in semi-intact in vitro preparations of larval Xenopus laevis Extracellular nerve recordings during sinusoidal head motion revealed a continuum of resting rates and activation thresholds during vestibular stimulation...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292626/intratympanal-gentamicin-in-meniere-s-disease-effects-on-individual-semicircular-canals
#18
Béla Büki, Heinz Jünger
OBJECTIVE: In this retrospective study the aim of the authors was to examine the effect of gentamicin on the individual semicircular canals after low dose, single injection intratympanal gentamicin therapy in Meniere's disease. METHODS: Data of 32 patients treated between 2011 and 2015 were collected. The high frequency, high acceleration vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) gain was measured in the individual semicircular canals using video head impulse test immediately before the first intratympanal gentamicin instillation and approximately two months later...
March 11, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282366/comparing-azole-plasma-trough-levels-in-lung-transplant-recipients-percentage-of-therapeutic-levels-and-intrapatient-variability
#19
Daniela Stelzer, Alexandra Weber, Franziska Ihle, Sandhya Matthes, Felix Ceelen, Gregor Zimmermann, Nikolaus Kneidinger, Rene Schramm, Hauke Winter, Michael Zoller, Michael Vogeser, Juergen Behr, Claus Neurohr
BACKGROUND: This study compared therapeutic azole plasma trough levels (APL) of the azole antimycotics itraconazole (ITR), voriconazole (VOR), and posaconazole (POS) in lung transplant recipients and analyzed the influencing factors. In addition, intrapatient variability for each azole was determined. METHODS: From July 2012 to July 2015, 806 APL of ITR, VOR, posaconazole liquid (POS-Liq), and posaconazole tablets (POS-Tab) were measured in 173 patients of the Munich Lung Transplantation Program...
April 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277861/state-transition-model-vorapaxar-added-to-standard-antiplatelet-therapy-to-prevent-thrombosis-post-myocardial-infarction-or-peripheral-artery-disease
#20
Mark Du, Monica Chase, Mustafa Oguz, Glenn Davies
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term health benefits and risks of adding vorapaxar (VOR) to the standard care antiplatelet therapy (SC) of aspirin and/or clopidogrel, among a population with a recent myocardial infarction (MI) and/or peripheral artery disease (PAD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a state-transition model, patients transition between health states (event-free, recurrent MI, stroke, death), while at risk of experiencing non-transition-related revascularization and non-fatal bleeding events...
March 12, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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