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'Brain perfusion'

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433359/feasibility-of-profound-hypothermia-as-part-of-extracorporeal-life-support-in-a-pig-model
#1
Christoph Weiser, Wolfgang Weihs, Michael Holzer, Christoph Testori, Anne-Margarethe Kramer, Christoph Kment, Martin Stoiber, Michael Poppe, Christian Wallmüller, Peter Stratil, Michael Hoschitz, Anton Laggner, Fritz Sterz
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of a refined aortic flush catheter and pump system to induce emergency preservation and resuscitation before extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a normovolemic cardiac arrest swine model simulating near real size/weight conditions of adults. METHODS: In this feasibility study, 8 female Large White breed pigs weighing 70 to 80 kg underwent ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest for 15 minutes, followed by 4°C aortic flush (150 mL/kg for the brain; 50 mL/kg for the spine) via a new hardware ensued by resuscitation with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430860/increased-brainstem-perfusion-but-no-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-during-attacks-of-migraine-with-aura
#2
Anders Hougaard, Faisal M Amin, Casper E Christensen, Samaira Younis, Frauke Wolfram, Stig P Cramer, Henrik B W Larsson, Messoud Ashina
The migraine aura is characterized by transient focal cortical disturbances causing dramatic neurological symptoms that are usually followed by migraine headache. It is currently not understood how the aura symptoms are related to the headache phase of migraine. Animal studies suggest that cortical spreading depression, the likely mechanism of migraine aura, causes disruption of the blood-brain barrier and noxious stimulation of trigeminal afferents leading to activation of brainstem nuclei and triggering of migraine headache...
April 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393659/variability-of-physiological-brain-perfusion-in-healthy-subjects-a-systematic-review-of-modifiers-considerations-for-multi-center-asl-studies
#3
Patricia Clement, Henk-Jan Mutsaerts, Lena Václavů, Eidrees Ghariq, Francesca B Pizzini, Marion Smits, Marjan Acou, Jorge Jovicich, Ritva Vanninen, Mervi Kononen, Roland Wiest, Egill Rostrup, António J Bastos-Leite, Elna-Marie Larsson, Eric Achten
Quantitative measurements of brain perfusion are influenced by perfusion-modifiers. Standardization of measurement conditions and correction for important modifiers is essential to improve accuracy and to facilitate the interpretation of perfusion-derived parameters. An extensive literature search was carried out for factors influencing quantitative measurements of perfusion in the human brain unrelated to medication use. A total of 58 perfusion modifiers were categorized into four groups. Several factors (e...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367905/4d-flow-mr-imaging-of-ophthalmic-artery-flow-in-patients-with-internal-carotid-artery-stenosis
#4
Tetsuro Sekine, Ryo Takagi, Yasuo Amano, Yasuo Murai, Erika Orita, Yoshimitsu Fukushima, Yoshio Matsumura, Shin-Ichiro Kumita
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess the clinical feasibility of time-resolved three-dimensional phase contrast (4D Flow) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of the ophthalmic artery (OphA) flow in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis (ICS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive patients with unilateral ICS were recruited. 4D Flow MRI and acetazolamide-stress brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed...
March 27, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351667/pyrilamine-sensitive-proton-coupled-organic-cation-h-oc-antiporter-for-brain-specific-drug-delivery
#5
Xinyi Wang, Bowen Qi, Huifang Su, Jianbo Li, Xun Sun, Qin He, Yao Fu, Zhirong Zhang
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents the greatest challenge that hampers therapeutic molecules entering the brain. Here, we described a novel brain-specific delivery strategy targeting to pyrilamine-sensitive H(+)/OC antiporter to facilitate therapeutic molecules cross the BBB and penetrate into the brain. In this study, four cyclic tertiary amines were selected as the brain-targeting moieties to modify naproxen (NP), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The obtained NP conjugates displayed cell uptake efficiencies over 144-fold higher than that of unmodified NP in endothelial cells...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346232/the-future-is-now-neuroprotection-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#6
Johanna C Moore, Jason A Bartos, Timothy R Matsuura, Demetris Yannopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Survival with favorable neurological function after cardiac arrest remains low. The purpose of this review is to identify recent advances that focus on neuroprotection during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple strategies have been shown to enhance neuroprotection during CPR. Brain perfusion during CPR is increased with therapies such as active compression decompression CPR and intrathoracic pressure regulation that improve cardiac preload and decrease intracranial pressure...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345124/evaluation-of-cortical-brain-parenchyma-by-diffusion-and-perfusion-mri-before-and-after-chronic-subdural-hematoma-surgery
#7
Bekir Akgun, Hakan Cakin, Sait Ozturk, Hanefi Yildirim, Izzet Okcesiz, Saim Kazan, Fatih Serhat Erol
AIM: To evaluate microcirculatory changes in neighboring parenchyma as a result of pressure due to chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) in early and late periods after hematoma drainage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The subjects comprised 25 patients who underwent CSDH drainage. Brain diffusion and perfusion MRIs were obtained preoperatively, 48 h (early period) and 2 months (late period) postoperatively. Measurements were performed on 1 cm2 regions of interest in the neighboring parenchymal tissue...
February 21, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336575/pharmacologic-profile-of-naloxegol-a-peripherally-acting-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptor-antagonist-for-the-treatment-of-opioid-induced-constipation
#8
Eike Floettmann, Khanh Bui, Mark Sostek, Kemal Payza, Michael Eldon
Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is a common side effect of opioid pharmacotherapy for the management of pain because opioid agonists bind to µ-opioid receptors in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Naloxegol, a polyethylene glycol derivative of naloxone and a peripherally acting µ-opioid receptor antagonist, targets the physiologic mechanisms that cause OIC. Pharmacologic measures of opioid activity and pharmacokinetic measures of central nervous system (CNS) penetration were employed to characterize the mechanism of action of naloxegol...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331022/effect-of-non-pharmacological-intervention-for-apathy-response-to-one-on-one-reminiscence-based-intervention
#9
Akira Okada, Tetsuya Ueda
Apathy has adverse consequences for patients and caregivers. However, the therapeutic approach remains uncertain. Here, we present the case of a man aged 67 years who only developed apathy after surgery for oesophageal cancer. He showed no response to intervention with donepezil, a 'brain training' video game and psychoeducation for apathy. Subsequently, we implemented a programme designed to facilitate recall of 2 themes (editorial content and television shows during the week) once a week. After 3 months, the scores of 2 apathy scales rated by the patient's wife, psychological test scores and brain perfusion single-photon emission CT data improved compared with those obtained before intervention...
March 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328739/effects-of-a-brief-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-group-intervention-on-baseline-brain-perfusion-in-adolescents-with-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Zrinka Sosic-Vasic, Birgit Abler, Georg Grön, Paul Plener, Joana Straub
A number of neuroimaging studies have identified altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in adult samples, particularly in the lateral prefrontal, cingular and temporal regions. In contrast, neuroimaging investigations in adolescents with MDD are rare, although investigating young patients during a significant period of brain maturation might offer valuable insights into the neural mechanisms of MDD. We acquired perfusion images obtained with continuous arterial spin labelling in 21 medication-naive adolescents with MDD before and after a five-session cognitive behavioural group therapy (group CBT)...
April 12, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327964/imaging-approaches-to-stroke-and-neurovascular-disease
#11
Seena Dehkharghani, Jalal Andre
Imaging is paramount to the diagnosis and management of ischemic stroke, offering a battery of structural and functional probes of cerebrovascular physiology. The technical underpinnings of stroke imaging continue to evolve, bringing the neuroscience community increasingly closer to high-resolution, tissue-level biomarkers of brain perfusion, metabolism, and viability. The rapid expansion of neuroimaging in this domain has met with controversies, and in many respects, a lack of generalizable conclusions regarding optimized use in cerebrovascular disease...
January 28, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277465/understanding-the-neurophysiology-and-quantification-of-brain-perfusion
#12
Elizabeth Tong, Leo Sugrue, Max Wintermark
Newer neuroimaging technology has moved beyond pure anatomical imaging and ventured into functional and physiological imaging. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (PWI), which depicts hemodynamic conditions of the brain at the microvascular level, has an increasingly important role in clinical central nervous system applications. This review provides an overview of the established role of PWI in brain tumor and cerebrovascular imaging, as well as some emerging applications in neuroimaging. PWI allows better characterization of brain tumors, grading, and monitoring...
April 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263214/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-spect-and-mri-in-logopenic-variant-primary-progressive-aphasia
#13
Aristeidis H Katsanos, Spyridon Tsiouris, Chrissa Sioka, Anastasia Zikou, Andreas Fotopoulos
We report a 61-year-old woman who presented because of gradually progressive speech disorders. MRI scan revealed left temporal lobe atrophy with ex vacuo dilatation of the temporal horn and atrophy of the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left inferior parietal lobe. These findings in brain perfusion SPECT corresponded to a generalized hypoperfusion of the left hemisphere, particularly prominent on the rear parietal cortex and the temporal lobe. After taking into consideration the clinical presentation and imaging findings on MRI and SPECT, the diagnosis of the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia was finally reached...
May 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255464/impairments-in-brain-perfusion-metabolites-functional-connectivity-and-cognition-in-severe-asymptomatic-carotid-stenosis-patients-an-integrated-mri-study
#14
Tao Wang, Feng Xiao, Guangyao Wu, Jian Fang, Zhenmeng Sun, Hongliang Feng, Junjian Zhang, Haibo Xu
Carotid artery stenosis without transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke is considered as "asymptomatic." However, recent studies have demonstrated that these asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (aCAS) patients had cognitive impairment in tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, and memory, indicating that "asymptomatic" carotid stenosis may not be truly asymptomatic. In this study, when 19 aCAS patients compared with 24 healthy controls, aCAS patients showed significantly poorer performance on global cognition, memory, and executive function...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249119/enhanced-task-related-brain-activation-and-resting-perfusion-in-healthy-older-adults-after-chronic-blueberry-supplementation
#15
Joanna L Bowtell, Zainie Aboo-Bakkar, Myra Conway, Anna-Lynne R Adlam, Jonathan Fulford
Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. High flavonoid intakes attenuate age-related cognitive decline, but data from human intervention studies are sparse. We investigated whether 12 weeks of blueberry concentrate supplementation improved brain perfusion, task-related activation and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Participants were randomised to consume either 30 ml blueberry concentrate providing 387 mg anthocyanidins (5 female, 7 male; age 67...
March 1, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240291/residual-effects-of-thc-via-novel-measures-of-brain-perfusion-and-metabolism-in-a-large-group-of-chronic-cannabis-users
#16
Francesca M Filbey, Sina Aslan, Hanzhang Lu, Shin-Lei Peng
Given the known vascular effects of cannabis, this study examined the neurophysiological factors that may affect studies of brain activity in cannabis users. We conducted a systematic evaluation in 72 h abstinent, chronic cannabis users (N=74) and nonusing controls (N=101) to determine the association between prolonged cannabis use and the following neurophysiological indicators: (1) global and regional resting cerebral blood flow (CBF), (2) oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and (3) cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2)...
March 22, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237122/a-new-era-for-nuclear-medicine-neuroimaging-in-spain-where-do-we-start-from-in-spain
#17
M A Balsa, V Camacho, P Garrastachu, D García-Solís, M Gómez-Río, S Rubí, X Setoain, J Arbizu
OBJECTIVE: To determine the status of neuroimaging studies of Nuclear Medicine in Spain during 2013 and first quarter of 2014, in order to define the activities of the neuroimaging group of the Spanish Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SEMNIM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire of 14 questions was designed, divided into 3 parts: characteristics of the departments (equipment and professionals involved); type of scans and clinical indications; and evaluation methods...
February 22, 2017: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225385/two-cases-of-oral-somatic-delusions-ameliorated-with-brain-perfusion-asymmetry-a-case-report
#18
Yojiro Umezaki, Akihito Uezato, Akira Toriihara, Toru Nishikawa, Akira Toyofuku
BACKGROUND: Oral cenesthopathy is the complaint of abnormal oral sensation where no underlying organic cause can be identified. It is also called oral dysesthesia or oral somatic delusion and classified as delusional disorder, somatic type. The patients with oral cenesthopathy show right > left asymmetric regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the broad brain region. However, the studies scrutinizing the rCBF change before and after the successful treatment are still a few so far. CASE: We present 2 cases of oral cenesthopathy, who responded well to aripiprazole...
March 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221195/brain-perfusion-before-and-after-surgical-treatment-of-moyamoya-disease
#19
Clément Drouet, Olivier Morel, Laurent Thines, Clémence Porot, Hatem Boulahdour
Moyamoya disease is characterized by bilateral progressive terminal internal carotid arteries steno-occlusion. In this patient, the disease affected middle cerebral arteries and was disclosed after a left frontal cerebral infarction. Brain HMPAO perfusion scintigraphy with acetazolamide challenge, obtained before surgical treatment, demonstrates an extended bilateral frontal hypoperfusion with a vascular steal phenomenon. The same examination obtained after surgical treatment demonstrates a frank improvement in basal brain vascularization, with nearly complete correction of vascular steal phenomenon...
May 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216062/nalmefene-reduces-reward-anticipation-in-alcohol-dependence-an-experimental-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#20
Darren R Quelch, Inge Mick, John McGonigle, Anna C Ramos, Remy S A Flechais, Mark Bolstridge, Eugenii Rabiner, Matthew B Wall, Rexford D Newbould, Björn Steiniger-Brach, Franz van den Berg, Malcolm Boyce, Dorrit Østergaard Nilausen, Lasse Breuning Sluth, Didier Meulien, Christoph von der Goltz, David Nutt, Anne Lingford-Hughes
BACKGROUND: Nalmefene is a µ- and δ-opioid receptor antagonist, κ-opioid receptor partial agonist that has recently been approved in Europe for treating alcohol dependence. It offers a treatment approach for alcohol-dependent individuals with "high-risk drinking levels" to reduce their alcohol consumption. However, the neurobiological mechanism underpinning its effects on alcohol consumption remains to be determined. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design we aimed to determine the effect of a single dose of nalmefene on striatal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change during anticipation of monetary reward using the monetary incentive delay task following alcohol challenge...
January 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
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