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Vestibulo ocular reflex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898608/effect-of-spatial-orientation-of-the-horizontal-semicircular-canal-on-the-vestibulo-ocular-reflex
#1
Rebecca Maxwell, Constantin von Kirschbaum, Claudia Jerin, Nadine Lehnen, Eike Krause, Robert Gürkov
OBJECTIVE: To determine if an alignment of the horizontal semi-circular canal (hSCC) with the plane of rotation would enhance the vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) gain result as it has been previously suggested. STUDY DESIGN: Comparative study of a physiological vestibular function test in healthy subjects. SETTING: Tertiary referral center for otology and neurotology. PATIENTS: Twenty two healthy volunteers were recruited for this study...
November 24, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877114/ontogenetic-development-of-vestibulo-ocular-reflexes-in-amphibians
#2
REVIEW
Francisco Branoner, Boris P Chagnaud, Hans Straka
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) ensure gaze stability during locomotion and passively induced head/body movements. In precocial vertebrates such as amphibians, vestibular reflexes are required very early at the onset of locomotor activity. While the formation of inner ears and the assembly of sensory-motor pathways is largely completed soon after hatching, angular and translational/tilt VOR display differential functional onsets and mature with different time courses. Otolith-derived eye movements appear immediately after hatching, whereas the appearance and progressive amelioration of semicircular canal-evoked eye movements is delayed and dependent on the acquisition of sufficiently large semicircular canal diameters...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814312/impact-of-artifacts-on-vor-gain-measures-by-video-oculography-in-the-acute-vestibular-syndrome
#3
Georgios Mantokoudis, Ali S Saber Tehrani, Amy Wozniak, Karin Eibenberger, Jorge C Kattah, Cynthia I Guede, David S Zee, David E Newman-Toker
OBJECTIVE: The video head impulse test (HIT) measures vestibular function (vestibulo-ocular reflex [VOR] gain - ratio of eye to head movement), and, in principle, could be used to make a distinction between central and peripheral causes of vertigo. However, VOG recordings contain artifacts, so using unfiltered device data might bias the final diagnosis, limiting application in frontline healthcare settings such as the emergency department (ED). We sought to assess whether unfiltered data (containing artifacts) from a video-oculography (VOG) device have an impact on VOR gain measures in acute vestibular syndrome (AVS)...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805050/modeled-changes-of-cerebellar-activity-in-mutant-mice-are-predictive-of-their-learning-impairments
#4
Aleksandra Badura, Claudia Clopath, Martijn Schonewille, Chris I De Zeeuw
Translating neuronal activity to measurable behavioral changes has been a long-standing goal of systems neuroscience. Recently, we have developed a model of phase-reversal learning of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, a well-established, cerebellar-dependent task. The model, comprising both the cerebellar cortex and vestibular nuclei, reproduces behavioral data and accounts for the changes in neural activity during learning in wild type mice. Here, we used our model to predict Purkinje cell spiking as well as behavior before and after learning of five different lines of mutant mice with distinct cell-specific alterations of the cerebellar cortical circuitry...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777829/non-invasive-neuromodulation-using-time-varying-caloric-vestibular-stimulation
#5
Robert D Black, Lesco L Rogers, Kristen K Ade, Heather A Nicoletto, Heather D Adkins, Daniel T Laskowitz
Caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) to elicit the vestibulo-ocular reflex has long been used in clinical settings to aid in the diagnosis of balance disorders and to confirm the absence of brainstem function. While a number of studies have hinted at the potential therapeutic applications of CVS, the limitations of existing devices have frustrated that potential. Current CVS irrigators use water or air during short-duration applications; however, this approach is not tenable for longer duration therapeutic protocols or home use...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766472/delayed-vestibulopathy-after-heat-exposure
#6
Ileok Jung, Seo-Young Choi, Hyo-Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
Even though dizziness is a common symptom of heat illness, comprehensive evaluation of the vestibular function has not been available in this potentially life-threatening disorder. Three patients developed vertigo about a week after heat exposure. Evaluation showed bilateral impairments of the vestibulo-ocular reflex during head impulses and the signs of vestibulocerebellar dysfunction that included spontaneous downbeat nystagmus, gaze-evoked nystagmus, and positional downbeat nystagmus. Exposure to excessive heat may give rise to delayed vestibulopathy by damaging the vestibulocerebellum...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749752/vestibular-involvement-in-patients-with-otitis-media-with-antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated-vasculitis
#7
Yuka Morita, Kuniyuki Takahashi, Shuji Izumi, Yamato Kubota, Shinsuke Ohshima, Arata Horii
OBJECTIVE: Otitis media (OM) with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (OMAAV) is a novel concept of ear disease that is characterized by progressive mixed or sensorineural hearing loss with occasional systemic involvement. Considering the accumulating knowledge about the characteristics of and treatment for auditory dysfunction in OMAAV, the objective of this study was to investigate the vestibular function and symptoms of patients with OMAAV. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review...
September 30, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748202/does-spectacle-use-lead-to-vestibular-suppression
#8
A Thakar
BACKGROUND: Laboratory experiments indicate that changes in retinal image size result in adaptive recalibration or suppression of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Myopia correction with spectacles or contact lenses also leads to retinal image size changes, and may bring about similar vestibulo-ocular reflex alterations. METHODS: A hypothesis-generating preliminary investigation was conducted. In this cross-sectional study, findings of electronystagmography including bithermal caloric testing were compared between 17 volunteer myopes using spectacles or contact lenses and 17 volunteer emmetropes (with no refractive error)...
November 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733568/nucleus-prepositus-hypoglossi-lesions-produce-a-unique-ocular-motor-syndrome
#9
Sung-Hee Kim, David S Zee, Sascha du Lac, Hyo Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
OBJECTIVE: To describe the ocular motor abnormalities in 9 patients with a lesion involving the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH), a key constituent of a vestibular-cerebellar-brainstem neural network that ensures that the eyes are held steady in all positions of gaze. METHODS: We recorded eye movements, including the vestibulo-ocular reflex during head impulses, in patients with vertigo and a lesion involving the NPH. RESULTS: Our patients showed an ipsilesional-beating spontaneous nystagmus, horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus more intense on looking toward the ipsilesional side, impaired pursuit more to the ipsilesional side, central patterns of head-shaking nystagmus, contralateral eye deviation, and decreased vestibulo-ocular reflex gain during contralesionally directed head impulses...
November 8, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724859/a-period-of-immobility-after-remifentanil-administration-protects-from-nausea-an-experimental-randomized-cross-over-study
#10
Fabian Heuser, Christian M Schulz, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Nadine Lehnen, Eberhard F Kochs, Klaus J Wagner
BACKGROUND: The opioid remifentanil induces a decrease of vestibulo-ocular reflex function, which has been associated with nausea and vomiting when the subjects are moved. The study investigates in healthy female volunteers if immobility after remifentanil administration protects from nausea and vomiting. METHODS: In volunteers, a standardized movement intervention (a manually applied head-trunk movement forward, backward and sideward) was started 5 min (session A), 35 min (session B) or 60 min (session C) after cessation of a remifentanil infusion (0...
October 10, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721805/saccadic-velocity-in-the-new-suppression-head-impulse-test-a-new-indicator-of-horizontal-vestibular-canal-paresis-and-of-vestibular-compensation
#11
Qiwen Shen, Christophe Magnani, Olivier Sterkers, Georges Lamas, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Julien Sadoun, Ian S Curthoys, Catherine de Waele
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether saccadic velocity in the suppression head impulse paradigm (SHIMP) test is a reliable indicator of vestibular loss at the acute and at the chronic stage in patients suffering from different vestibular pathologies. METHODS: Thirty-five normal subjects and 57 patients suffering from different vestibular pathologies associated with unilateral vestibular loss (UVL) or bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) were tested in the SHIMPs paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703443/a-cross-sectional-survey-and-cross-sectional-clinical-trial-to-determine-the-prevalence-and-management-of-eye-movement-disorders-and-vestibular-dysfunction-in-post-stroke-patients-in-the-sub-acute-phase-protocol
#12
Andoret van Wyk, Carina A Eksteen, Piet J Becker, Barbara M Heinze
INTRODUCTION: Visual impairment, specifically eye movement disorders and vestibular dysfunction may have a negative influence on the functional recovery in post-stroke patients. This type of sensory dysfunction may further be associated with poor functional outcome in patients' post-stroke. METHODS: In phase 1, a cross-sectional survey (n = 100) will be conducted to determine the prevalence of eye movement disorders and vestibular dysfunction in patients who sustained a stroke...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689244/clinical-predictors-of-vestibulo-ocular-dysfunction-in-pediatric-sports-related-concussion
#13
Michael J Ellis, Dean M Cordingley, Sara Vis, Karen M Reimer, Jeff Leiter, Kelly Russell
OBJECTIVE There were 2 objectives of this study. The first objective was to identify clinical variables associated with vestibulo-ocular dysfunction (VOD) detected at initial consultation among pediatric patients with acute sports-related concussion (SRC) and postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The second objective was to reexamine the prevalence of VOD in this clinical cohort and evaluate the effect of VOD on length of recovery and the development of PCS. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted for all patients with acute SRC and PCS who were evaluated at a pediatric multidisciplinary concussion program from September 2013 to May 2015...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659732/cisplatin-induced-toxicity-decreases-the-mouse-vestibulo-ocular-reflex
#14
Yasumitsu Takimoto, Takao Imai, Makoto Kondo, Yukiko Hanada, Atsuhiko Uno, Yusuke Ishida, Takefumi Kamakura, Tadashi Kitahara, Hidenori Inohara, Shoichi Shimada
Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent commonly used for the treatment of solid tumors, and its side-effects include vestibulotoxicity. Previous studies have reported cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity in various animal models, but no study has investigated in vivo mouse vestibular dysfunction after cisplatin. The aim of this study was to investigate cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity in C57BL/6J mice. Vestibular function was assessed by recording the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). This was done during sinusoidal rotations in the horizontal plane at three frequencies (0...
September 19, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643747/cerebellar-control-of-eye-movements
#15
Shin C Beh, Teresa C Frohman, Elliot M Frohman
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum plays a central role in the online, real-time control, and long-term modulation of eye movements. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We reviewed the latest (fifth) edition of Leigh and Zee's textbook, The Neurology of Eye Movements, and literature in PUBMED using the following terms: cerebellum, flocculus, paraflocculus, vermis, oculomotor vermis, dorsal vermis, caudal fastigial nucleus, fastigial oculomotor region, uvula, nodulus, ansiform lobule, eye movements, saccades, ipsipulsion, contrapulsion, smooth pursuit, vergence, convergence, divergence, gaze-holding, down beat nystagmus, vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), angular VOR, translational VOR, skew deviation, velocity storage...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638075/bilateral-vestibulopathy
#16
M Strupp, K Feil, M Dieterich, T Brandt
The leading symptoms of bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) are postural imbalance and unsteadiness of gait that worsens in darkness and on uneven ground. There are typically no symptoms while sitting or lying under static conditions. A minority of patients also have movement-induced oscillopsia, in particular while walking. The diagnosis of BVP is based on a bilaterally reduced or absent function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). This deficit is diagnosed for the high-frequency range of the angular VOR by a bilaterally pathologic bedside head impulse test (HIT) and for the low-frequency range by a bilaterally reduced or absent caloric response...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638073/acute-unilateral-loss-of-vestibular-function
#17
M Fetter
Sudden unilateral loss of vestibular function is the most severe condition that can occur in the vestibular system. The clinical syndrome is caused by the physiologic properties of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) arc. In the normal situation, the two peripheral vestibular end organs are connected to a functional unit in coplanar pairs of semicircular canals working in a push-pull mode. "Push-pull" mode means that, when one side is excited, the other side is inhibited, and vice versa due to two mechanisms...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638070/rotational-testing
#18
J M Furman
The natural stimulus for the semicircular canals is rotation of the head, which also might stimulate the otolith organs. Vestibular stimulation usually induces eye movements via the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The orientation of the subject with respect to the axis of rotation and the orientation of the axis of rotation with respect to gravity together determine which labyrinthine receptors are stimulated for particular motion trajectories. Rotational testing usually includes the measurement of eye movements via a video system but might use a subject's perception of motion...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638062/multisensory-integration-in-balance-control
#19
A M Bronstein
This chapter provides an introduction to the topic of multisensory integration in balance control in, both, health and disease. One of the best-studied examples is that of visuo-vestibular interaction, which is the ability of the visual system to enhance or suppress the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR suppression). Of clinical relevance, examination of VOR suppression is clinically useful because only central, not peripheral, lesions impair VOR suppression. Visual, somatosensory (proprioceptive), and vestibular inputs interact strongly and continuously in the control of upright balance...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638060/physiology-of-central-pathways
#20
K E Cullen
The relative simplicity of the neural circuits that mediate vestibular reflexes is well suited for linking systems and cellular levels of analyses. Notably, a distinctive feature of the vestibular system is that neurons at the first central stage of sensory processing in the vestibular nuclei are premotor neurons; the same neurons that receive vestibular-nerve input also send direct projections to motor pathways. For example, the simplicity of the three-neuron pathway that mediates the vestibulo-ocular reflex leads to the generation of compensatory eye movements within ~5ms of a head movement...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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