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'Brain perfusion'

J Michael Dickson, Xu Wang, Alexander E St John, Esther B Lim, Susan A Stern, Nathan J White
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of traumatic death worldwide and particularly on the battlefield. They are especially challenging when present simultaneously (polytrauma), and clear blood pressure end points during fluid resuscitation are not well described for this situation. The goal of this study is to evaluate for any benefit of increasing blood pressure using a vasopressor on brain blood flow during initial fluid resuscitation in a swine polytrauma model...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Takuma Ohmichi, Masaki Kondo, Masahiro Itsukage, Hidetaka Koizumi, Shigenori Matsushima, Nagato Kuriyama, Kazunari Ishii, Etsuro Mori, Kei Yamada, Toshiki Mizuno, Takahiko Tokuda
OBJECTIVE The gold standard for the diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is the CSF removal test. For elderly patients, however, a less invasive diagnostic method is required. On MRI, high-convexity tightness was reported to be an important finding for the diagnosis of iNPH. On SPECT, patients with iNPH often show hyperperfusion of the high-convexity area. The authors tested 2 hypotheses regarding the SPECT finding: 1) it is relative hyperperfusion reflecting the increased gray matter density of the convexity, and 2) it is useful for the diagnosis of iNPH...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Daigo Kojima, Nobukazu Komoribayashi, Shinichi Omama, Kohki Oikawa, Shunrou Fujiwara, Masakazu Kobayashi, Yoshitaka Kubo, Kazunori Terasaki, Kuniaki Ogasawara
PURPOSE: Whereas SPECT images obtained 180 minutes after administration of I-iomazenil (IMZ) (late images) are proportional to the distribution of central benzodiazepine receptor-binding potential, SPECT images obtained within 30 minutes after I-IMZ administration (early images) correlate with regional brain perfusion. The aim of the present study was to determine whether crossed cerebellar tracer uptake on acute-stage I-IMZ SPECT imaging predicts 3-month functional outcome in patients with nonfatal hypertensive putaminal or thalamic hemorrhage...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Peng Fu, Lingge Wei, Fang Zhang, Jianqing Gao, Jianmin Jing, Weijie Wu, Huaijun Liu
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the added value of NeuroGam software analysis in the localization diagnosis of epileptogenic zone during interictal phase of seizures. MATERIAL AND METHODS The clinical data of 67 patients, clinically diagnosed as epilepsy, were analyzed retrospectively. Visual analysis and NeuroGam software analysis were used for independent analysis. The 2 methods were used to compare the efficacy indicator of the diagnosis of epileptogenic zone, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve evaluated the diagnostic efficacy...
March 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Kazumasa Tsuda, Norihiko Shiiya, Naoki Washiyama, Katsushi Yamashita, Kazuhiro Ohkura, Daisuke Takahashi, Yumi Kando, Kayoko Natsume, Ken Yamanaka, Yuki Takeuchi
OBJECTIVES: To prevent haemodynamic stroke during cardiovascular surgery in patients with carotid stenosis, we routinely evaluated magnetic resonance angiography and selectively evaluated brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography with acetazolamide challenge. Off-pump surgery was preferred when cerebral blood flow reserve was impaired. This strategy's usefulness was investigated. METHODS: Among the 1059 consecutive patients who underwent preoperative carotid screening by magnetic resonance angiography, 84 (7...
February 26, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Marie-Ève Desjardins, Andrée-Ann Baril, Jean-Paul Soucy, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu, Alex Desautels, Dominique Petit, Jacques Montplaisir, Antonio Zadra
Study objectives: The present study assessed brain perfusion patterns with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during sleepwalkers' post-sleep deprivation slow-wave sleep and resting-state wakefulness. Methods: Following a 24-hr period of sleep deprivation, 10 sleepwalkers and 10 sex- and age-matched controls were scanned with a high-resolution SPECT scanner. Participants were injected with99mTc-ECD after 2 minutes of stable slow-wave sleep within their first sleep cycle as well as during resting-state wakefulness, both after a subsequent 24-hr period of sleep deprivation...
March 3, 2018: Sleep
Baraa K Al-Khazraji, Leena N Shoemaker, Joseph S Gati, Trevor Szekeres, J Kevin Shoemaker
The larger intracranial conduit vessels contribute to the total cerebral vascular resistance, and understanding their vasoreactivity to physiological stimuli is required when attempting to understand regional brain perfusion. Reactivity of the larger cerebral conduit arteries remains understudied due to a need for improved imaging methods to simultaneously assess these vessels in a single stimulus. We characterized reactivity of basal intracranial conduit arteries (basilar, right and left posterior, middle and anterior cerebral arteries) and the right and left internal carotid arteries, to manipulations in end-tidal CO2 (PetCO2 )...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Masato Ishibashi, Noriyuki Kimura, Yasuhiro Aso, Etsuro Matsubara
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of white matter lesions on regional cerebral blood flow in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-five subjects with mild cognitive impairment (36 men and 39 women; mean age, 78.1 years) were included in the study. We used the Mini-Mental State Examination to assess cognitive function. All subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and99m Tc ethylcysteinate dimer single photon emission computed tomography...
February 24, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
T Lo, I Piper, B Depreitere, G Meyfroidt, M Poca, J Sahuquillo, T Durduran, P Enblad, P Nilsson, A Ragauskas, K Kiening, K Morris, R Agbeko, R Levin, J Weitz, C Park, P Davis
OBJECTIVES: Validated optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) treatment thresholds in children do not exist. To improve the intensive care unit (ICU) management of the paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) population, we are forming a new paediatric multi-centre collaboration to recruit standardised ICU data for running and reporting upon models for assessing autoregulation and optimal CCP (CPPopt). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We are adapting the adult BrainIT group's approach to develop a new Paediatric Brain Monitoring and Information Technology Group (KidsBrainIT), which will include a repository to store prospectively collected high-resolution physiological, clinical, and outcome data...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Raluca Pascalau, Vlad Adrian Padurean, Dana BARTOș, Adrian BARTOș, Bianca Aurora Szabo
AIM: Anatomical variants of the circle of Willis are diverse and frequent and, although they are not a direct cause of cerebrovascular diseases, they are risk factors for impaired collateral perfusion and wall shear stress. This study aimed to correlate the anatomical variants with their effects on the hemodynamic and geometrical parameters responsible for the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The circle of Willis and the proximal segments of the main arteries were dissected and measured on ten formalin-fixed human brains...
February 7, 2018: Turkish Neurosurgery
Catherine D Chong, Todd J Schwedt
Even when concussions are associated with prolonged physical and cognitive sequelae, concussions are typically "invisible" on diagnostic brain imaging, indicating that the neuropathology associated with concussion lies under the detection threshold of routine imaging. However, data from brain structural and functional research imaging studies using diffusion tensor imaging, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, and brain perfusion imaging indicate that these imaging sequences have a role in identifying concussion-related neuropathology...
February 24, 2018: Headache
Camille Taccola, Sylvaine Cartot-Cotton, Delphine Valente, Pascal Barneoud, Catherine Aubert, Valérie Boutet, Fabienne Gallen, Murielle Lochus, Sophie Nicolic, Agnès Dodacki, Maria Smirnova, Salvatore Cisternino, Xavier Declèves, Fanchon Bourasset
Efficacy of drugs aimed at treating central nervous system (CNS) disorders rely partly on their ability to cross the cerebral endothelium, also called the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which constitutes the main interface modulating exchanges of compounds between the brain and blood. In this work, we used both, conventional pharmacokinetics (PK) approach and in situ brain perfusion technique to study the blood and brain PK of PKRinh, an inhibitor of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) activation, in mice...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Szabolcs Takács, Zsuzsanna Bardóczi, Katalin Skrapits, Balázs Göcz, Viktória Váczi, Zsófia Maglóczky, Iván Szűcs, Gergely Rácz, András Matolcsy, Waljit S Dhillo, Masahiko Watanabe, Andrea Kádár, Csaba Fekete, Imre Kalló, Erik Hrabovszky
Kisspeptin (KP) synthesizing neurons of the hypothalamic infundibular region are critically involved in the central regulation of fertility; these cells regulate pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and mediate sex steroid feedback signals to GnRH neurons. Fine structural analysis of the human KP system is complicated by the use of post mortem tissues. To gain better insight into the neuroanatomy of the somato-dendritic cellular compartment, we introduced the diolistic labeling of immunohistochemically identified KP neurons using a gene gun loaded with the lipophilic dye, DiI...
January 29, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Yoshitaka Kubo, Takahiro Koji, Ryushi Kondo, Kenji Yoshida, Kuniaki Ogasawara
BACKGROUND: Balloon test occlusion (BTO) is a useful examination to evaluate the indications and methods for revascularization when treating unclippable internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms by parent artery occlusion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between intraoperative monitoring of cerebral cortical blood flow (CoBF) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) pressure during surgical parent artery occlusion and the findings of BTO. METHODS: Eleven patients with an ICA aneurysm in the cavernous portion underwent preoperative BTO with brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography...
January 29, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Yasuhiro Matsuda, Tadaaki Koyama
Occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA) is rare. CCA occlusion (CCAO) can present as drowsiness and right hemiplegia related to emboli after total arch replacement. Although we selected a follow-up at first because color duplex sonography showed retrograde flow from the left external carotid artery to the internal carotid artery, this patient had epilepsy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) acquired quantitative results of actual brain perfusion and showed insufficient collateral blood flow...
January 16, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Ben Korin, Tania Dubovik, Asya Rolls
Immune cells comprise a diverse and dynamic cell population that is responsible for a broad range of immunological activities. They act in concert with other immune and nonimmune cells via cytokine-mediated communication and direct cell-cell interactions. Understanding the complex immune network requires a broad characterization of its individual cellular components. This is especially relevant for the brain compartment, which is an active immunological site, composed of resident and infiltrating immune cells that affect brain development, tissue homeostasis and neuronal activity...
February 2018: Nature Protocols
Mariko Asai, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yasutomo Goto, Tetsuya Yamada, Norihiro Yuasa, Eiji Takeuchi, Hideo Miyake, Hidemasa Nagai, Yuichiro Yoshioka, Masataka Okuno, Natsuko Kawai, Takayuki Minami, Takuya Nagao, Shingo Maeda, Koichi Mouri, Kouji Fukata, Hironori Mizuno, Takuji Iwase, Kanji Miyata
A 62-year-old woman received chemotherapy for breast cancer with bone metastasis and malignant pleural and pericardial effusion. She was examined by imaging for progressive cognitive impairment and headache. Enhanced MRI findings showed multiple solid tumors on brain surface, and brain perfusion scintigraphy showed blood flow decrease in both parietal lobes. She was diagnosed with secondary dementia due to leptomeningeal metastases of breast cancer, and whole brain external irradiation was performed(30 Gy/15 Fr)...
December 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
M Kolar, K Nohejlova, F Duska, J Mares, J Pachl
Brain perfusion is reduced early after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to intracranial hypertension and early vasospasm. The contribution of these two mechanisms is unknown. By performing a prophylactic decompressive craniectomy (DC) in a rat model of SAH we aimed to study brain perfusion after the component of intracranial hypertension has been eliminated. We used 2x2 factorial design, where rats received either decompressive craniectomy or sham operation followed by injection of 250 microl of blood or normal saline into prechiasmatic cistern...
December 30, 2017: Physiological Research
Ji Won Choi, Myoung Hyoun Kim, Soon-Ah Park, Deok Su Sin, Min-Su Kim
Objective: To investigate neural correlates associated with recovery of motor function over 6 months in patients with basal ganglia (BG) stroke using acetazolamide (ACZ) stress brain-perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods: Medical records of 22 patients presenting first-ever BG stroke were retrospectively reviewed. Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) were measured for 9 regions in each cerebral hemisphere (primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, premotor cortex, prefrontal cortex, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, BG, and thalamus)...
December 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Zuzanna Tyrakowska-Dadełło, Eugeniusz Tarasów, Dariusz Janusek, Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Joanna Zajkowska, Sławomir Pancewicz
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are non-specific and the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to their formation remain unclear. This study investigated brain perfusion in TBE patients using dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance perfusion imaging (DSC-MRI perfusion). METHODS: MRI scans were performed for 12 patients in the acute phase, 3-5days after the diagnosis of TBE. Conventional MRI and DSC-MRI perfusion studies were performed...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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