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Vestibulo ocular reflex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771078/-analysis-of-the-difference-between-the-results-of-caloric-tests-and-video-head-pulse-tests-in-patients-with-vestibular-migraine-and-vestibular-neuritis
#1
W Wang, Y C Yang, J H Zhuang, F Li, B Gao
Objective: To compare the results of caloric tests and video head impulse tests (VHIT) in patients with vestibular migraine (VM) and vestibular neuritis (VN), so as to provide help for the differential diagnosis of the two patients. Method: Retrospectively analyze VM and VN patients within 2 weeks of onset from August 1, 2016 to December 31, 2017 in neurology clinic of the Changzheng Hospital of Second Military Medical University, all patients were examined by caloric tests and VHIT, and the results of the two groups were compared and analyzed...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729209/gaze-stability-dynamic-balance-and-participation-deficits-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-at-fall-risk
#2
Hina Garg, Leland E Dibble, Michael C Schubert, Jim Sibthorp, K Bo Foreman, Eduard Gappmaier
Despite the common complaints of dizziness and demyelination of afferent or efferent pathways to and from the vestibular nuclei which may adversely affect the angular Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (aVOR) and vestibulo-spinal function in persons with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS), few studies have examined gaze and dynamic balance function in PwMS. OBJECTIVES: 1) Determine the differences in gaze stability, dynamic balance and participation measures between PwMS and controls, 2) Examine the relationships between gaze stability, dynamic balance and participation...
May 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708491/video-head-impulse-testing-in-a-pediatric-population-normative-findings
#3
Katheryn Bachmann, Kaitlin Sipos, Violette Lavender, Lisa L Hunter
BACKGROUND: The video head impulse test (vHIT) is a new tool being used in vestibular clinics to assess the function of all six semicircular canals (SCCs) by measuring the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in response to rapid head turns. Whereas vHIT has been validated in adults for all SCCs, there are few studies describing the normal response in children, particularly for stimulation of the vertical canals. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the normal vHIT response for all six SCCs in children aged 4-12 years...
May 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696497/cerebellar-ataxia-neuropathy-vestibular-areflexia-syndrome-canvas-with-chronic-cough-and-preserved-muscle-stretch-reflexes-evidence-for-selective-sparing-of-afferent-ia-fibres
#4
Jon Infante, Antonio García, Karla M Serrano-Cárdenas, Rocío González-Aguado, José Gazulla, Enrique M de Lucas, José Berciano
The aim of this study was to describe five patients with cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) with chronic cough and preserved limb muscle stretch reflexes. All five patients were in the seventh decade of age, their gait imbalance having been initiated in the fifth decade. In four patients cough antedated gait imbalance between 15 and 29 years; cough was spasmodic and triggered by variable factors. Established clinical picture included severe hypopallesthesia predominating in the lower limbs with postural imbalance, and variable degree of cerebellar axial and appendicular ataxia, dysarthria and horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694922/vestibular-signals-in-primate-cortex-for-self-motion-perception
#5
REVIEW
Yong Gu
The vestibular peripheral organs in our inner ears detect transient motion of the head in everyday life. This information is sent to the central nervous system for automatic processes such as vestibulo-ocular reflexes, balance and postural control, and higher cognitive functions including perception of self-motion and spatial orientation. Recent neurophysiological studies have discovered a prominent vestibular network in the primate cerebral cortex. Many of the areas involved are multisensory: their neurons are modulated by both vestibular signals and visual optic flow, potentially facilitating more robust heading estimation through cue integration...
April 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689763/relationship-between-motion-sickness-susceptibility-and-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-gain-and-phase
#6
Gilles Clément, Millard F Reschke
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that individual susceptibility to motion sickness is related to the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) through the activation of the velocity storage mechanism. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether motion sickness level was related to the gain and phase of the VOR. METHODS: VOR gain and phase were measured in 214 subjects while they rotated in yaw at 0.01 Hz, 0.02 Hz, 0.04 Hz, 0.08 Hz, and 0.16 Hz in darkness, and results were compared to the severity of symptoms the subjects experienced during subsequent tests to provoke motion sickness...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680227/cerebellar-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-interacts-with-bdnf-val66met-in-motor-learning
#7
Rick van der Vliet, Zeb D Jonker, Suzanne C Louwen, Marco Heuvelman, Linda de Vreede, Gerard M Ribbers, Chris I De Zeeuw, Opher Donchin, Ruud W Selles, Jos N van der Geest, Maarten A Frens
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation has been reported to enhance motor associative learning and motor adaptation, holding promise for clinical application in patients with movement disorders. However, behavioral benefits from cerebellar tDCS have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: Identifying determinants of treatment success is necessary. BDNF Val66Met is a candidate determinant, because the polymorphism is associated with motor skill learning and BDNF is thought to mediate tDCS effects...
April 11, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676210/reduced-purposeful-head-movements-during-community-ambulation-following-unilateral-vestibular-loss
#8
Serene Sulyn Paul, Leland E Dibble, Raymond G Walther, Clough Shelton, Richard Klaus Gurgel, Mark Eric Lester
BACKGROUND: Individuals with unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) alter their movement and reduce mobility to try to stabilize their gaze and avoid symptoms of dizziness and vertigo. OBJECTIVE: To determine if individuals with UVH 6 weeks after surgery demonstrate altered head and trunk kinematics during community ambulation. METHODS: A total of 15 vestibular schwannoma patients with documented postoperative unilateral vestibular loss and 9 healthy controls with symmetrical vestibulo-ocular reflexes participated in this cross-sectional study...
April 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656311/consensus-paper-neurophysiological-assessments-of-ataxias-in-daily-practice
#9
REVIEW
W Ilg, M Branscheidt, A Butala, P Celnik, L de Paola, F B Horak, L Schöls, H A G Teive, A P Vogel, D S Zee, D Timmann
The purpose of this consensus paper is to review electrophysiological abnormalities and to provide a guideline of neurophysiological assessments in cerebellar ataxias. All authors agree that standard electrophysiological methods should be systematically applied in all cases of ataxia to reveal accompanying peripheral neuropathy, the involvement of the dorsal columns, pyramidal tracts and the brainstem. Electroencephalography should also be considered, although findings are frequently non-specific. Electrophysiology helps define the neuronal systems affected by the disease in an individual patient and to understand the phenotypes of the different types of ataxia on a more general level...
April 14, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649046/range-of-peak-head-velocity-in-video-head-impulse-testing-for-pediatric-patients
#10
Guangwei Zhou, Cassandra Goutos, Sophie Lipson, Jacob Brodsky
OBJECTIVE: To examine peak head velocity in video head impulse testing of pediatric patients and its effect on vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Pediatric patients ages 3 to 18 years old who underwent video head impulse testing during clinical evaluation of dizziness and/or imbalance. INTERVENTION(S): Conducted video head impulse test (vHIT) in horizontal, left anterior-right posterior (LARP), and right anterior-left posterior (RALP) planes...
April 11, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619111/intratympanic-gentamicin-for-intractable-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-a-review-and-analysis-of-audiovestibular-impact
#11
Sertaç Yetişer
Introduction  Intratympanic gentamicin regulates the symptoms in most patients with incapacitating Ménière's disease. The treatment protocols have changed over the years from medical labyrinthectomy to preservation of vestibular function. Objectives  This study aims to review the audiovestibular response related to the effect of the drug in controlling vertigo. Data Synthesis  Articles were identified by means of a search in the PubMed database using the key words Meniere and intratympanic or transtympanic gentamicin ...
April 2018: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599742/the-video-head-impulse-test-and-the-influence-of-daily-use-of-spectacles-to-correct-a-refractive-error
#12
T S van Dooren, F M P Lucieer, A M L Janssen, H Kingma, R van de Berg
Objective: To determine the influence of daily use of spectacles to correct a refractive error, on the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain measured with the video head impulse test (vHIT). Study design: This prospective study enrolled subjects between 18 and 80 years old with and without a refractive error. Subjects were classified into three groups: (1) contact lenses, (2) spectacles, and (3) control group without visual impairment. Exclusion criteria comprised ophthalmic pathology, history of vestibular disorders, and alternated use of spectacles and contact lenses in daily life...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593506/the-interaction-of-pre-programmed-eye-movements-with-the-vestibulo-ocular-reflex
#13
Stephanie E Haggerty, W Michael King
The Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) works to stabilize gaze during unexpected head movements. However, even subjects who lack a VOR (e.g., vestibulopathic patients) can achieve gaze stability during planned head movements by using pre-programmed eye movements (PPEM). The extent to which PPEM are used by healthy intact subjects and how they interact with the VOR is still unclear. We propose a model of gaze stabilization which makes several claims: (1) the VOR provides ocular stability during unexpected (i.e., passive) head movements; (2) PPEM are used by both healthy and vestibulopathic subjects during planned (i...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579015/the-avor-app-increases-medical-students-competence-in-treating-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo-bppv
#14
Julia Dlugaiczyk, Michael Thiemer, Christian Neubert, Bianca Anna Schorn, Bernhard Schick
HYPOTHESIS: Implementation of the "aVOR app" into teaching courses at medical school enhances students' satisfaction with the course and increases their competence in treating benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). BACKGROUND: BPPV is often underdiagnosed and left untreated. One problem in teaching the management of BPPV to health care professionals is the lack of simulation-based training tools. The aVOR app (aVOR = angular vestibulo-ocular reflex) works as a bionic labyrinth that simulates the activation of the semicircular canals by rotational acceleration and the resulting vestibular evoked eye movements...
June 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578887/visual-performance-and-perception-as-a-target-of-saccadic-strategies-in-patients-with-unilateral-vestibular-loss
#15
Gabriel Trinidad-Ruiz, Jorge Rey-Martinez, Angel Batuecas-Caletrio, Eusebi Matiño-Soler, Nicolas Perez-Fernandez
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ability of saccadic strategies developed during vestibular compensation to reduce the effect of an impaired vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) on a retinal smear and image motion sensation. DESIGN: Twenty patients with unilateral vestibular loss were examined with a video head impulse test before and after vestibular rehabilitation (VR) with the use of gaze stabilization and refixation saccades training. Head and eye velocity functions were processed to infer the retinal eccentricity, and through its correlation with visual acuity (VA), several measurements are proposed to evaluate the influence of VR on saccades behavior and visual performance...
March 23, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557501/the-dizziness-handicap-inventory-does-not-correlate-with-vestibular-function-tests-a-prospective-study
#16
Chun Wai Yip, Michael Strupp
The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) is believed to quantitate the handicap related to the presence or severity of underlying vestibular dysfunction. However, patients with chronic vestibular diseases may manifest various degrees of behavioural and physiological adaptation resulting in variances of the DHI. Our primary study objective is to evaluate the correlation between the DHI and measurable vestibular parameters. Secondarily, we compared DHI among different vestibular disorders (central, peripheral and functional), and different types of anatomic deficits (semicircular canal vs otolithic)...
May 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556714/pharmacological-profile-of-vestibular-inhibitory-inputs-to-superior-oblique-motoneurons
#17
Parthena Soupiadou, Francisco Branoner, Hans Straka
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) are mediated by three-neuronal brainstem pathways that transform semicircular canal and otolith sensory signals into motor commands for the contraction of spatially specific sets of eye muscles. The vestibular excitation and inhibition of extraocular motoneurons underlying this reflex is reciprocally organized and allows coordinated activation of particular eye muscles and concurrent relaxation of their antagonistic counterparts. Here, we demonstrate in isolated preparations of Xenopus laevis tadpoles that the discharge modulation of superior oblique motoneurons during cyclic head motion derives from an alternating excitation and inhibition...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547458/degree-of-functional-impairment-associated-with-vestibular-hypofunction-among-older-adults-with-cognitive-decline
#18
Alessandro Micarelli, Andrea Viziano, David Della-Morte, Ivan Augimeri, Marco Alessandrini
OBJECTIVE: Considering the altered multisensory signal compensation during senescence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the integration rearrangements in unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) during age-related cognitive decline. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Longitudinal cohort study unit and of University tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Older UVH individuals ≥ 55 years with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer Disease (AD) and matched UVH control group with age-appropriate cognitive function...
March 15, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501316/long-term-platinum-induced-ototoxicity-in-pediatric-patients
#19
Sofia Waissbluth, Angela Chuang, Álvaro Del Valle, Marcela Cordova
OBJECTIVES: Platinum-based chemotherapy treatments are effective against a variety of pediatric malignancies. However, its use can lead to permanent hearing loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of platinum chemotherapy on hearing and evaluate its progression. METHODS: Prospective cohort study. All records of pediatric patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy between 2001 and 2006 were reviewed. Demographics and audiograms performed before, during, and following chemotherapy were analyzed...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490911/recent-advances-in-head-impulse-test-findings-in-central-vestibular-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Jeong-Yoon Choi, Hyo-Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
The head impulse test (HIT) is used to evaluate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during a high-velocity head rotation. Corrective catch-up saccades that occur during or after the HITs usually indicate peripheral vestibular hypofunction, whereas in acute vestibular syndrome, normal clinical (bedside) HITs should prompt a search for a central lesion. However, recent quantitative studies that evaluated HITs using magnetic search coils or video-based techniques have demonstrated that specific patterns of HIT abnormalities are associated with central vestibular disorders...
March 27, 2018: Neurology
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