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Electronic apex locater

Abdulraouf H Alghufaili, Luxshan Shanmugarajah, Lalith K Kumaraswamy
Our study aimed to correlate the overall 3-dimensional (3-D) shape of the breast to the compensation depth to produce a homogeneous dose distribution using the electronic tissue compensation (ECOMP) treatment technique. The study involved creating a number of semioval water phantoms with the diameter of the larger axis representing the breast separation and the shorter axis representing the distance from the chest wall to the apex of the breast. Multiple plans with 2 tangential fields were created for each phantom using different transmission penetration depths (TPDs) to determine the optimum TPD value based on the evaluation of dose uniformity and maximum hot spot...
March 7, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Gaute Floer Johnsen, Pia Titterud Sunde, Håvard Jostein Haugen
AIM: To use micro-CT technology and metrology software to validate the use of contralateral premolars as samples in endodontic comparison studies by comparing them before and after canal instrumentation with one instrumentation system. Furthermore, to determine if contralateral premolar roots will yield non-significantly different outcomes regarding shaping ability (volume), degree of twisting, and three-dimensional shape changes. The null-hypothesis (H0 ) is that there are no differences between the contralateral premolar roots pre- or post-instrumentation...
January 31, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Gunnar Kusch, Michele Conroy, Haoning Li, Paul R Edwards, Chao Zhao, Boon S Ooi, Jon Pugh, Martin J Cryan, Peter J Parbrook, Robert W Martin
Multiple luminescence peaks emitted by a single InGaN/GaN quantum-well(QW) nanorod, extending from the blue to the red, were analysed by a combination of electron microscope based imaging techniques. Utilizing the capability of cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging it was possible to investigate spatial variations in the luminescence properties on a nanoscale. The high optical quality of a single GaN nanorod was demonstrated, evidenced by a narrow band-edge peak and the absence of any luminescence associated with the yellow defect band...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexander G Milekhin, Mahfujur Rahaman, Ekaterina E Rodyakina, Alexander V Latyshev, Volodymyr M Dzhagan, Dietrich R T Zahn
In this article, we present the results of a gap-plasmon tip-enhanced Raman scattering study of MoS2 monolayers deposited on a periodic array of Au nanostructures on a silicon substrate forming a two dimensional (2D) crystal/plasmonic heterostructure. We observe a giant Raman enhancement of the phonon modes in the MoS2 monolayer located in the plasmonic gap between the Au tip apex and Au nanoclusters. Tip-enhanced Raman mapping allows us to determine the gap-plasmon field distribution responsible for the formation of hot spots...
January 8, 2018: Nanoscale
Chang-Xi Lu, Ya-Qin Zhu
PURPOSE: To compare the accuracy of measuring root canal working length with two different electronic apex locators and digital X-ray. METHODS: Ninety patients treated from January 2015 to June 2016 were selected, 232 root canals in total were randomly divided into 3 groups: X-ray group, Raypex5 group and i-root group. The accuracy of working length measured was assessed according to the filling quality of related main tips. The data were analyzed with SPSS19.0 software package for Chi-square test...
October 2017: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
Negar Mokhtari, Alireza-Sarraf Shirazi, Masoumeh Ebrahimi
Background: Techniques with adequate accuracy of working length determination along with shorter duration of treatment in pulpectomy procedure seems to be essential in pediatric dentistry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of root canal length measurement with Root ZX II apex locator and rotary system in pulpectomy of primary teeth. Material and Methods: In this randomized control clinical trial complete pulpectomy was performed on 80 mandibular primary molars in 80, 4-6-year-old children...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Umadevi Kiritsinh Gohil, Vaishali V Parekh, Niraj Kinariwala, Kaushal M Oza, Mona C Somani
Objective: To evaluate the interference of active cellphones during electronic working length (EWL) determination of a root canal. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients requiring root canal treatment in the anterior teeth or premolars having single canal and mature apices were selected for this study. Working length determination was done using no. 15 K-file. Electronic apex locators ProPex Pixi and Root ZX mini were used for working length determination. Cellphones iPhone 6s and Xolo Q3000 were evaluated for their interference...
May 2017: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Divya Saxena, Suparna Ganguly Saha, Anuj Bharadwaj, Neelam Vijaywargiya, Sandeep Dubey, Shubham Kala
Introduction: The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the accuracy of iRoot, iPex II, and Propex pixi apex locator using histological sections as the gold standard. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients indicated for extraction of single-rooted permanent teeth with single canal system were selected. Working lengths (WLs) of teeth were determined using iRoot, iPex II, and Propex pixi. Teeth were then extracted, and the files were reintroduced to the anatomic apex to measure anatomic canal length (ACL) and fixed at the ACL using flowable composite...
July 2017: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
David W Christofzik, Andreas Bartols, Mahmoud Khaled, Birte Größner-Schreiber, Christof E Dörfer
BACKGROUND: Electronic apex locators (EALs) are modern devices used to determine the working length during root canal preparation. The newest endodontic motors provide an integrated EAL with auto-stop function to prevent instrumentation beyond the predefined working length during rotary root canal preparation. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the auto-stop function of the VDW.Gold RECIPROC motor (VDW, Munich, Germany), the EndoPilot motor (Schlumbohm, Brokstedt, Germany) and the manual measurement with Raypex 6 (VDW, Munich, Germany) to detect the apical constriction (AC)...
November 29, 2017: BMC Oral Health
Anna Carolina V Mello-Moura, Carmela R Bresolin, Cacio Moura-Netto, André Ito, Angela T Araki, José Carlos P Imparato, Fausto M Mendes
BACKGROUND: Due to the scarcity of exfoliated/extracted human primary teeth with complete roots, artificial teeth were developed as an alternative to be used for educational and laboratory research purposes. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using artificial primary teeth for conducting laboratory research through an experiment related to canal length determination, comparing artificial teeth with natural teeth. METHODS: Thirty anterior and 21 posterior artificial teeth, and the same number of natural primary teeth were selected...
November 17, 2017: BMC Oral Health
Yu-Feng Hu, Wen-Zhong Jin
PURPOSE: To study the correlation between apical foramen area and accuracy of PropexII electronic apex locator under destroyed apical constriction. METHODS: Forty extracted teeth with single straight root canal were ground down 1 mm in the root tip and placed in 2% liquid agar gel injected into Castro model. The length of root canal was measured by PropexII electronic apex locator. The difference (L) between the electronic length (LP) and actual length was calculated...
June 2017: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
Mugem Asli Gurel, Bagdagul Helvacioglu Kivanc, Adil Ekici
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to examine the accuracy of iPex II and to compare it with those of Raypex 5, Raypex 6 and iPex electronic apex locators (EALs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty fresh human mandibular premolar teeth were used in this study. Crown segments were cut and root canals were coronally flared. A #10 K-file was inserted until its tip can be seen within apical foramen to determine actual working length (AWL). Teeth were embedded in alginate and each multi-frequency EALs were randomly tested to determine the electronic working length (EWL)...
2017: Journal of Istanbul University Faculty of Dentistry
Fernando A Orosco, Guilherme F da Silva, Paulo H Weckwerth, Maria Thereza M Lopes, Alan M R Garcia, Marco Antônio H Duarte, Ivaldo G de Moraes
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different file sizes on the accuracy of two electronic apex locators (EALs). Thirty extracted human single-rooted permanent mandibular incisors were used. A #10 K-file was inserted in the root canal until its end could be observed (using a light microscope) through the apical foramen. One millimetre was subtracted to establish working length (WL). Electronic readings were performed using MiniApex Locator or Root ZX II, from #10 K-file to #130 K-file. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way anova and Tukey test (P ≤ 0...
September 20, 2017: Australian Endodontic Journal: the Journal of the Australian Society of Endodontology Inc
Fernanda Garcia Tampelini, Marcelo Santos Coelho, Marcos de Azevêdo Rios, Carlos Eduardo Fontana, Daniel Guimarães Pedro Rocha, Sergio Luiz Pinheiro, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira Bueno
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this in vivo study was to assess the accuracy of 2 third-generation electronic apex locators (EALs), Propex II (Dentsply Maillefer) and Root ZX II (J. Morita), and radiographic technique for locating the major foramen (MF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two premolars with single canals that required extraction were included. Following anesthesia, access, and initial canal preparation with size 10 and 15 K-flex files and SX and S1 rotary ProTaper files, the canals were irrigated with 2...
August 2017: Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics
Alessandra Timponi Goes Cruz, Caroline Wichnieski, Everdan Carneiro, Ulisses Xavier da Silva Neto, Gianluca Gambarini, Lucila Piasecki
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the efficacy of both the electronic apex locator (EAL) and auto apical reverse (AAR) functions of the endodontic motor MM Control (Micro-Mega, Besançon Cedex, France) compared with Root ZX II (J Morita, Tokyo, Japan). METHODS: After cervical preflaring, the actual lengths (ALs) of 36 single-rooted teeth were obtained up to the apical foramen. The EAL measurements at the marks "APEX" and "0.5" of both devices were obtained using an alginate model...
October 2017: Journal of Endodontics
Tiago Nepomuceno Oliveira, Nilton Vivacqua-Gomes, Ricardo Affonso Bernardes, Rodrigo Ricci Vivan, Marco Antonio Hungaro Duarte, Bruno Carvalho Vasconcelos
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of 5 electronic apex locators (EALs): Root ZX II (RZX; J Morita, Tokyo, Japan), Raypex 6 (RAY; VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany), Apex ID (AID; SybronEndo, Orange, CA), Propex II (PRO; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), and Propex Pixi (PIXI, Dentsply Maillefer) when used in the following protocols: (1) -1.0, insertion up to 1.0 mm below the apical foramen (AF); (2) 0.0/-1.0, insertion until the AF and withdrawn 1.0 mm short of the AF; (3) 0...
October 2017: Journal of Endodontics
T Connert, M S Judenhofer, M Hülber-J, S Schell, J G Mannheim, B J Pichler, C Löst, A ElAyouti
AIM: To determine the accuracy of locating the apical constriction using apex locators. METHODOLOGY: Extracted teeth were micro-CT scanned preoperatively to localize the apical constriction. Electronic length measurements of 91 root canals were made using nine electronic apex locators (EAL) connected to a mounting model. Distances from the major foramen were recorded at each scale bar of the EALs, and a file was fixed in the canal at a position indicated by each EAL to be the apical constriction...
July 4, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
James L Gutmann
Current history would have you believe that the evolution and development of the electronic apex locator for use during root canal procedures emanated from the work of Suzuki in 1942, which was developed as a product by Sunada in 1962. Yes, this is partly correct, however the concept of using electrical means to locate the ends of root canals was brought to the dental profession as early as 1918 by Dr. Levitt Ellsworth Custer, which was not addressed until Suzuki revisited Custer's concepts. This contribution was only one of the many that Custer proffered as he championed the use of electricity in dentistry...
2017: Journal of the History of Dentistry
Masoud Saatchi, Shiva Iravani, Mehrdad Akhavan Khaleghi, Amin Mortaheb
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the correlation between accuracy of Root ZX electronic foramen locator and root canal curvature. METHODS AND MATERIALS: One hundred and ten extracted mandibular molars were selected. Access cavity was prepared and coronal enlargement of mesiobuccal canal was performed. A #10 Flexofile was inserted into the mesiobuccal canal, and a radiography was taken to measure the degree of curvature by Schneider's method...
2017: Iranian Endodontic Journal
Vahid Zand, Saeed Rahimi, Paria Davoudi, Abubakr Afshang
INTRODUCTION: This ex vivo study evaluated the accuracy of the Root-ZX electronic apex locator (EAL) (J. Morita, Tokyo, Japan) and the NovApex (Forum Technologies, Rishon Lezion, Israel) in determining the working length (WL) during endodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty extracted single-rooted human teeth were selected for this study. The actual WL was measured with visual technique by a size #15 k-file under magnification. Then, the canal lengths were measured electronically with both Root-ZX and NovApex apex locators within ±0...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
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