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Stroke imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633398/a-novel-system-for-the-treatment-of-aortic-annular-dilation-an-ex-vivo-investigation
#1
Pallav Shah, Claudia Romagnoni, Michal Jaworek, Federico Lucherini, Monica Contino, Alan Menkis, Guido Gelpi, Gianfranco B Fiore, Carlo Antona, Riccardo Vismara
OBJECTIVES: The main reason for aortic repair failures is recurrent annular dilatation. The fibrous portion of left ventricular outflow tract dilates. A novel device was designed to tackle this problem. METHODS: The device consists of an internal ring applied at the aortic annulus plus an external flexible band at the level of the aortic root. The internal ring has a semi-rigid portion (40%, placed at ventriculo-arterial junction) and a flexible portion to allow it to conform along the curves of the non-coronary/right coronary leaflet and right coronary/left coronary leaflet commissures...
June 15, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630235/ultrasound-markers-of-carotid-atherosclerosis-and-cognition-the-northern-manhattan-study
#2
Hannah Gardener, Michelle R Caunca, Chuanhui Dong, Ying Kuen Cheung, Mitchell S V Elkind, Ralph L Sacco, Tatjana Rundek, Clinton B Wright
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ultrasound markers of carotid atherosclerosis may be related to cognitive status. We hypothesized that individuals with greater carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque burden would exhibit worse cognition. METHODS: One thousand one hundred sixty-six stroke-free participants from the NOMAS (Northern Manhattan Study) underwent carotid ultrasound and neuropsychological examination. Among them, 826 underwent a second neuropsychological examination an average of 5 years later...
June 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630234/multiparametric-model-for-penumbral-flow-prediction-in-acute-stroke
#3
Michelle Livne, Tabea Kossen, Vince I Madai, Olivier Zaro-Weber, Walter Moeller-Hartmann, Kim Mouridsen, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Jan Sobesky
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Identification of salvageable penumbra tissue by dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging is a valuable tool for acute stroke patient stratification for treatment. However, prior studies have not attempted to combine the different perfusion maps into a predictive model. In this study, we established a multiparametric perfusion imaging model and cross-validated it using positron emission tomography perfusion for detection of penumbral flow. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis of 17 subacute stroke patients with consecutive magnetic resonance imaging and H2O15 positron emission tomography scans, perfusion maps of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, mean transit time, time-to-maximum, and time-to-peak were constructed and combined using a generalized linear model (GLM)...
June 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630233/motor-recovery-prediction-with-clinical-assessment-and-local-diffusion-homogeneity-after-acute-subcortical-infarction
#4
Gang Liu, Shuangquan Tan, Chao Dang, Kangqiang Peng, Chuanmiao Xie, Shihui Xing, Jinsheng Zeng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Initial clinical assessment or conventional diffusion tensor imaging parameters alone do not reliably predict poststroke recovery of motor function. Recently, local diffusion homogeneity (LDH) has been proposed to represent the local coherence of water molecule diffusion and can serve as a complementary marker for investigating white matter alterations of the brain. We aimed to determine whether a combination of initial clinical assessment and LDH could predict motor recovery after acute subcortical infarction...
June 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629575/outcome-of-patients-with-proximal-vessel-occlusion-of-the-anterior-circulation-and-dwi-pwi-mismatch-is-time-dependent
#5
Sibu Mundiyanapurath, Sascha Diatschuk, Sarah Loebel, Johannes Pfaff, Mirko Pham, Markus Alfred Möhlenbruch, Wolfgang Wick, Martin Bendszus, Peter A Ringleb, Alexander Radbruch
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusion are assumed to benefit from endovascular therapy (ET) independent of the symptom onset-to-treatment time (OTT) if they present with a mismatch of diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging (DWI-PWI mismatch). We aimed at studying the influence of OTT on clinical outcome in these patients. METHODS: Retrospective database review in a tertiary care university hospital. All patients presented with proximal vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation and DWI-PWI mismatch...
June 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629561/multi-contrast-and-three-dimensional-assessment-of-the-aortic-wall-using-3t-mri
#6
Thomas Wehrum, Iulius Dragonu, Christoph Strecker, Jürgen Hennig, Andreas Harloff
OBJECTIVES: To develop a 3D-multi-contrast MRI protocol allowing for high resolution imaging of the wall and of atheroma in the thoracic aorta. METHODS: Eleven healthy volunteers and eleven acute stroke patients with aortic plaques detected by TEE underwent MRI at 3T. The MRI-protocol consisted of a T1w-bright-blood, a T2w- and a PDw-black-blood sequence (spatial resolution=1.15mm(3)). Image quality was assessed by two blinded investigators using a 3-point score and intra- and inter-rater agreement was tested...
June 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628911/a-carasil-patient-from-americas-with-novel-mutation-and-atypical-features-case-presentation-and-literature-review
#7
Muhammad Ibrahimi, Hiroaki Nozaki, Angelica Lee, Osamu Onodera, Raymond Reichwein, Matthew Wicklund, Mohammad El-Ghanem
OBJECTIVE: Reporting a novel mutation in the HTRA1 gene in a CARASIL patient from Americas. METHODS: Clinical presentation and neuroimaging were consistent with CARASIL. HTRA1 DNA sequencing was performed using advanced ("next generation") sequencing technology. The results revealed a homozygous missense mutation as c.616G>A (p.Gly206Arg) in the HTRA1 gene. RESULTS: A 24-year-old man with a history of chronic back pain presented with recurrent ischemic strokes...
June 21, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626543/cerebral-stroke-in-a-teenage-girl-with-paroxysmal-nocturnal-hemoglobinuria
#8
Francesco Gervasi, Lucia D'Amelio, Antonino Trizzino, Fabrizia Ferraro, Delia Russo, Giuseppe Santangelo, Francesca Cardella, Angela Trizzino, Floriana Di Marco, Piero Farruggia
We report a case of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) in a 14 year-old girl presenting a cerebral arterial thrombosis. The initial diagnosis was carential anemia due to menarche following identification of slight macrocytic anemia, leucopenia and mild thrombocytopenia at routine blood analysis. The child was eventually referred to a children's hospital after the onset of progressive fatigue, anorexia and paleness. Severe anemia (hemoglobin 6 g/dL) with negative Coombs test, mild leucopenia (white blood cells 4...
June 1, 2017: Hematology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626050/admission-brain-cortical-volume-an-independent-determinant-of-poststroke-cognitive-vulnerability
#9
Sharmila Sagnier, Gwenaëlle Catheline, Bixente Dilharreguy, Fanny Munsch, Antoine Bigourdan, Mathilde Poli, Sabrina Debruxelles, Stéphane Olindo, Pauline Renou, François Rouanet, Vincent Dousset, Thomas Tourdias, Igor Sibon
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several markers of poststroke cognitive impairment have been reported. The role of brain cortical volume remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of brain cortical volume on cognitive outcomes using a voxel-based morphometry approach in subjects without prestroke dementia. METHODS: Ischemic stroke patients were prospectively recruited 24 to 72 hours post-stroke (M0). Cognition was evaluated at M0, 3 months, and 1 year (M12) using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the Isaacs set test, and the Zazzo's cancellation task...
June 16, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625908/-on-the-spot-the-use-of-4d-cta-to-differentiate-a-true-spot-sign-from-a-distal-intracranial-aneurysm
#10
Johanna P de Jong, Leo Kluijtmans, Martinus J van Amerongen, Mathias Prokop, Hieronymus D Boogaarts, Frederick J A Meijer
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage may arise from underlying abnormalities including aneurysms. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is widely used for the detection of possible underlying causes, which is important since it may have immediate therapeutic consequences. In addition, CTA is used to detect the so-called "spot sign", indicating active hemorrhage which carries a worse prognosis. CTA is, however, a snapshot in time. Four-dimensional CTA (4D-CTA) is a dynamic type of imaging and has emerged as a valuable imaging technique for different neurovascular disorders...
June 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625752/neurologic-complications-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Ashleigh Xie, Phillip Lo, Tristan D Yan, Paul Forrest
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence on neurologic complications in adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients with regard to incidence, pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis, monitoring techniques, prevention, and management. DESIGN: Literature review. SETTING: Observational studies and case reports from a variety of institutions. PARTICIPANTS: Adult ECMO patients. INTERVENTIONS: Six electronic databases were searched from their dates of inception to October 2016...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625370/rationale-and-design-of-the-apixaban-for-the-reduction-of-thrombo-embolism-in-patients-with-device-detected-sub-clinical-atrial-fibrillation-artesia-trial
#12
Renato D Lopes, Marco Alings, Stuart J Connolly, Heather Beresh, Christopher B Granger, Juan Benezet Mazuecos, Giuseppe Boriani, Jens C Nielsen, David Conen, Stefan H Hohnloser, Georges H Mairesse, Philippe Mabo, A John Camm, Jeffrey S Healey
BACKGROUND: Device-detected subclinical atrial fibrillation (AF) refers to infrequent, short-lasting, asymptomatic AF that is detected only with long-term continuous monitoring. Subclinical AF is common and associated with an increased risk of stroke; however, the risk of stroke with subclinical AF is lower than for clinical AF, and very few patients with subclinical AF alone have been included in large AF anticoagulation trials. The net benefit of anticoagulation in patients with subclinical AF is unknown...
July 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624392/role-of-fractalkine-cx3cr1-signaling-pathway-in-the-recovery-of-neurological-function-after-early-ischemic-stroke-in-a-rat-model
#13
Yan-Zhi Liu, Chun Wang, Qian Wang, Yong-Zhong Lin, Yu-Song Ge, Dong-Mei Li, Geng-Sheng Mao
This study aims to explore the role of fractalkine/CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling pathway in the recovery of neurological functioning after an early ischemic stroke in rats. After establishment of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) models, 50 rats were divided into blank, sham, model, positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups. Neurological impairment, walking and grip abilities, and cortical and hippocampal infarctions were evaluated by Zea Longa scoring criterion, beam-walking assay and grip strength test, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
June 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624098/utility-of-neurovascular-imaging-in-acute-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#14
Ishita Siddiq, Derek Armstrong, Ann-Marie Surmava, Nomazulu Dlamini, Daune MacGregor, Mahendranath Moharir, Rand Askalan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) findings and clinically characterize neonates with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) who have abnormal or variable vasculature. STUDY DESIGN: This was a single-center, retrospective study of patients with neonatal stroke from 1991 to 2012. We reviewed charts and neuroimaging, including MRA, in neonates with AIS. Clinical data of patients with MRA findings were compared with the control group of neonates with AIS and a normal MRA...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620783/advanced-neuroimaging-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#15
REVIEW
Gordon W Blair, Maria Valdez Hernandez, Michael J Thrippleton, Fergus N Doubal, Joanna M Wardlaw
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is characterised by damage to deep grey and white matter structures of the brain and is responsible for a diverse range of clinical problems that include stroke and dementia. In this review, we describe advances in neuroimaging published since January 2015, mainly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), that, in general, are improving quantification, observation and investigation of SVD focussing on three areas: quantifying the total SVD burden, imaging brain microstructural integrity and imaging vascular malfunction...
July 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620564/moyamoya-syndrome-in-a-child-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-magnetic-resonance-imaging-as-a-tool-for-clinical-decision-making
#16
Jonathan Mayl, Hanisha Patel, Tushar Chandra
Moyamoya syndrome is a rare cerebrovasculopathy of unknown etiology which is associated with multiple risk factors. Moyamoya was first discovered in Japan and is reported to have an increased prevalence in the Japanese population. The term "Moyamoya" translates into "puff of smoke" and is named after the finding of the collateral cerebral vasculature that develops secondary to occlusion of an internal carotid artery at the entrance into the circle of Willis. This collateral vasculature characterizes the disease...
May 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620551/mitochondrial-cardiomyopathy-presenting-as-dilated-phase-of-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-diagnosed-with-histological-and-genetic-analyses
#17
Toshiki Kuno, Syohei Imaeda, Yohei Asakawa, Hiroshi Nakamura, Genzou Takemura, Daisuke Asahara, Akira Kanamori, Tomoyuki Kabutoya, Yohei Numasawa
We report a case with 46-year-old man diagnosed with mitochondrial cardiomyopathy in the dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Since cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, beta-methyl-p-(123)I-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic myocardial scintigraphy, and positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed no remarkable findings, we performed electron microscopic examination, which aided in diagnosing mitochondrial cardiomyopathy. Muscle biopsy was also compatible with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes and DNA analysis also concluded it...
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619834/temporal-and-spatial-variances-in-arterial-spin-labeling-are-inversely-related-to-large-artery-blood-velocity
#18
A D Robertson, G Matta, V S Basile, S E Black, C K Macgowan, J A Detre, B J MacIntosh
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The relationship between extracranial large-artery characteristics and arterial spin-labeling MR imaging may influence the quality of arterial spin-labeling-CBF images for older adults with and without vascular pathology. We hypothesized that extracranial arterial blood velocity can explain between-person differences in arterial spin-labeling data systematically across clinical populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed consecutive pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling and phase-contrast MR imaging on 82 individuals (20 - 88 years of age, 50% women), including healthy young adults, healthy older adults, and older adults with cerebral small vessel disease or chronic stroke infarcts...
June 15, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619833/ct-angiography-aspects-predicts-outcome-much-better-than-noncontrast-ct-in-patients-with-stroke-treated-endovascularly
#19
F Sallustio, C Motta, S Pizzuto, M Diomedi, B Rizzato, M Panella, F Alemseged, M Stefanini, S Fabiano, R Gandini, R Floris, P Stanzione, G Koch
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Noncontrast CT ASPECTS has been investigated as a predictor of outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Our purpose was to investigate whether CTA source images are a better predictor of clinical and radiologic outcomes than NCCT ASPECTS in candidates for endovascular stroke therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT scans of patients (n = 124) were independently evaluated by 2 readers for baseline NCCT and CTA source image ASPECTS and for follow-up ASPECTS...
June 15, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619493/dynamic-4d-cta-for-neuro-vascular-pathologies-a-case-series
#20
Ahmed Alnemari, Tarek R Mansour, Mohamad Bazerbashi, Mark Buehler, Jason Schroeder, Daniel Gaudin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this article is to illustrate, summarize, and review the multifaceted application of four-dimensional computed tomography angiography (4D-CTA) in the characterization and diagnosis of various cerebrovascular and tumor-associated vascular pathologies through the presentation of clinical cases including acute/chronic stroke, arteriovenous malformations, aneurysm, moya-moya disease, and the hypervascularity associated with a tumor and its relationship to pre-operative embolization...
June 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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