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Yan Hu, Xi Zhong, Xuelu Liu, Binghai Lou, Changyong Zhou, Xuefeng Wang
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), a highly devastating citrus disease, is associated with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiacitus' (CLas), a member of phloem-inhabiting α-proteobacteria. HLB can affect all cultivated citrus and no cure is currently available. Previous studies showed that Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), primarily grown in South Asia and Southeast Asia, was tolerant to HLB but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, gene expression profiling experiments were performed on HLB-tolerant C. hystrix and HLB-susceptible C...
2017: PloS One
Heaji Shin, Kimberly A Haupt, Aaron M Kershner, Peggy Kroll-Conner, Marvin Wickens, Judith Kimble
Central questions in regenerative biology include how stem cells are maintained and how they transition from self-renewal to differentiation. Germline stem cells (GSCs) in Caenorhabditis elegans provide a tractable in vivo model to address these questions. In this system, Notch signaling and PUF RNA binding proteins, FBF-1 and FBF-2 (collectively FBF), maintain a pool of GSCs in a naïve state. An open question has been how Notch signaling modulates FBF activity to promote stem cell self-renewal. Here we report that two Notch targets, SYGL-1 and LST-1, link niche signaling to FBF...
December 12, 2017: PLoS Genetics
Kurt M Schmoller
Cells control their size through an intricate balance of cell growth, cell division, and cell death. Extensive work on unicellular model organisms revealed that cell-size-dependent cell cycle progression accounts for major aspects of cell size regulation and provided insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms. Nevertheless, elaborate live-cell imaging approaches still reveal new phenomenological observations that challenge our simplified models of size regulation and raise the question of what determines optimal cell size...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Fabio Massimo Zennaro, Ke Chen
In this paper we present a theoretical analysis to understand sparse filtering, a recent and effective algorithm for unsupervised learning. The aim of this research is not to show whether or how well sparse filtering works, but to understand why and when sparse filtering does work. We provide a thorough theoretical analysis of sparse filtering and its properties, and further offer an experimental validation of the main outcomes of our theoretical analysis. We show that sparse filtering works by explicitly maximizing the entropy of the learned representations through the maximization of the proxy of sparsity, and by implicitly preserving mutual information between original and learned representations through the constraint of preserving a structure of the data...
December 9, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Alissa Melinger
Linguists have been working to develop objective criteria for distinguishing languages from dialects for well over half a century. The prevailing view amongst sociolinguists is that no objective criteria can be formulated. The aim of this study is to examine whether language processing can provide insights into this problem by comparing bidialectal behavioural effects to bilingual effects reported in the literature. Previous research has demonstrated that when bilinguals name an object in Lx while simultaneously processing a translation equivalent distractor word in Ly, naming times are sped up relative to an unrelated condition (Costa, Miozzo, & Caramazza, 1999)...
December 9, 2017: Cognition
Yogesh Gawale, Nagaiyan Sekar
Density Functional Theory and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory computations reveal experimental trends accurately and provide an insight into the origin of red shifted optical spectra, large Stokes shift, nonlinear optical responses and quantitative description of the singlet-triplet energy gap of recently synthesized highly fluorescent membrane permeable benz[c,d]indole N-heteroarene BF2 rigidified BBN and BBC dyes. Our results benchmark the importance of the DFT functionals and polarization functions using the accurate basis set for the calculations of excitation energies, band gaps, dipole moment, non-linear optical properties and geometrical parameters...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Jason Baumsteiger, Peter B Moyle, Andres Aguilar, Sean M O'Rourke, Michael R Miller
Efforts to taxonomically delineate species are often confounded with conflicting information and subjective interpretation. Advances in genomic methods have resulted in a new approach to taxonomic identification that stands to greatly reduce much of this conflict. This approach is ideal for species complexes, where divergence times are recent (evolutionarily) and lineages less well defined. The California Roach/Hitch fish species complex is an excellent example, experiencing a convoluted geologic history, diverse habitats, conflicting species designations and potential admixture between species...
2017: PloS One
Alyssa Fitzpatrick, Noor Saad M S Al-Kobaisi, Jessica Beitman Maya, Yu Ren Chung, Satyender Duhan, Erdene Elbegdorj, Sushant Jain, Edward Kuhn, Alexandra Nastase, Be-Nazir Ahmed, Piero Olliaro
Bangladesh has made significant progress towards elimination of visceral leishmaniasis, and is on track to achieve its target of less than one case per 10,000 inhabitants in each subdistrict in 2017. As the incidence of disease falls, it is likely that the political capital and financial resources dedicated towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis may decrease, raising the prospect of disease resurgence. Policy memos may play a crucial role during the transition of the elimination plan from the 'attack' to the 'consolidation' and 'maintenance' phases, highlighting key stakeholders and areas where ongoing investment is crucial...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Aaron D McClelland, Julia Lichtnekert, Diana G Eng, Jeffrey W Pippin, Kenneth W Gross, Sina A Gharib, Stuart J Shankland
Renin producing cells of the juxtaglomerulus, herein called cells of renin lineage (CoRL), have garnered recent interest for their propensity to act as a progenitor source for various kidney cell types including podocytes. Despite recent advances, the process of transdifferentiation of CoRL to podocytes is poorly understood. In this study, we employed a transgenic reporter mouse line which permanently labels CoRL with ZsGreen fluorescent protein, allowing for isolation by fluorescence-activated cell sorting...
2017: PloS One
Hannah H Leslie, Zeye Sun, Margaret E Kruk
BACKGROUND: It is increasingly apparent that access to healthcare without adequate quality of care is insufficient to improve population health outcomes. We assess whether the most commonly measured attribute of health facilities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)-the structural inputs to care-predicts the clinical quality of care provided to patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Service Provision Assessments are nationally representative health facility surveys conducted by the Demographic and Health Survey Program with support from the US Agency for International Development...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
Gizem Caliskan, Ikbal C Baris, Ferhan Ayaydin, Melanie J Dobson, Muge Senarisoy, Imre M Boros, Zeki Topcu, Sevil Zencir
General Control Non-derepressible 5 (GCN5) and Alteration/Deficiency in Activation 2 and 3 proteins (ADA2 and ADA3, respectively) are subunits of the Histone AcetylTransferase (HAT) module of SAGA- and ATAC-type co-activators. We previously reported four new interacting partners of human ADA3 identified by screening a human fetal brain cDNA library using yeast two hybrid technology. One of these partners was Apoptosis-Antagonizing Transcription Factor (AATF), also known as Che-1, an RNA polymerase II-binding protein with a number of roles in different cellular processes including regulation of transcription, cell proliferation, cell cycle control, DNA damage responses and apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
Lucie Kešnerová, Ruben A T Mars, Kirsten M Ellegaard, Michaël Troilo, Uwe Sauer, Philipp Engel
It is presently unclear how much individual community members contribute to the overall metabolic output of a gut microbiota. To address this question, we used the honey bee, which harbors a relatively simple and remarkably conserved gut microbiota with striking parallels to the mammalian system and importance for bee health. Using untargeted metabolomics, we profiled metabolic changes in gnotobiotic bees that were colonized with the complete microbiota reconstituted from cultured strains. We then determined the contribution of individual community members in mono-colonized bees and recapitulated our findings using in vitro cultures...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
Dorian K Rose, Lou DeMark, Emily J Fox, David J Clark, Peter Wludyka
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Strategies to address gait and balance deficits early poststroke are minimal. The postural and motor control requirements of Backward Walking Training (BWT) may provide benefits to improve balance and walking speed in this population. This pilot study (1) determined the feasibility of administering BWT during inpatient rehabilitation and (2) compared the effectiveness of BWT to Standing Balance Training (SBT) on walking speed, balance, and balance-related efficacy in acute stroke...
January 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Emily R Thorpe, Katie B Garrett, Ashley M Smith, Jennifer C Reneker, Robert S Phillips
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To identify the association between outcome measure score and discharge destination in adults following acute or subacute stroke in the United States. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in 3 databases using the PRISMA guidelines. Cohort studies were selected that included patients with acute or subacute stroke, which explored the relationship between scores on outcome measures and discharge destination. Four meta-analyses were performed...
January 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Shengwei Xiao, Yanxian Zhang, Mingxue Shen, Feng Chen, Ping Fan, Mingqiang Zhong, Baiping Ren, Jintao Yang, Jie Zheng
Some polyzwitterionic brushes exhibit strong "anti-polyelectrolyte effect" and ionic specificity that make them as versatile platforms to build smart surfaces for many applications. However, the structure-property relationship of zwitterionic polymer brushes still remains to be elucidated. Herein, we aim to study the structural-dependent relationship between different zwitterionic polymers and "anti-polyelectrolyte effect". To this end, a series of polyzwitterionic brushes with different cationic moieties cationic moieties (e...
December 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ching-Yen Tang, Yonghui Ma, Richard T Haasch, Jia-Hu Ouyang, Shen J Dillon
Surface reactions occurring on LiMn2O4, LiCoO2, LiNiO2, Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2, and LiFePO4 during charging and overcharging are studied by in situ and ex situ Auger electron spectroscopy. Carbon surface stability at the cathode solid-electrolyte interphas (SEI), associated with carbonate formation, decomposition, and CO/CO2 evolution, on different electrodes during cycling correlates with their cycle life. To understand how associated CO and CO2 evolution affects cycle stability, LiMn2O4 is cycled in flowing gas...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Zhoutong Sun, Lian Wu, Marco Bocola, H C Stephen Chan, Richard Lonsdale, Xu-Dong Kong, Shuguang Yuan, Jiahai Zhou, Manfred T Reetz
Directed evolution of limonene epoxide hydrolase (LEH), which catalyzes the hydrolytic desymmetrization reactions of cyclopentene oxide and cyclohexene oxide, results in (R,R)- and (S,S)-selective mutants. Their crystal structures combined with extensive theoretical computations shed light on the mechanistic intricacies of this widely used enzyme. From the computed activation energies of various pathways, we discover the underlying stereochemistry for favorable reactions. Surprisingly, some of the most enantioselective mutants that rapidly convert cyclohexene oxide do not catalyze the analogous transformation of the structurally similar cyclopentene oxide, as shown by additional X-ray structures of the variants harboring this slightly smaller substrate...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yong-Seok Choi, Young Woon Byeon, Jun-Hyoung Park, Jong-Hyun Seo, Jae-Pyoung Ahn, Jae-Chul Lee
Sodiation was performed on crystalline Sn cylinders using in situ electron microscopy to evaluate the rate performance of the Sn anode by directly measuring the sodiation rate. We observed that the sodiation rate of the Sn anode is more than two orders of magnitude higher than the lithiation rate of the Si anode under the same conditions. This unprecedented rate displayed by the Na-Sn system is attributed to the bond characteristics and crystalline-to-amorphous transformation of the Sn crystal at the thin interface of the Na-Sn diffusion couple...
December 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ted Robertson, Matthew Darling, Jennifer Leifer, Owen Footer, Dani Gordski
Issue: A deep understanding of human behavior is critical to designing effective health care delivery models, tools, and processes. Currently, however, few mechanisms exist to systematically apply insights about human behavior to improve health outcomes. Behavioral design teams (BDTs) are a successful model for applying behavioral insights within an organization. Already operational within government, this model can be adapted to function in a health care setting. Goal: To explore how BDTs could be applied to clinical care delivery and review models for integrating these teams within health care organizations...
November 1, 2017: Issue Brief of the Commonwealth Fund
Lei Wang, Kathryn A Stevens, Paul Haupt-Renaud, R Kenneth Marcus
A new, trilobal shaped capillary-channeled polymer fiber is under development to address the issues of poor A-term performance of the previous eight-channeled form. The trilobal geometry should provide better packing homogeneity due to the fewer potential orientations of the symmetric fiber geometry. Comparisons of separation efficiency and peak shape were made between the two fiber shapes through several dynamic parameters. Column hydrodynamics were investigated with two marker compounds, uracil and bovine serum albumin, with van Deemter plots of those two compounds revealing differences in the packing qualities between the different fiber shapes...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
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