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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909607/speciation-of-reactive-sulfur-species-and-their-reactions-with-alkylating-agents-do-we-have-any-clue-about-what-is-present-inside-the-cell
#1
Virág Bogdándi, Tomoaki Ida, Thomas R Sutton, Christopher Bianco, Tamás Ditrói, Grielof Koster, Hillary A Henthorn, Magda Minnion, John P Toscano, Albert van der Vliet, Michael D Pluth, Martin Feelisch, Jon M Fukuto, Takaaki Akaike, Péter Nagy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Posttranslational modifications of cysteine (Cys) residues represent a major aspect of redox biology, and their reliable detection is key in providing mechanistic insights. The metastable character of these modifications and cell lysis-induced artifactual oxidation render current state-of-the-art protocols to rely on alkylation-based stabilization of labile Cys derivatives before cell/tissue rupture. An untested assumption in these procedures is that for all Cys derivatives alkylation rates are faster than their dynamic interchange...
June 17, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909586/fractal-dimension-brain-morphometry-a-novel-approach-to-quantify-white-matter-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Venkateswaran Rajagopalan, Abhijit Das, Luduan Zhang, Frank Hillary, Glenn R Wylie, Guang H Yue
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of disability in people younger than 35 in the United States. The mechanisms of TBI are complex resulting in both focal and diffuse brain damage. Fractal dimension (FD) is a measure that can characterize morphometric complexity and variability of brain structure especially white matter (WM) structure and may provide novel insights into the injuries evident following TBI. FD-based brain morphometry may provide information on WM structural changes after TBI that is more sensitive to subtle structural changes post injury compared to conventional MRI measurements...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909553/increasing-quality-of-life-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-is-there-a-role-for-nutrition
#3
REVIEW
Paulien Vinke, Suzanne M Jansen, Renger F Witkamp, Klaske van Norren
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease primarily affecting the pulmonary vasculature and heart. PAH patients suffer from exercise intolerance and fatigue, negatively affecting their quality of life. This review summarizes current insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PAH. It zooms in on the potential involvement of nutritional status and micronutrient deficiencies on PAH exercise intolerance and fatigue, also summarizing the potential benefits of exercise and nutritional interventions...
June 16, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909487/assessment-of-contamination-and-health-risk-of-heavy-metals-in-selected-water-bodies-around-gold-mining-areas-in-ghana
#4
George Yaw Hadzi, David Kofi Essumang, Godwin A Ayoko
Heavy metal contamination of selected rivers in Ghana was studied as part of a bigger project aimed at setting background standard for heavy metals in the Ghanaian environment. Water samples were collected from major mining and eight pristine areas. The samples were acid digested with aqua-regia and analyzed with ICP-MS for As, Cd, Hg, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Cr, Al, V, Co, Ni, and Pb. The average concentrations (mg/L) from the pristine sites ranged from 0.002 ± 0.00(As) to 0.929 ± 0.06 (Fe) and 0.002 ± 0...
June 16, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909373/what-insights-do-patients-and-caregivers-have-on-acute-kidney-injury-and-posthospitalisation-care-a-single-centre-qualitative-study-from-toronto-canada
#5
Samuel A Silver, Marianne Saragosa, Neill K Adhikari, Chaim M Bell, Ziv Harel, Andrea Harvey, Abhijat Kitchlu, Javier A Neyra, Ron Wald, Lianne Jeffs
OBJECTIVES: Hospitalisation with acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with short-term and long-term adverse events, but patient and caregiver experiences with AKI are not well described. We sought to better understand patient and caregiver perspectives after a hospitalisation with AKI to inform discharge strategies that may improve outcomes for this high-risk population. DESIGN: Qualitative study with semistructured interviews. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada...
June 15, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909365/histogram-profiling-of-postcontrast-t1-weighted-mri-gives-valuable-insights-into-tumor-biology-and-enables-prediction-of-growth-kinetics-and-prognosis-in-meningiomas
#6
Georg Alexander Gihr, Diana Horvath-Rizea, Patricia Kohlhof-Meinecke, Oliver Ganslandt, Hans Henkes, Cindy Richter, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Alexey Surov, Stefan Schob
BACKGROUND: Meningiomas are the most frequently diagnosed intracranial masses, oftentimes requiring surgery. Especially procedure-related morbidity can be substantial, particularly in elderly patients. Hence, reliable imaging modalities enabling pretherapeutic prediction of tumor grade, growth kinetic, realistic prognosis, and-as a consequence-necessity of surgery are of great value. In this context, a promising diagnostic approach is advanced analysis of magnetic resonance imaging data...
June 14, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909351/a-contribution-to-the-characterization-of-the-silicate-water-interface-part-i-implication-of-a-new-polished-sample-hydration-technique
#7
T Sowoidnich, L Gordon, C Naber, F Bellmann, J Neubauer, D Joester
The analysis of the atomic composition of the interface between tricalcium silicate (C3 S), the main compound of Ordinary Portland Cement, and surrounding solution is still a challenging task. At the same time, that knowledge is of profound importance for describing the basic processes during hydration. By means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atom Probe Tomography (APT) we combine modern techniques in order to shed light on this topic in the present study. The results of these methods are compared with conduction calorimetry as a standard technique to study the hydration kinetics of cement...
June 11, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909337/a-review-of-soil-heavy-metal-pollution-from-industrial-and-agricultural-regions-in-china-pollution-and-risk-assessment
#8
REVIEW
Qianqi Yang, Zhiyuan Li, Xiaoning Lu, Qiannan Duan, Lei Huang, Jun Bi
Soil heavy metal pollution has been becoming serious and widespread in China. To date, there are few studies assessing the nationwide soil heavy metal pollution induced by industrial and agricultural activities in China. This review obtained heavy metal concentrations in soils of 402 industrial sites and 1041 agricultural sites in China throughout the document retrieval. Based on the database, this review assessed soil heavy metal concentration and estimated the ecological and health risks on a national scale...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909325/a-novel-microfluidic-system-enables-visualization-and-analysis-of-antibiotic-resistance-gene-transfer-to-activated-sludge-bacteria-in-biofilm
#9
Yong Qiu, Jing Zhang, Bing Li, Xianghua Wen, Peng Liang, Xia Huang
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environment have become a growing public concern, due to their potential to be obtained by pathogens and their duplication along cell division. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) was reported to be responsible for ARGs dissemination in microbes, but the HGT feature in environmental biofilm was still unclear due to insufficient assay tools. To address this challenge, we applied a novel microfluidic system to cultivate thin biofilm by continuous supply of nutrients and close contact between cells...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909292/new-toxicogenetic-insights-and-ranking-of-the-selected-pharmaceuticals-belong-to-the-three-different-classes-a-toxicity-estimation-to-confirmation-approach
#10
Yi Liu, Muhammad Junaid, Yan Wang, Yu-Mei Tang, Wan-Ping Bian, Wen-Xu Xiong, Hai-Yang Huang, Chun-Di Chen, De-Sheng Pei
Tetracycline hydrochloride (TH), indomethacin (IM), and bezafibrate (BF) belong to the three different important classes of pharmaceuticals, which are well known for their toxicity and environmental concerns. However, studies are still elusive to highlight the mechanistic toxicity of these pharmaceuticals and rank them using both, the toxicity prediction and confirmation approaches. Therefore, we employed the next generation toxicity testing in 21st century (TOX21) tools and estimated the in vitro/vivo toxic endpoints of mentioned pharmaceuticals, and then confirmed them using in vitro/vivo assays...
June 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909281/basic-functional-trade-offs-in-cognition-an-integrative-framework
#11
Marco Del Giudice, Bernard J Crespi
Trade-offs between advantageous but conflicting properties (e.g., speed vs. accuracy) are ubiquitous in cognition, but the relevant literature is conceptually fragmented, scattered across disciplines, and has not been organized in a coherent framework. This paper takes an initial step toward a general theory of cognitive trade-offs by examining four key properties of goal-directed systems: performance, efficiency, robustness, and flexibility. These properties define a number of basic functional trade-offs that can be used to map the abstract "design space" of natural and artificial cognitive systems...
June 14, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909272/insights-into-the-structural-features-and-stability-of-peptide-nucleic-acid-with-a-d-prolyl-2-aminocyclopentane-carboxylic-acid-backbone-that-binds-to-dna-and-rna
#12
Nattawee Poomsuk, Tirayut Vilaivan, Khatcharin Siriwong
Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a powerful biomolecule with a wide variety of important applications. In this work, the molecular structures and binding affinity of PNA with a D-prolyl-2-aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid backbone (acpcPNA) that binds to both DNA and RNA were studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulated structures of acpcPNA-DNA and acpcPNA-RNA duplexes more closely resembled the typical structures of B-DNA and A-RNA than the corresponding duplexes of aegPNA. The calculated binding free energies are in good agreement with the experimental results that the acpcPNA-DNA duplex is more stable than the acpcPNA-RNA duplex regardless of the base sequences...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909189/on-the-quantitativeness-of-grain-boundary-chemistry-using-stem-eds-a-zro-2-%C3%AE-9-model-grain-boundary-case-study
#13
B Feng, N R Lugg, A Kumamoto, N Shibata, Y Ikuhara
Atomic-resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has recently been shown to be a powerful approach to investigate local chemistry of nanoscale structures quantitatively. While most of the studies have been focused on the quantification of the chemical composition in bulk crystals, few were discussed on interfaces. In this study, we theoretically explored the applicability of STEM EDS for the quantification of local chemistry in grain boundaries (GBs), where the electron channeling can be dramatically changed compared with the bulk due to non-periodic atomic arrangement...
June 3, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909181/stress-related-deficits-of-older-adults-spatial-working-memory-an-eeg-investigation-of-occipital-alpha-and-frontal-midline-theta-activities
#14
Amanda C Marshall, Nicholas Cooper, Livia Rosu, Steffan Kennett
Studies highlight cumulative life stress as a significant predictor of accelerated cognitive aging. This study paired electrophysiological with behavioral measures to explore how cumulative stress affects attentional and maintenance processes underpinning working memory retention. We collected electroencephalographic recordings from 60 individuals (30 older, 30 younger) reporting high or low levels of cumulative stress during the performance of a spatial Sternberg task. We measured mid-occipital alpha (8-12 Hz) and frontal-midline theta (4-6 Hz) as indicators of attentional and maintenance processes...
May 29, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909142/what-does-not-kill-a-tumour-may-make-it-stronger-in-silico-insights-into-chemotherapeutic-drug-resistance
#15
Sara Hamis, Perumal Nithiarasu, Gibin G Powathil
Tumour recurrence post chemotherapy is an established clinical problem and many cancer types are often observed to be increasingly drug resistant subsequent to chemotherapy treatments. Drug resistance in cancer is a multipart phenomenon which can be derived from several origins and in many cases it has been observed that cancer cells have the ability to possess, acquire and communicate drug resistant traits. Here, an in silico framework is developed in order to study drug resistance and drug response in cancer cell populations exhibiting various drug resistant features...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909064/development-of-the-astyanax-mexicanus-circadian-clock-and-non-visual-light-responses
#16
Inga A Frøland Steindal, Andrew Beale, Yoshiyuki Yamamoto, David Whitmore
Most animals and plants live on the planet exposed to periods of rhythmic light and dark. As such, they have evolved endogenous circadian clocks to regulate their physiology rhythmically, and non-visual light detection mechanisms to set the clock to the environmental light-dark cycle. In the case of fish, circadian pacemakers are not only present in the majority of tissues and cells, but these tissues are themselves directly light-sensitive, expressing a wide range of opsin photopigments. This broad non-visual light sensitivity exists to set the clock, but also impacts a wide range of fundamental cell biological processes, such as DNA repair regulation...
June 14, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909044/lipid-droplet-metabolism-during-dengue-virus-infection
#17
Glenn Randall
Dengue virus (DENV) induces a proviral selective autophagy targeting lipid droplets, termed lipophagy, that stimulates lipid metabolism. Zhang et al. gained mechanistic insight into this process, demonstrating that DENV NS4A/B binds unmodified AUP1 and promotes its translocation from lipid droplets to autophagosomes to drive the induction of lipophagy.
May 29, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909027/dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-dppc-annealing-strategy-to-mitigate-variability-in-thermotropic-and-moisture-sorption-behavior
#18
Saikishore Meruva, Aditya B Singaraju, Bharath Kumar Gowdampally, Bhavani Prasad Vinjamuri, William C Stagner
Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) demonstrated complex differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermal behavior. Transitions below 100 °C showed variability in their thermotropic reversibility. An experimental design employing a DSC heat-cool-heat-cool-heat cycle and modulated DSC were used to gain insight into the DPPC's complex thermal nature. An annealing strategy was developed to reduce DPPC's thermotropic variability, moisture uptake rate, and rate variability. Samples annealed at 110 °C for 5 min provided a reproducible, thermally reversible material...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908985/biodistribution-and-toxicity-assessment-of-intratumorally-injected-arginine-glycine-aspartic-acid-peptide-conjugated-to-cdse-zns-quantum-dots-in-mice-bearing-pancreatic-neoplasm
#19
Ming-Ming Li, Jia Cao, Jia-Chun Yang, Yu-Jie Shen, Xiao-Lei Cai, Yuan-Wen Chen, Chun-Ying Qu, Yi Zhang, Feng Shen, Min Zhou, Lei-Ming Xu
Quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides (which are integrin antagonists) are novel nanomaterials with the unique optical property of high molar extinction coefficient, and they have potential utility as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Our group previously demonstrated significant benefits of using PDT with QD-RGD on pancreatic tumor cells. This study aimed to evaluate the biodistribution and toxicity of QD-RGD in mice prior to in vivo application. Mice with pancreatic neoplasms were intratumorally injected with varying doses of QD-RGD, and the biodistribution 0-24 h post injection was compared to that in control mice (intravenously injected with unconjugated QD)...
June 14, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908931/cost-of-surgical-treatment-for-distal-radius-fractures-and-the-implications-of-episode-based-bundled-payments
#20
Helen E Huetteman, Lin Zhong, Kevin C Chung
PURPOSE: To examine the cost of care of surgical treatment for a distal radius fracture (DRF) and develop episodes that may be used to develop future bundled payment programs. METHODS: Using 2009 to 2015 claims data from the Truven MarketScan Databases, we examined the cost of care for surgical treatment of DRFs among adult patients in the United States. We excluded patients with concurrent fractures, patients who required complex care, and patients in assisted living facilities...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
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