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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454264/development-and-validation-of-uplc-ms-ms-assay-for-quantification-of-cladrin-absolute-bioavailability-and-dose-proportionality-study-in-rats
#1
Mamunur Rashid, Sandeep K Singh, Mohd Yaseen Malik, Sadaf Jahan, Swati Chaturvedi, Isha Taneja, Kanumuri Sivarama Raju, Zaiba Naseem, J R Gayen, Muhammad Wahajuddin
Cladrin, an isoflavone is a major bioactive constituent found in stem bark of Butea monosperma with remarkable osteogenic activity. A speedy and sensitive UPLC coupled tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed, validated and successfully applied to bioavailability, blood partitioning, plasma protein binding, intravenous and multiple-dose oral pharmacokinetics of cladrin in rats. Separation was done on C18 column (5.0 μm, 4.6 × 50 mm) using mobile phase containing acetonitrile and 0.10% formic acid in the ratio of 65:35 (v/v) with 0...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454260/solar-photo-fenton-treatment-of-microcystin-lr-in-aqueous-environment-transformation-products-and-toxicity-in-different-water-matrices
#2
Akin Karci, Elizabeth M Wurtzler, Armah A de la Cruz, David Wendell, Dionysios D Dionysiou
Transformation products and toxicity patterns of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a common cyanotoxin in freshwaters, during degradation by solar photo-Fenton process were studied in the absence and presence of two major water components, namely fulvic acid and alkalinity. The transformation products m/z 795, 835, 515/1030 and 532 can be formed through attack of OH on the conjugated carbon double bonds of Adda. Transformation products with m/z 1010, 966 and 513 can be generated through the attack of OH on the methoxy group of Adda...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454259/the-cellular-mechanisms-and-consequences-of-centromere-drive
#3
REVIEW
Lisa E Kursel, Harmit S Malik
During female meiosis, only one of four meiotic products is retained in the egg. It was previously proposed that chromosomes might compete for inclusion in the egg via their centromere 'strength'. Recent findings have revealed the primary requirements for such 'centromere drive'. First, CDC42 signaling from the oocyte cortex renders the meiotic I spindle asymmetric. Second, 'stronger' centromeres preferentially detach from microtubules in cortical proximity, making them more likely to orient away from the cortex, and be included in the egg...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454256/five-month-old-infants-have-expectations-for-the-accumulation-of-nonsolid-substances
#4
Erin M Anderson, Susan J Hespos, Lance J Rips
Infants fail to represent quantities of non-cohesive substances in paradigms where they succeed with solid objects. Some investigators have interpreted these results as evidence that infants do not yet have representations for substances. More recent research, however, shows that 5-month-old infants expect objects and substances to behave and interact in different ways. In the present experiments, we test whether infants have expectations for substances when the outcomes are not simply the opposite of those for objects...
February 14, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454200/effect-of-clonal-integration-on-nitrogen-cycling-in-rhizosphere-of-rhizomatous-clonal-plant-phyllostachys-bissetii-under-heterogeneous-light
#5
Yang Li, Jing-Song Chen, Ge Xue, Yuanying Peng, Hui-Xing Song
Clonal integration plays an important role in clonal plant adapting to heterogeneous habitats. It was postulated that clonal integration could exhibit positive effects on nitrogen cycling in the rhizosphere of clonal plant subjected to heterogeneous light conditions. An in-situ experiment was conducted using clonal fragments of Phyllostachys bissetii with two successive ramets. Shading treatments were applied to offspring or mother ramets, respectively, whereas counterparts were treated to full sunlight. Rhizomes between two successive ramets were either severed or connected...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454193/revealing-metabolic-storage-processes-in-electrode-respiring-bacteria-by-differential-electrochemical-mass-spectrometry
#6
F Kubannek, U Schröder, U Krewer
In this work we employ differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) in combination with static and dynamic electrochemical techniques for the study of metabolic processes of electrochemically active bacteria. CO 2 production during acetate oxidation by electrode respiring bacteria was measured, in-vivo and online with a sensitivity of 6.5 ⋅ 10 -13 mol/s. The correlation of ion current and electrical current provides insight into the interaction of metabolic processes and extra-cellular electron transfer...
February 8, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454191/show-me-the-way-rust-effector-targets-in-heterologous-plant-systems
#7
REVIEW
Cécile Lorrain, Benjamin Petre, Sébastien Duplessis
For years, the study of rust fungal effectors has been impeded by the lack of molecular genetic tools in rust pathosystems. The recent use of heterologous plants to perform effector screens (effectoromics)-including effector localisation (cellular targets) and protein interactors (molecular targets) in plant cells-has changed the game. These screens revealed that many candidate effectors from various rust fungi target specific plant cell compartments, including chloroplasts, and associate with specific plant protein complexes...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454184/exploration-and-exploitation-of-the-environment-for-novel-specialized-metabolites
#8
REVIEW
Catarina Loureiro, Marnix H Medema, John van der Oost, Detmer Sipkema
Microorganisms are Nature's little engineers of a remarkable array of bioactive small molecules that represent most of our new drugs. The wealth of genomic and metagenomic sequence data generated in the last decade has shown that the majority of novel biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) is identified from cultivation-independent studies, which has led to a strong expansion of the number of microbial taxa known to harbour BGCs. The large size and repeat sequences of BGCs remain a bioinformatic challenge, but newly developed software tools have been created to overcome these issues and are paramount to identify and select the most promising BGCs for further research and exploitation...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454183/the-fine-balance-between-mutualism-and-antagonism-in-the-epichlo%C3%A3-festucae-grass-symbiotic-interaction
#9
REVIEW
Barry Scott, Kimberly Green, Daniel Berry
Epichloë endophytes form mutualistic symbiotic associations with aerial tissues of temperate grasses. Intercalary growth of hyphae within the leaves enables fungal growth to be synchronized with host leaf growth, leading to formation of a highly structured and tightly regulated symbiotic network. Mutations in fungal genes that disrupt cell-cell fusion and other key signalling pathways lead to an antagonistic interaction characterized by unregulated growth of endophytic hyphae and detrimental effects on host growth...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454157/nanofibrous-plga-electrospun-scaffolds-modified-with-type-i-collagen-influence-hepatocyte-function-and-support-viability-in-vitro
#10
Jessica H Brown, Prativa Das, Michael D DiVito, David Ivancic, Lay Poh Tan, Jason A Wertheim
A major challenge of maintaining primary hepatocytes in vitro is progressive loss of hepatocyte-specific functions, such as protein synthesis and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) catalytic activity. We developed a three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous scaffold made from poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer using a newlyoptimizedwet electrospinning techniquethat resulted in a highly porous structure that accommodated inclusion of primary human hepatocytes. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (type I collagen or fibronectin) at varying concentrations were chemically linked to electrospun PLGA using amine coupling to develop an in vitro culture system containing the minimal essential ECM components of the liver micro-environment that preserve hepatocyte function in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454151/humoral-response-to-john-cunningham-virus-during-pregnancy-in-multiple-sclerosis
#11
M Saraste, S Atula, K Hedman, S Hurme, A Jalkanen, M Sneck, H-M Surcel, A H Maghzi, L Airas
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy induces an immunosuppressive state in the mother to ensure immunological acceptance of the foetus. Impairment of cell-mediated immune responses may render the mother susceptible to intracellular pathogens. It is not presently known whether pregnancy alters the immunosurveillance for John Cunningham virus (JCV), an opportunistic pathogen associated with natalizumab treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the humoral immune response to JCV is altered during pregnancy among MS patients and healthy controls to get insight to potential pregnancy-induced alterations related to immune response to JCV during pregnancy...
February 9, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454112/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-maize-responses-to-early-leaf-senescence-induced-by-preventing-pollination
#12
Liancheng Wu, Shunxi Wang, Lei Tian, Liuji Wu, Mingna Li, Jun Zhang, Pei Li, Weiqiang Zhang, Yanhui Chen
The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanisms of induced leaf senescence by preventing pollination in maize using a proteomic method combined with other physiological methods. An elite maize inbred line Yu816 were selected for evaluation of its senescence mechanism. Phenotypic and chlorophyll content analysis revealed that the onset of leaf senescence occurred earlier in non-pollinated (NONPOL) leaves than pollinated (POL) leaves. Leaf protein species of NONPOL and POL leaves were separately extracted and their proteomes were assessed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454110/study-of-lipid-metabolism-by-estimating-the-fat-fraction-in-different-breast-tissues-and-in-various-breast-tumor-sub-types-by-in-vivo-1-h-mr-spectroscopy
#13
Khushbu Agarwal, Uma Sharma, Sandeep Mathur, Vurthaluru Seenu, Rajinder Parshad, Naranamangalam R Jagannathan
PURPOSE: To evaluate the utility of fat fraction (FF) for the differentiation of different breast tissues and in various breast tumor subtypes using in vivo proton ( 1 H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). METHODS: 1 H MRS was performed on 68 malignant, 35 benign, and 30 healthy volunteers at 1.5 T. Malignant breast tissues of patients were characterized into different subtypes based on the differences in the expression of hormone receptors and the FF was calculated...
February 14, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454092/analysis-of-human-papillomavirus-16-e6-e7-genes-and-long-control-region-in-cervical-samples-from-uruguayan-women
#14
Viviana Ramas, Santiago Mirazo, Sylvia Bonilla, Dora Ruchansky, Juan Arbiza
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the HPV16 variant distribution by sequence analyses of E6, E7 oncogenes and the Long Control Region (LCR), from cervical cells collected from Uruguayan women, and to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among variants. METHODS: Forty-seven HPV16 variants, obtained from women with HSIL, LSIL, ASCUS and NILM cytological classes were analyzed for LCR and 12 were further studied for E6 and E7. Detailed sequence comparison, genetic heterogeneity analyses and phylogenetic reconstruction were performed...
February 14, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454088/hsf4-transcriptional-regulates-hmox-1-expression-in-hlecs
#15
Shengjie Liao, Zhen Qu, Linqiang Li, Benwen Zhou, Meng Gao, Mi Huang, Duanzhuo Li
The major causes for cataract formation are free radicals, which are neutralized by the endogenous antioxidants. However, how the human lens clean these harmful free radicals is still unclear. Transcriptional factor heat shock factor 4 (HSF4) is a cataract-causing gene and plays important roles during lens development. Here we show that HMOX-1, an anti-oxidase, is a bona fide transcriptional target gene of HSF4 in HLECs (human lens epithelial cells). HSF4 directly binds to the HSE element in HMOX-1 promoter to mediate its mRNA transcription and protein accumulation...
February 14, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454067/considering-our-methods-methodological-issues-with-rodent-models-of-appetite-and-obesity-research
#16
Thomas A Lutz
A large number of animal models are currently used in appetite and obesity research. Because the worldwide incidence of obesity continues to climb, it is imperative that animal models sharing characteristics of human obesity and its co-morbidities be used appropriately in the quest for novel preventions or treatments. There is probably no animal model, at least in rodents, that recapitulates all aspects of "common" human obesity and its comorbidities, but rodent models allow insight into specific mechanisms of disease or its consequences...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454050/when-travel-is-a-challenge-travel-medicine-and-the-dis-abled-traveller
#17
REVIEW
Irmgard Bauer
Travellers with recognised disabilities or the dis-ability to function as required during a trip have been overlooked in the travel medicine literature. This paper provides a starting point for further discussion and research into this neglected traveller population. In contrast, tourism research has explored travel with a disability for some time in order to understand the travellers' needs and to improve services accordingly. The contemporary bio-psycho-social understanding of disability serves as the framework for exploring motivations to travel as well as barriers, such as inter and intrapersonal, economic, structural and attitudinal obstacles...
February 14, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454048/new-insights-into-the-molecular-characteristics-of-pulmonary-carcinoids-and-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinomas-and-the-impact-on-their-clinical-management
#18
REVIEW
J L Derks, N Leblay, S Lantuejoul, A M Dingemans, E J M Speel, L Fernandez-Cuesta
Carcinoids and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC) are rare neuroendocrine lung tumors. Here we provide an overview of the most updated data on the molecular characteristics of these diseases. Recent genomic studies showed that carcinoids generally contain a low mutational burden and few recurrently mutated genes. Most of the reported mutations occur in chromatin-remodeling genes (e.g. MEN1), and few affect genes of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. Aggressive disease has been related to chromothripsis, DNA-repair gene mutations, loss of OTP/CD44, and upregulation of RET gene expression...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454038/dendritic-cells-as-cancer-therapeutics
#19
REVIEW
Christian E Bryant, Sarah Sutherland, Benjamin Kong, Michael S Papadimitrious, Derek N J Hart
The ability of immune therapies to control cancer has recently generated intense interest. This therapeutic outcome is reliant on T cell recognition of tumour cells. The natural function of dendritic cells (DC) is to generate adaptive responses, by presenting antigen to T cells, hence they are a logical target to generate specific anti-tumour immunity. Our understanding of the biology of DC is expanding, and they are now known to be a family of related subsets with variable features and function. Most clinical experience to date with DC vaccination has been using monocyte-derived DC vaccines...
February 14, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454018/co-circulation-of-classic-and-novel-astrovirus-strains-in-patients-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-germany
#20
Sonja Jacobsen, Marina Höhne, Andreas Mas Marques, Klara Beslmüller, C-Thomas Bock, Sandra Niendorf
OBJECTIVES: In order to analyze the molecular epidemiology of human astroviruses (HAstV) in Germany, a retrospective long term study was performed to characterize circulating human astrovirus in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Germany. METHODS: A total of 2877 stool samples, collected between January 2010 and December 2015 from sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis were retrospectively analyzed for astrovirus. A two step PCR algorithm was developed and used to identify and characterize human astrovirus infections...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Infection
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