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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668065/insight-on-the-regulation-of-chemokine-activities
#1
REVIEW
Valentina Cecchinato, Mariagrazia Uguccioni
The activity of chemokines is regulated by several mechanisms that control the final cellular response. The present review discusses the complexity of the regulation of the chemokine system, and the novel findings describing how in persistent infections, the expression of chemokine receptors on the surface of T cells does not correlate with their homing potential. Thanks to the latest advances in our comprehension of the chemokine system, novel approaches targeting chemokines, chemokine receptors, or protein of their signaling pathway should be considered in order to achieve a personalized therapy...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668046/black-cohosh-extracts-and-powders-induce-micronuclei-a-biomarker-of-genetic-damage-in-human-cells
#2
Stephanie L Smith-Roe, Carol D Swartz, Kim G Shepard, Steven M Bryce, Stephen D Dertinger, Suramya Waidyanatha, Grace E Kissling, Scott S Auerbach, Kristine L Witt
Black cohosh extract (BCE) is a widely used dietary supplement marketed to women to alleviate symptoms of gynecological ailments, yet its toxicity has not been well characterized. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) previously reported significant increases in micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of female Wistar Han rats and B6C3F1/N mice administered 15-1,000 mg BCE/kg/day by gavage for 90 days. These animals also developed a dose-dependent nonregenerative macrocytic anemia characterized by clinical changes consistent with megaloblastic anemia...
April 18, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668034/response-of-formed-biofilm-of-enterobacter-cloacae-klebsiella-oxytoca-and-citrobacter-freundii-to-chlorite-based-disinfectants
#3
Linlin Cai, Huawei Wang, Lijiao Liang, Guangyu Wang, Xinglian Xu, Huhu Wang
Bacterial biofilms formed on equipment surfaces are potential sources of cross-contamination and can be responsible for the spread of bacteria involved in food spoilage, such as some Enterobacteriaceae family members. In this study, the effect of chlorite-based disinfectants, including sodium hypochlorite (SH), chlorine dioxide (CD), strongly acidic electrolyzed water (StAEW), and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), on inactivation of mono-biofilms of Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Citrobacter freundii was evaluated separately...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668018/how-strong-was-the-bottleneck-associated-to-the-peopling-of-the-americas-new-insights-from-multilocus-sequence-data
#4
Nelson J R Fagundes, Alice Tagliani-Ribeiro, Rohina Rubicz, Larissa Tarskaia, Michael H Crawford, Francisco M Salzano, Sandro L Bonatto
In spite of many genetic studies that contributed for a deep knowledge about the peopling of the Americas, no consensus has emerged about important parameters such as the effective size of the Native Americans founder population. Previous estimates based on genomic datasets may have been biased by the use of admixed individuals from Latino populations, while other recent studies using samples from Native American individuals relied on approximated analytical approaches. In this study we use resequencing data for nine independent regions in a set of Native American and Siberian individuals and a full-likelihood approach based on isolation-with-migration scenarios accounting for recent flow between Asian and Native American populations...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668014/oxytocin-and-arginine-vasopressin-systems-in-the-domestication-process
#5
Bibiana S O Fam, Pamela Paré, Aline B Felkl, Pedro Vargas-Pinilla, Vanessa R Paixão-Côrtes, Lucas Henriques Viscardi, Maria Cátira Bortolini
Domestication is of unquestionable importance to the technological revolution that has given rise to modern human societies. In this study, we analyzed the DNA and protein sequences of six genes of the oxytocin and arginine vasopressin systems (OXT-OXTR; AVP-AVPR1a, AVPR1b and AVPR2) in 40 placental mammals. These systems play an important role in the control of physiology and behavior. According to our analyses, neutrality does not explain the pattern of molecular evolution found in some of these genes. We observed specific sites under positive selection in AVPR1b (ω = 1...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668012/evolution-of-dnmt2-in-drosophilids-evidence-for-positive-and-purifying-selection-and-insights-into-new-protein-pathways-interactions
#6
Gilberto Cavalheiro Vieira, Marícia Fantinel D'Ávila, Rebeca Zanini, Maríndia Deprá, Vera Lúcia da Silva Valente
The DNA methyltransferase 2 (DNMT2) protein is the most conserved member of the DNA methyltransferase family. Nevertheless, its substrate specificity is still controversial and elusive. The genomic role and determinants of DNA methylation are poorly understood in invertebrates, and several mechanisms and associations are suggested. In Drosophila, the only known DNMT gene is Dnmt2. Here we present our findings from a wide search for Dnmt2 homologs in 68 species of Drosophilidae. We investigated its molecular evolution, and in our phylogenetic analyses the main clades of Drosophilidae species were recovered...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667928/skin-cells-prefer-a-slower-calcium-pump
#7
Seth L Robia, Howard S Young
Naturally occurring mutations of a calcium ion transporter can cause a skin condition known as Darier's disease. In this issue of JBC, Mikkelsen et al. describe a particularly interesting Darier's mutation that alters calcium transport by disrupting a kinetic braking mechanism that is unique to the SERCA2b calcium pump isoform. The study provides new insight into the intrinsic regulation of this transporter and reveals how disruption of regulation can lead to disease in Darier's patients.
March 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667836/molecular-dynamics-simulations-are-redefining-our-view-of-peptides-interacting-with-biological-membranes
#8
Jakob P Ulmschneider, Martin B Ulmschneider
Ever since the first molecular mechanics computer simulations of biological molecules became possible, there has been the dream to study all complex biological phenomena in silico, simply bypassing the enormous experimental challenges and their associated costs. For this, two inherent requirements need to be met: First, the time scales achievable in simulations must reach up to the millisecond range and even longer. Second, the computational model must accurately reproduce what is measured experimentally. Despite some recent successes, the general consensus in the field to date has been that neither of these conditions have yet been met and that the dream will be realized, if at all, only in the distant future...
April 18, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667798/delusional-infestation-in-psychodermatology
#9
Monica Rosales Santillan, Dustin L Taylor, Jason S Reichenberg
Delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis, consists of a patient's strong belief that he or she is infested with a nonliving substance or living organism despite lack of medical evidence to support this belief. The most commonly reported sources of infestation include insects, fibrous strands, worms, and scabies. Delusional infestation is predominantly seen in women and older patients. This disorder has a variable course and prognosis in patients. Delusional infestation can be a primary psychiatric problem, or secondary to underlying medical conditions or other psychiatric disorders...
April 18, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667573/molecular-epidemiology-of-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#10
James R Johnson, Thomas A Russo
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are important pathogens in humans and certain animals. Molecular epidemiological analyses of ExPEC are based on structured observations of E. coli strains as they occur in the wild. By assessing real-world phenomena as they occur in authentic contexts and hosts, they provide an important complement to experimental assessment. Fundamental to the success of molecular epidemiological studies are the careful selection of subjects and the use of appropriate typing methods and statistical analysis...
April 2018: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667566/us-emergency-medical-services-fellows
#11
Brian Clemency, Christian Martin-Gill, Nicole Rall, Dipesh Patel, Jeffery Myers
IntroductionThe 2015-2016 academic year was the fourth year since the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME; Chicago, Illinois USA) accredited Emergency Medical Services (EMS) fellowships, and the first year an in-training examination was given. Soon, ACGME-accredited fellowship education will be the sole path to EMS board certification when the practice pathway closes after 2019. This project aimed to describe the current class of EMS fellows at ACGME-accredited programs and their current educational opportunities to better understand current and future needs in EMS fellowship education...
April 18, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667482/hot-utilitarianism-and-cold-deontology-insights-from-a-response-patterns-approach-to-sacrificial-and-real-world-dilemmas
#12
Alejandro Rosas, Hugo Viciana, Esteban Caviedes, Alejandra Arciniegas
Research on moral judgment with moral dilemmas suggests that "utilitarian" responses (UR) to sacrificial high-conflict dilemmas are due to decreased harm aversion, not only in individuals with clinical conditions, but also in healthy participants with high scores in antisocial personality traits. We investigated the patterns of responses to different dilemma types in healthy participants and present evidence that some URs to sacrificial dilemmas are morally motivated, as indicated by their empathic concern (EC) or primary psychopathy (PP) scores...
April 18, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667479/the-impact-of-contextual-priors-and-anxiety-on-performance-effectiveness-and-processing-efficiency-in-anticipation
#13
David P Broadbent, N Viktor Gredin, Jason L Rye, A Mark Williams, Daniel T Bishop
It is proposed that experts are able to integrate prior contextual knowledge with emergent visual information to make complex predictive judgments about the world around them, often under heightened levels of uncertainty and extreme time constraints. However, limited knowledge exists about the impact of anxiety on the use of such contextual priors when forming our decisions. We provide a novel insight into the combined impact of contextual priors and anxiety on anticipation in soccer. Altogether, 12 expert soccer players were required to predict the actions of an oncoming opponent while viewing life-sized video simulations of 2-versus-2 defensive scenarios...
April 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667473/harnessing-neuroplasticity-modern-approaches-and-clinical-future
#14
Andrew Octavian Sasmita, Joshua Kuruvilla, Anna Pick Kiong Ling
Neurological diseases and injuries to the nervous system may cause inadvertent damage to neuronal and synaptic structures. Such phenomenon would catastrophically accumulate, leading to the development of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders which might affect memory, cognition, and motoric functions. The body has various negative feedback systems which are able to induce beneficial neuroplastic changes in mediating some neuronal damage, however, such efforts are often not enough to ameliorate the derogatory changes...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667464/end-user-evaluation-of-a-kneeling-wheelchair-with-on-the-fly-adjustable-seating-functions
#15
Johanne Mattie, Angie Wong, Danny Leland, Jaimie Borisoff
A "kneeling" ultralight wheelchair prototype has been developed that allows users to adjust seat position "on the fly" for different activities throughout the day. The wheelchair includes independent adjustment functions for rear seat height, front seat height ("kneeling") and backrest angle.  Aim: This work aimed to gather feedback about the wheelchair's functionality and performance through end user evaluation trials.  Methods: Eight manual wheelchair users evaluated the prototype Kneeling Wheelchair for a range of activities...
April 18, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667443/implications-of-structural-and-functional-brain-changes-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#16
Thanuja Dharmadasa, William Huynh, Jun Tsugawa, Yoshimitsu Shimatani, Yan Ma, Matthew C Kiernan
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive muscle weakness and disability, eventually leading to death. Heterogeneity of disease has become a major barrier to understanding key clinical questions such as prognosis and disease spread, and has disadvantaged clinical trials in search of therapeutic intervention. Patterns of disease have been explored through recent advances in neuroimaging, elucidating structural, molecular and functional changes. Unique brain signatures have emerged that have lent a greater understanding of critical disease mechanisms, offering opportunities to improve diagnosis, guide prognosis, and establish candidate biomarkers to direct future therapeutic strategies...
April 19, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667430/effect-of-electrolyzed-water-on-the-disinfection-of-bacillus-cereus-biofilms-the-mechanism-of-enhanced-resistance-of-sessile-cells-in-the-biofilm-matrix
#17
Mohammad Shakhawat Hussain, Minyeong Kwon, Charles Nkufi Tango, Deog Hwan Oh
This study examined the disinfection efficacy and mechanism of electrolyzed water (EW) on Bacillus cereus biofilms. B. cereus strains, ATCC 14579 and Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) 13153 biofilms, were formed on stainless steel (SS) and plastic slide (PS) coupons. Mature biofilms were treated with slightly acidic EW (SAEW), acidic EW (AEW), and basic EW (BEW). SAEW (available chlorine concentration, 25 ± 1.31 mg L-1 ; pH 5.71 ± 0.16; and oxidation reduction potential, 818 to 855 mV) reduced ATCC 14579 biofilms on plastic slides to below the detection limit within 30 s...
May 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667374/hepatocellular-carcinoma-prospects-for-nk-cell-immunotherapy
#18
REVIEW
N Kumar, S I Khakoo
Liver disease is a growing cause of death in the UK and the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rising (http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/). The combination of an immunosuppressive environment within the liver and suboptimal host anti-tumour immune responses may account for the poor survival outcome of HCC. Understanding how tumours evade immune recognition coupled with new insights into the unique immunological environment within the liver will be critical to developing liver-specific immunotherapies...
April 17, 2018: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667358/human-disease-clinical-medical-sciences-in-dentistry-current-state-and-future-directions-of-undergraduate-teaching-in-the-uk-and-ireland
#19
P A Atkin, S Thomas, R J Cook, M Greenwood, J H Bennett, A Willis, C Donachie, R Ni Riordain, S Galvin, A Crighton, A J Mighell, I Bakri
In March 2017, a group of teachers of human disease/clinical medical science (HD/CMSD) representing the majority of schools from around the UK and Republic of Ireland met to discuss the current state of teaching of human disease and also to discuss how the delivery of this theme might evolve to inform improved healthcare. This study outlines how the original teaching in medicine and surgery to dental undergraduate students has developed into the theme of HD/CMSD reflecting changing needs as well as guidance from the regulators, and how different dental schools have developed their approaches to reach their current state...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667349/asb1-differential-methylation-in-ischaemic-cardiomyopathy-relationship-with-left-ventricular-performance-in-end-stage-heart-failure-patients
#20
Ana Ortega, Estefanía Tarazón, Carolina Gil-Cayuela, Luis Martínez-Dolz, Francisca Lago, José Ramón González-Juanatey, Juan Sandoval, Manuel Portolés, Esther Roselló-Lletí, Miguel Rivera
AIMS: Ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) leads to impaired contraction and ventricular dysfunction, causing high rates of morbidity and mortality. Epigenomics allows the identification of epigenetic signatures in human diseases. We analyse the differential epigenetic patterns of the ASB gene family in ICM patients and relate these alterations to their haemodynamic and functional status. METHODS AND RESULTS: Epigenomic analysis was carried out using 16 left ventricular (LV) tissue samples, eight from ICM patients undergoing heart transplantation and eight from control (CNT) subjects without cardiac disease...
April 17, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
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