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Selection student equity

Shailendra Sawleshwarkar, Joel Negin
During the last decade, the literature about global health has grown exponentially. Academic institutions are also exploring the scope of their public health educational programs to meet the demand for a global health professional. This has become more relevant in the context of the sustainable development goals. There have been attempts to describe global health competencies for specific professional groups. The focus of these competencies has been variable with a variety of different themes being described ranging from globalization and health care, analysis and program management, as well as equity and capacity strengthening...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Dan Wu, Tai Pong Lam
China is engaged in efforts to train 300,000 family doctors by 2020 to meet its population's health care needs. This Article discusses the family doctor shortage, compares family medicine training programs, examines the distributional challenges faced by these programs, and proposes directions for further experimentation. Despite an increasing number of family doctors, they represented only 5.6% of all doctors in 2013. Currently, three training programs run concurrently-the post-transfer training, residency training, and designated family medicine undergraduate education programs...
February 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Micaela Moreira Pinho
This qualitative/quantitative study examines the ethical dilemma of microallocation of health resources. It seeks to identify and compare the opinion of two groups in Portuguese society - students and health professionals - on the importance of personal characteristics of patients at the moment of prioritizing them and if the choices can be explained by bioethical references of a utilitarian or deontological nature. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire administered to a sample of 180 students and 60 health professionals...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Jeffrey N Schinske, Heather Perkins, Amanda Snyder, Mary Wyer
Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments ("Scientist Spotlights") that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage, as scientists were selected to match topics covered each week...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
Abdulrasheed Ibrahim, Malachy E Asuku
BACKGROUND: Research shows that career choices are made as a result of preconceived ideas and exposure to a specialty. If plastic surgery is to continue to attract the best, factors that may dissuade the millennial generation medical students from pursuing plastic surgery as a career must be identified and addressed. We explored the determinants of interest in plastic surgery as a career choice amongst millennial generation medical students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey regarding factors considered important in choosing plastic surgery was conducted amongst final year medical students in September 2011...
January 2016: Nigerian Journal of Surgery: Official Publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society
Daniel Fuller, Josh Neudorf, Silvia Bermedo-Carrasco, Cory Neudorf
BACKGROUND: To examine citizens' agreement with policy options to reduce social inequalities in health and socio-demographic factors associated with support for these policies. METHODS: A random digit dialling sample of 16 125 households with access to a landline telephone was conducted in Saskatoon, Canada in 2013. Saskatoon is located in the Canadian prairies and had a population of 222 189 in 2011. A total of 1002 individuals aged 18 or older answered a questionnaire indicating their support for policies to improve health equity...
January 19, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Elana Curtis, Erena Wikaire, Yannan Jiang, Louise McMillan, Robert Loto, Airini, Papaarangi Reid
BACKGROUND: Universities should provide flexible and inclusive selection and admission policies to increase equity in access and outcomes for indigenous and ethnic minority students. This study investigates an equity-targeted admissions process, involving a Multiple Mini Interview and objective testing, advising Māori and Pacific students on their best starting point for academic success towards a career in medicine, nursing, health sciences and pharmacy. METHODS: All Māori and Pacific Admission Scheme (MAPAS) interviewees enrolled in bridging/foundation or degree-level programmes at the University of Auckland were identified (2009 to 2012)...
2015: BMC Medical Education
Frédérique Autin, Anatolia Batruch, Fabrizio Butera
Educational institutions are considered a keystone for the establishment of a meritocratic society. They supposedly serve two functions: an educational function that promotes learning for all, and a selection function that sorts individuals into different programs, and ultimately social positions, based on individual merit. We study how the function of selection relates to support for assessment practices known to harm vs. benefit lower status students, through the perceived justice principles underlying these practices...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Marc Vanmeerbeek, Julien Mathonet, Marie-Christine Miermans, Anne-Laure Lenoir, Chantal Vandoorne
OBJECTIVES: Published operating models about preventive health care and health promotion in primary care were sought with the aim of (1) compiling a functional inventory; and (2) to formulate working hypotheses for the improvement of clinical practice towards more efficiency and more equity. METHODS: Narrative literature review, using keywords related to the various prevention classes, health promotion, primary care, practice models and health care delivery. The diversity of models led to a multi-criteria analysis...
June 2015: La Presse Médicale
Elana Curtis, Erena Wikaire, Yannan Jiang, Louise McMillan, Rob Loto, Airini, Papaarangi Reid
INTRODUCTION: Achieving health equity for indigenous and ethnic minority populations requires the development of an ethnically diverse health workforce. This study explores a tertiary admission programme targeting Māori and Pacific applicants to nursing, pharmacy and health sciences (a precursor to medicine) at the University of Auckland (UoA), Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). Application of cognitive and non-cognitive selection tools, including a Multiple Mini Interview (MMI), are examined...
2015: International Journal for Equity in Health
Karen Sokal-Gutierrez, Susan L Ivey, Roxanna M Garcia, Amin Azzam
PROBLEM: Medical educators, clinicians, and health policy experts widely acknowledge the need to increase the diversity of our healthcare workforce and build our capacity to care for medically underserved populations and reduce health disparities. INTERVENTION: The Program in Medical Education for the Urban Underserved (PRIME-US) is part of a family of programs across the University of California (UC) medical schools aiming to recruit and train physicians to care for underserved populations, expand the healthcare workforce to serve diverse populations, and promote health equity...
2015: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Jorge A Girotti, Yoon Soo Park, Ara Tekian
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate a selection and programmatic intervention designated 'Conditional Admissions' (CA), which is intended to expand access to medical education for individuals from under-represented ethnic, racial and rural groups. Further aims were to establish principles of practice designed to increase access for under-represented groups based on an empirical comparison of programmatic changes made to CA in 2005, and to quantify the costs associated with its implementation...
January 2015: Medical Education
Saleem Razack, Brian Hodges, Yvonne Steinert, Mary Maguire
CONTEXT: Calls to increase medical class representativeness to better reflect the diversity of society represent a growing international trend. There is an inherent tension between these calls and competitive student selection processes driven by academic achievement. How is this tension manifested? METHODS: Our three-phase interdisciplinary research programme focused on the discourses of excellence, equity and diversity in the medical school selection process, as conveyed by key stakeholders: (i) institutions and regulatory bodies (the websites of 17 medical schools and 15 policy documents from national regulatory bodies); (ii) admissions committee members (ACMs) (according to semi-structured interviews [n = 9]), and (iii) successful applicants (according to semi-structured interviews [n = 14])...
January 2015: Medical Education
Olufunmilayo I Fawole, Olufemi Ajumobi, Gabriele Poggensee, Patrick Nguku
Although several research groups within institutions in Nigeria have been involved in extensive malaria research, the link between the research community and policy formulation has not been optimal. The workshop aimed to assist post graduate students to identify knowledge gaps and to develop relevant Malaria-related research proposals in line with identified research priorities. A training needs assessment questionnaire was completed by 22 students two week prior to the workshop. Also, a one page concept letter was received from 40 residents...
2014: Pan African Medical Journal
Arlene N Hayne, Sharron P Schlosser
Nursing education recognizes the importance of graduate nurses understanding their roles as advocates, developers, implementers, and evaluators of health policies to impact the delivery of safe, patient-centered care. This article describes the use of problem-based learning as one approach to DNP health policy education. Students select a health problem and an associated health policy and use evidence-based practice, scholarly writing, and health services research to analyze the policy for efficiency, effectiveness, and equity...
May 2014: Nurse Educator
Ian B Puddey, Annette Mercer, David Andrich, Irene Styles
BACKGROUND: The UMAT is widely used for selection into undergraduate medical and dental courses in Australia and New Zealand (NZ). It tests aptitudes thought to be especially relevant to medical studies and consists of 3 sections - logical reasoning and problem solving (UMAT-1), understanding people (UMAT-2) and non-verbal reasoning (UMAT-3). A substantial proportion of all candidates re-sit the UMAT. Re-sitting raises the issue as to what might be the precise magnitude and determinants of any practice effects on the UMAT and their implications for equity in subsequent selection processes...
2014: BMC Medical Education
Paul Elliot Teplitsky, Gerald Stephen Uswak
Persons of Aboriginal ancestry are underrepresented in the dental profession in North America. In Canada, the University of Saskatchewan College of Dentistry began a proactive program to recruit, retain, and graduate more Aboriginal students in 1996. This program, entitled the Aboriginal Equity Access Program, has seen the inclusion of twenty-two Aboriginal students in the predoctoral program. This article describes the program and reports on the success of the students enrolled via this route. The primary conclusion is that selection of Aboriginal dental students with lower entry scores--who would not have gained entry if the program did not exist--has not impaired their ability to successfully complete the dental undergraduate program and pass the National Dental Examining Board licensure examination...
February 2014: Journal of Dental Education
David Wilkinson, Mavourneen G Casey, Diann S Eley
OBJECTIVE: To report, and determine reasons for, a change in the gender ratio observed among enrolled medical students after removal of the interview from the selection process. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional study of 4051 students admitted to the medical program at the University of Queensland between 2004 and 2012. Students are enrolled either directly as graduates or via a school-leaver pathway. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in proportions of male and female students over time, and gender-specific scores in the three sections of the GAMSAT (Graduate Medical School Admissions Test)...
February 3, 2014: Medical Journal of Australia
Jeannette R Ickovics, Amy Carroll-Scott, Susan M Peters, Marlene Schwartz, Kathryn Gilstad-Hayden, Catherine McCaslin
BACKGROUND: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. METHODS: Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district...
January 2014: Journal of School Health
Caroline O Laurence, Ian T Zajac, Michelle Lorimer, Deborah A Turnbull, Karen E Sumner
BACKGROUND: Selection into medical school is highly competitive with more applicants than places. Little is known about the preparation that applicants undertake for this high stakes process. The study aims to determine what preparatory activities applicants undertake and what difficulties they encounter for each stage of the application process to medical school and in particular what impact these have on the outcome. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 1097 applicants who applied for a place in the University of Adelaide Medical School in 2007 and participated in the UMAT (Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test) and oral assessment components of the selection process...
2013: BMC Medical Education
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