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Parainfluenza virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447284/influenza-interaction-with-cocirculating-pathogens-and-its-impact-on-surveillance-pathogenesis-and-epidemic-profile-a-key-role-for-mathematical-modelling
#1
REVIEW
Lulla Opatowski, Marc Baguelin, Rosalind M Eggo
Evidence is mounting that influenza virus interacts with other pathogens colonising or infecting the human respiratory tract. Taking into account interactions with other pathogens may be critical to determining the real influenza burden and the full impact of public health policies targeting influenza. This is particularly true for mathematical modelling studies, which have become critical in public health decision-making. Yet models usually focus on influenza virus acquisition and infection alone, thereby making broad oversimplifications of pathogen ecology...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444701/a-case-series-on-common-cold-to-severe-bronchiolitis-and-pneumonia-in-children-following-human-metapneumovirus-infection-in-sri-lanka
#2
J A A S Jayaweera, F Noordeen, S Kothalaweala, F N N Pitchai, M L M Rayes
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of hMPV infections in Sri Lanka has not been reported and here we report a case series of hMPV infection in children less than 5 years. Patients with ARTI were included from Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura from March 2013 to August 2014. Indirect fluorescence assay was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates for the identification of respiratory viruses [respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus 1, 2 and 3, influenza A and B and hMPV]. Moreover, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was done to further confirm the hMPV infection...
February 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444614/in-vitro-anti-influenza-virus-effect-of-total-flavonoid-from-trollius-ledebouri-reichb
#3
Yongping Liu, Jiming Tong, Ying Tong, Ping Li, Xiaolan Cui, Hongbao Cao
Objective To investigate the in vitro antivirus effect of total flavonoid from Trollius ledebouri Reichb (TFTLR). Methods Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Human epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) cell lines were used to test the antivirus effect of TFTLR on nine virus subtypes: four H1N1, one H3N2, and four other subtypes prevalent in North China. Tamiflu, Ribavirin and Lianhua Qingwen were used as active comparators. Comprehensive molecular pathway analyses of TFTLR-H1N1 and TFTLR-H3N2 relationships were also conducted...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426407/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-for-selected-respiratory-and-reproductive-tract-pathogen-exposure-in-european-bison-bison-bonasus-in-poland
#4
Michał K Krzysiak, Artur Jabłoński, Wojciech Iwaniak, Monika Krajewska, Julia Kęsik-Maliszewska, Magdalena Larska
After the complete extinction from the wild of European bison (Bison bonasus) at the beginning of the twentieth century, the worldwide species population was restored to approximately 5500 individuals, with the species however remaining endangered. Despite numerous studies on the ecology and genetics of European bison, the threats of infectious diseases have been largely unexamined. The aim of this study was to screen the exposure of the world's largest population of European bison to the pathogens, which may influence the condition and development of the endangered species...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425244/initiation-extension-and-termination-of-rna-synthesis-by-a-paramyxovirus-polymerase
#5
Paul C Jordan, Cheng Liu, Pauline Raynaud, Michael K Lo, Christina F Spiropoulou, Julian A Symons, Leo Beigelman, Jerome Deval
Paramyxoviruses represent a family of RNA viruses causing significant human diseases. These include measles virus, the most infectious virus ever reported, in addition to parainfluenza virus, and other emerging viruses. Paramyxoviruses likely share common replication machinery but their mechanisms of RNA biosynthesis activities and details of their complex polymerase structures are unknown. Mechanistic and functional details of a paramyxovirus polymerase would have sweeping implications for understanding RNA virus replication and for the development of new antiviral medicines...
February 9, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424696/upper-respiratory-viral-infections-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-after-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-retrospective-study
#6
Erden Atilla, Didem Sahin, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Istar Dolapci, Alper Tekeli, Sinem Civriz Bozdag, Meltem Kurt Yuksel, Selami Kocak Toprak, Osman Ilhan, Onder Arslan, Muhit Ozcan, Gunhan Gurman, Pervin Topcuoglu
BACKGROUND: Community respiratory viruses (CRVs) are associated with upper respiratory viral infections (URI), pneumonia or life-threatening respiratory disease in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Our aim is to demonstrate our URI experience related to CRVs after allo-HSCT. METHODS: From January 2013 to November 2015, 39 post allo-HSCT patients with acute URI symptoms were included to the study. We evaluated CRVs by multiplex PCR from nasopharyngeal wash and throat swabs...
February 9, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414652/administration-of-lactococcus-lactis-strain-plasma-induces-maturation-of-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-and-protection-from-rotavirus-infection-in-suckling-mice
#7
Kenta Jounai, Tetsu Sugimura, Yuji Morita, Konomi Ohshio, Daisuke Fujiwara
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis JCM 5805 (LC-Plasma) is a strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that activates murine and human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) to express interferons (IFNs). Oral administration of LC-Plasma drastically decreased fatality levels caused by parainfluenza virus infection in a murine model. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of oral administration of LC-Plasma using a suckling mouse model of rhesus rotavirus (RV) infection. LC-Plasma-fed mice showed improvement in retardation of body weight gain, fecal scores, and a reduction in RV titer in the feces when compared to control mice...
January 27, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411555/innate-immune-response-to-viral-infections-in-primary-bronchial-epithelial-cells-is-modified-by-the-atopic-status-of-asthmatic-patients
#8
Sylwia Moskwa, Wojciech Piotrowski, Jerzy Marczak, Małgorzata Pawełczyk, Anna Lewandowska-Polak, Marzanna Jarzębska, Małgorzata Brauncajs, Anna Głobińska, Paweł Górski, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Michael R Edwards, Sebastian L Johnston, Marek L Kowalski
PURPOSE: In order to gain an insight into determinants of reported variability in immune responses to respiratory viruses in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) from asthmatics, the responses of HBEC to viral infections were evaluated in HBECs from phenotypically heterogeneous groups of asthmatics and in healthy controls. METHODS: HBECs were obtained during bronchoscopy from 10 patients with asthma (6 atopic and 4 non-atopic) and from healthy controls (n=9) and grown as undifferentiated cultures...
March 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391682/seroprevalence-of-viral-and-bacterial-diseases-among-the-bovines-in-himachal-pradesh-india
#9
Shailja Katoch, Shweta Dohru, Mandeep Sharma, Vikram Vashist, Rajesh Chahota, Prasenjit Dhar, Aneesh Thakur, Subhash Verma
Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan...
December 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391246/respiratory-infections-in-elderly-people-viral-role-in-a-resident-population-of-elderly-care-centers-in-lisbon-winter-2013-2014
#10
Maria-Jesus Chasqueira, Paulo Paixão, Maria-Lúcia Rodrigues, Cátia Piedade, Iolanda Caires, Teresa Palmeiro, Maria-Amalia Botelho, Madalena Santos, Martin Curran, Raquel Guiomar, Pedro Pechirra, Inês Costa, Ana Papoila, Marta Alves, Nuno Neuparth
OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to analyze the etiology and clinical consequences of viral respiratory infections in 18 elderly care centers (ECC) in Lisbon, which housed a total of 1022 residents. METHODS: nasopharyngeal swabs were collected whenever an elderly had symptoms of acute respiratory infections (ARI). PCR and RT-PCR were performed for influenza A/B, human parainfluenza virus 1-4, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, enterovirus, human coronavirus and human Bocavirus (HBoV)...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388679/viral-etiologies-and-epidemiology-of-patients-with-acute-respiratory-infections-based-on-sentinel-hospitals-in-gansu-province-northwest-china-2011-2015
#11
Xuechao Li, Juansheng Li, Lei Meng, Wanqi Zhu, Xinfeng Liu, Mei Yang, Deshan Yu, Lixia Niu, Xiping Shen
Understanding etiological role and epidemiological profile is needed to improve clinical management and prevention of acute respiratory infections (ARIs). A five-year prospective study about active surveillance for outpatients and inpatients with ARIs was conducted in Gansu province, China, from January 2011 to November 2015. Respiratory specimens were collected from patients and tested for eight respiratory viruses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385600/effects-of-gradual-reduction-in-frequency-of-energy-supplementation-on-growth-and-immunity-of-beef-steers
#12
G M Silva, M H Poore, J Ranches, G S Santos, P Moriel
This study evaluated the effects of gradual reduction in frequency of energy supplementation following vaccination on growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef steers. At 14 d post-weaning (d 0), Angus steers (n = 42; 200 ± 5 kg of BW; 175 ± 4 d of age) were stratified by BW and age, and randomly assigned into 1 of 14 drylot pens (3 steers/pen). From d 0 to 42, steers were provided ad libitum ground tall fescue hay (57% TDN, 13% CP of DM basis) and supplemented with concentrate at 1% of BW (50:50 soybean hulls and corn gluten feed; 71% TDN, 15% CP of DM basis)...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381763/a-new-mechanism-of-interferon-s-antiviral-action-induction-of-autophagy-essential-for-paramyxovirus-replication-is-inhibited-by-the-interferon-stimulated-gene-tdrd7
#13
Gayatri Subramanian, Teodora Kuzmanovic, Ying Zhang, Cara Beate Peter, Manoj Veleeparambil, Ritu Chakravarti, Ganes C Sen, Saurabh Chattopadhyay
The interferon (IFN) system represents the first line of defense against a wide range of viruses. Virus infection rapidly triggers the transcriptional induction of IFN-β and IFN Stimulated Genes (ISGs), whose protein products act as viral restriction factors by interfering with specific stages of virus life cycle, such as entry, transcription, translation, genome replication, assembly and egress. Here, we report a new mode of action of an ISG, IFN-induced TDRD7 (tudor domain containing 7) inhibited paramyxovirus replication by inhibiting autophagy...
January 30, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378006/effects-of-timing-of-vaccination-relative-to-weaning-and-post-weaning-frequency-of-energy-supplementation-on-growth-and-immunity-of-beef-calves
#14
G M Silva, M H Poore, J Ranches, P Moriel
A 2 × 2 factorial design study evaluated the impact of pre- vs. post-weaning vaccination and different post-weaning frequency of energy supplementation (daily vs. 3x weekly) on growth and immunity of beef calves. At 14 d before weaning (d -14), 48 Angus calves (24 steers and 24 heifers; 244 ± 33 kg; 196 ± 20 d) were stratified by BW and age, and randomly assigned to receive vaccinations against bovine viral diarrhea virus 1a (BVDV-1a) and parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) on d -14 and 0 (PRE) or 7 and 21 (POS), relative to weaning...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374787/rab27a-facilitates-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-growth-by-promoting-cell-surface-transport-of-envelope-proteins
#15
Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Machiko Nishio
Human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) proteins and genomes newly synthesized in the cytoplasm need to be transported to the plasma membrane where budding occurs. This mechanism, where Rab proteins regulate intracellular traffic by switching between GTP-bound active form and GDP-bound inactive form, is not fully understood. mRNA and protein expression levels of Rab8a, Rab11a, and Rab27a are not altered by hPIV-2 infection. hPIV-2 growth is affected by depletion of Rab27a but not Rab8a and Rab11a. Overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of Rab27a Q78L promotes the cell surface levels of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins in hPIV-2-infected cells without affecting viral mRNA levels...
January 27, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359411/parainfluenza-virus-type-3-outbreak-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#16
Hajime Maeda, Kentaro Haneda, Yoshinobu Honda
Parainfluenza virus (PIV) is a respiratory pathogen in young children and is second only to the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as a cause of lower respiratory tract infection. PIV type 3 (PIV3) is the most severe. Herein we describe an outbreak of PIV3 in three infants in a neonatal intensive care unit. They were diagnosed on virus culture from pharyngeal swabs. We prevented the spread of the virus using standard infection control procedures and isolation of the symptomatic infants. One infant had severe chronic lung disease and was complicated with recurrent wheezing for a long time...
November 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358233/the-control-of-paramyxovirus-genome-hexamer-length-and-mrna-editing
#17
Yusuke Matsumoto, Keisuke Ohta, Daniel Kolakofsky, Machiko Nishio
The unusual ability of a human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) nucleoprotein point mutation (NPQ202A) to strongly enhance minigenome replication was found to depend on the absence of a functional, internal element of the bipartite replication promoter (CRII). This point mutation allows relatively robust CRII-minus minigenome replication in a CRII-independent manner, under conditions in which NPwt is essentially inactive. The nature of the aa at position 202 apparently controls whether viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp) can, or cannot, initiate RNA synthesis in a CRII-independent manner...
January 22, 2018: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343567/parainfluenza-virus-infection-sensitizes-cancer-cells-to-dna-damaging-agents-implications-for-oncolytic-virus-therapy
#18
Candace R Fox, Griffith D Parks
We have previously shown that the Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) mutant P/V-CPI- is restricted for spread in normal cells but not in cancer cells in vitro and is effective at reducing tumor burden in mouse model systems. Here we show that P/V-CPI- infection of human laryngeal cancer HEp-2 cells results in the majority of the cells dying, but unexpectedly, over time there is an emergence of a population of cells which survive as P/V-CPI- persistently infected (PI) cells. P/V-CPI- PI cells had elevated levels of basal caspase activation, and viability was highly dependent on activity of cellular inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) such as Survivin and XIAP...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330069/conformation-and-trimer-association-of-the-transmembrane-domain-of-the-parainfluenza-virus-fusion-protein-in-lipid-bilayers-from-solid-state-nmr-insights-into-the-sequence-determinants-of-trimer-structure-and-fusion-activity
#19
Myungwoon Lee, Hongwei Yao, Byungsu Kwon, Alan J Waring, Peter Ruchala, Chandan Singh, Mei Hong
Enveloped viruses enter cells by using their fusion proteins to merge the virus lipid envelope and the cell membrane. While crystal structures of the water-soluble ectodomains of many viral fusion proteins have been determined, the structure and assembly of the C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) remains poorly understood. Here we use solid-state NMR to determine the backbone conformation and oligomeric structure of the TMD of the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) fusion protein. 13C chemical shifts indicate that the central leucine-rich segment of the TMD is α-helical in POPC/cholesterol membranes and POPE membranes, while the Ile- and Val-rich termini shift to the β-strand conformation in the POPE membrane...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324996/laboratory-confirmed-respiratory-infections-as-predictors-of-hospital-admission-for-myocardial-infarction-and-stroke-time-series-analysis-of-english-data-for-2004-2015
#20
R M Blackburn, H Zhao, R Pebody, A C Hayward, C Warren-Gash
Background: Acute respiratory infections are associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, however, the role of different organisms is poorly characterised. Methods: We undertook a time-series analysis of English hospital admissions for MI and stroke (age-stratified: 45-64, 65-74, 75+ years), laboratory-confirmed viral respiratory infections and environmental data for 2004-2015. Weekly counts of admissions were modelled using multivariable Poisson regression with weekly counts of respiratory viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus or human meta-pneumovirus (HMPV)) investigated as predictors...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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