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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647860/sub-optimal-testing-and-awareness-of-hcv-and-hbv-among-high-risk-individuals-at-an-underserved-safety-net-hospital
#1
Robert J Wong, Brendan Campbell, Benny Liu, Rachel Baden, Taft Bhuket
Sub-optimal screening for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) among high risk groups delays diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to evaluate overall rates of HCV and HBV screening and patient knowledge of their testing result. Adults age ≥18 years undergoing elective outpatient endoscopy at a large, urban safety-net hospital from July 2015 to July 2016 were prospectively evaluated to determine rates of HCV and HBV testing, the results of those completed tests, and patient knowledge of test results among high risk individuals (as determined by U...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647765/epidemiology-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-target-population-for-surveillance-and-diagnosis
#2
REVIEW
An Tang, Oussama Hallouch, Victoria Chernyak, Aya Kamaya, Claude B Sirlin
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Incidence rates of liver cancer vary widely between geographic regions and are highest in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In the United States, the incidence of HCC has increased since the 1980s. HCC detection at an early stage through surveillance and curative therapy has considerably improved the 5-year survival. Therefore, medical societies advocate systematic screening and surveillance of target populations at particularly high risk for developing HCC to facilitate early-stage detection...
June 24, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647541/response-tailored-protocol-versus-the-fixed-12weeks-of-dual-sofosbuvir-daclatasvir-treatment-in-egyptian-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-genotype-4-infection-a-randomized-open-label-non-inferiority-trial
#3
Mostafa Yakoot, Alaa M Abdo, Siham Abdel-Rehim, Sherine Helmy
BACKGROUND: The most recent European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) 2016 Guidelines on treatment of hepatitis C (HCV), allowed for shortening the course of treatment for some subsets of patients with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and with grazoprevir/elbasvir based on cutoff baseline HCV RNA values. We hypothesized that it would be prudent to also consider an objectively assuring very rapid, on-treatment, virologic response to therapy at week 2 (vRVR) before taking the decision of shortening the treatment duration...
May 17, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647164/liver-transplantation-in-new-orleans-parity-in-a-world-of-disparity
#4
Alison A Smith, Michael Darden, Zaid Al-Qurayshi, Anil S Paramesh, Mary Killackey, Emad Kandil, Geoffrey Parker, Luis Balart, Paul Friedlander, Joseph F Buell
BACKGROUND: Racial disparity in access to liver transplantation among African Americans (AA) compared to Caucasians (CA) has been well described. The aim of this investigation was to examine the presentation of AA liver transplant recipients in a socioeconomically challenged region. METHODS: 680 adult liver transplant candidates and 233 resultant recipients between 2007 and 2015 were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate factors significant for transplantation...
June 21, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647161/dot-c-a-cluster-randomised-feasibility-trial-evaluating-directly-observed-anti-hcv-therapy-in-a-population-receiving-opioid-substitute-therapy-from-community-pharmacy
#5
Andrew Radley, Jan Tait, John F Dillon
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antiviral therapy (DAAs) for hepatitis C infection (HCV) have a much smaller burden of treatment than interferon-based regimes, require less monitoring and are very effective. New pathways are required to increase access to treatment amongst people prescribed opioid substitution therapy (OST). METHODS: An exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial with mixed methods evaluation was undertaken to compare the uptake of dried blood spot testing (DBST) and treatment of people with genotype 1 HCV infection in a conventional service pathway versus a pharmacist-led pathway in a population receiving OST...
June 21, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646219/efficient-and-unbiased-metagenomic-recovery-of-rna-virus-genomes-from-human-plasma-samples
#6
Carmen F Manso, David F Bibby, Jean L Mbisa
RNA viruses cause significant human pathology and are responsible for the majority of emerging zoonoses. Mainstream diagnostic assays are challenged by their intrinsic diversity, leading to false negatives and incomplete characterisation. New sequencing techniques are expanding our ability to agnostically interrogate nucleic acids within diverse sample types, but in the clinical setting are limited by overwhelming host material and ultra-low target frequency. Through selective host RNA depletion and compensatory protocol adjustments for ultra-low RNA inputs, we are able to detect three major blood-borne RNA viruses - HIV, HCV and HEV...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646094/immune-mediated-effects-targeting-hepatitis-c-virus-in-a-syngeneic-replicon-cell-transplantation-mouse-model
#7
Sepideh Levander, Fredrik Holmström, Lars Frelin, Gustaf Ahlén, Daniel Rupp, Gang Long, Ralf Bartenschlager, Matti Sällberg
OBJECTIVE: HCV is characterised by its ability to establish chronic infection in hepatocytes and to replicate in the presence of an inflammation. We mimicked this situation in vivo in immune-competent mice by syngeneic transplantation of HCV replicon-containing mouse hepatoma cells. DESIGN: A total of 5 million H-2(b) positive Hep56.1D cells, carrying a subgenomic genotype (gt) 2a replicon (HCV replicon cells) or stably expressing comparable levels of the HCV NS3/4A protease/helicase complex (NS3/4A hepatoma cells), were injected subcutaneously into syngeneic H-2(b)-restricted mice...
June 23, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645740/safety-of-the-2d-3d-direct-acting-antiviral-regimen-in-hcv-induced-child-pugh-a-cirrhosis-a-pooled-analysis
#8
Fred Poordad, David R Nelson, Jordan J Feld, Michael W Fried, Heiner Wedemeyer, Lois Larsen, Daniel E Cohen, Eric Cohen, Niloufar Mobashery, Fernando Tatsch, Graham R Foster
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with cirrhosis are a high-priority population for treatment. To help inform the benefit-risk profile of the all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combination regimen of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r ± DSV) in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis, we undertook a comprehensive review of AbbVie-sponsored clinical trials enrolling patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis. METHODS: Twelve phase II or III clinical trials of the 2-DAA regimen of OBV/PTV/r ± ribavirin (RBV) or the 3-DAA regimen of OBV/PTV/r + DSV ± RBV that included patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis were reviewed; patients who completed treatment by November 16, 2015 were included in a pooled, post hoc safety assessment...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644966/an-immunosuppressive-function-of-interleukin-35-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#9
Siqi Liu, Qian Zhang, Xue Shao, Wenrui Wang, Chuanhui Zhang, Zhenjing Jin
Interleukin (IL)-35, a newly identified member of the IL-12 cytokine family, has been reported to suppress inflammation and induce immunotolerance. However, little is known regarding the role of IL-35 during chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Herein, we measured the serum IL-35 concentration of 73 patients with hepatitis C and 22 healthy individuals, as well as further investigated the modulatory function of IL-35 on CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(dim/-) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and on hepatocytes infected with HCV in cell culture (HCVcc)...
June 20, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644867/host-derived-apolipoproteins-play-comparable-roles-with-viral-secretory-proteins-erns-and-ns1-in-the-infectious-particle-formation-of-flaviviridae
#10
Takasuke Fukuhara, Tomokazu Tamura, Chikako Ono, Mai Shiokawa, Hiroyuki Mori, Kentaro Uemura, Satomi Yamamoto, Takeshi Kurihara, Toru Okamoto, Ryosuke Suzuki, Kentaro Yoshii, Takeshi Kurosu, Manabu Igarashi, Hiroshi Aoki, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Yoshiharu Matsuura
Amphipathic α-helices of exchangeable apolipoproteins have shown to play crucial roles in the formation of infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles through the interaction with viral particles. Among the Flaviviridae members, pestivirus and flavivirus possess a viral structural protein Erns or a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) as secretory glycoproteins, respectively, while Hepacivirus including HCV has no secretory glycoprotein. In case of pestivirus replication, the C-terminal long amphipathic α-helices of Erns are important for anchoring to viral membrane...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644739/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-new-fixed-dose-combinations
#11
Vicente Soriano
The advent of oral direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has revolutionized the hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapeutic landscape providing cure rates over 90%. However, a subset of patients remains at higher risk for treatment failure, including those infected with: i) genotype 3 and cirrhosis; ii) resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) occurring either as natural polymorphisms or selected after prior DAA failure; and iii) poor drug adherence associated with social disabilities (homeless, psychiatric illnesses, injection drug use, alcoholism, etc...
June 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643451/polyclonal-and-monoclonal-b-lymphocytes-response-in-hcv-patients-treated-with-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#12
Alvise Schiavinato, Alberto Zanetto, Giorgia Pantano, Francesca Tosato, Mitja Nabergoj, Paola Fogar, Elisa Piva, Martina Gambato, Enrica Franceschet, Annarosa Floreani, Fabio Farinati, Patrizia Burra, Francesco Paolo Russo, Mario Plebani
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) chronic infection can be associated with extrahepatic manifestations such as mixed cryoglobulinemia and lymphoproliferative disorders that are endowed with increased rates of morbidity and all-cause mortality. In this study we used flow cytometry to evaluate the effect of Interferon-free antiviral treatment on peripheral blood lymphocytes in HCV patients with or without associated lymphoproliferative disorders. Flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes were performed at baseline and at the end of treatment...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643404/occurrence-of-late-relapse-of-hepatitis-c-virus-confirmed-by-molecular-analysis-after-sustained-virological-response-to-interferon-ribavirin-based-therapy
#13
Kazuhiko Hayashi, Masatoshi Ishigami, Satoshi Yasuda, Yoji Ishizu, Teiji Kuzuya, Takashi Honda, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Yoshiki Hirooka, Hidemi Goto
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The optimal duration of follow-up for patients who achieve sustained virological responses (SVR) has become an important issue. Reports on long-term follow-up of SVR have demonstrated that 99% of patients maintained SVR. However, the limitations of a majority of studies include small patient numbers, short study periods, and lack of molecular analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome. The present study sought to evaluate the late relapse rate in long-term follow-up of patients who achieved SVR, with molecular analysis of HCV...
June 22, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643186/current-progress-in-host-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-against-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#14
REVIEW
Jijing Shi, Yuanyuan Li, Wenxian Chang, Xuexiu Zhang, Fu-Sheng Wang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 170 million people worldwide and is the main cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the newly developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have transformed the treatment of HCV infection, controlling HCV infection on a global scale remains a challenge because of the high cost, low resistance barrier of DAAs and lack of HCV vaccine. The host immune responses associated with HCV infection, especially HCV-specific T cellular immunity, determine the outcome of HCV infection: either acute or chronic infection...
June 22, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642978/ectopic-delivery-of-mir-200c-diminishes-hepatitis-c-virus-infectivity-through-transcriptional-and-translational-repression-of-occludin
#15
Dalia S Elhelw, Sarah E Riad, Heba Shawer, Nada El-Ekiaby, Ayman Salah, Abdelrahman Zekri, Asma Amleh, Gamal Esmat, Ahmed Ihab Abdelaziz
Occludin (OCLN) is an essential factor for HCV entry through interacting with other surface receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the epigenetic regulation of Occludin expression and to study its impact on viral infectivity. microRNAs expression was assessed using qRT-PCR, while OCLN protein expression was investigated by indirect immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Viral infectivity was assessed by measuring viral-load using qRT-PCR. In silico analysis predicted that miR-200c targeted the OCLN 3'UTR, which was further experimentally confirmed...
June 22, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642869/detection-of-microrna-in-hepatic-cirrhosis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hepatitis-c-genotype-4-in-egyptian-patients
#16
Hala M Demerdash, Hend M Hussien, Ehab Hassouna, Emad A Arida
BACKGROUND: In Egypt, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is 13.8% of whole population and about 80% of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have underling hepatitis C. AIM: This study was designed to assess the diagnostic value of plasma miR-122 and miR-21 in patients with CHC, genotype-4, to detect fibrosis progression versus noninvasive indices and their diagnostic value in detection of early stages of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODOLOGY: A prospective study that included 180 patients, divided into 3 groups: healthy controls (group I), CHC patients (group II), and hepatitis C patients with HCC (group III); all cases were subjected to thorough clinical, radiological, and laboratory investigations...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642806/the-efficacy-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-green-tea-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-overview-of-pre-clinical-studies-and-translational-perspectives-in-clinical-practice
#17
REVIEW
Marco Cascella, Sabrina Bimonte, Maria Rosaria Muzio, Vincenzo Schiavone, Arturo Cuomo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia characterized by cognitive and memory impairment. One of the mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of AD, is the oxidative stress being involved in AD's development and progression. In addition, several studies proved that chronic viral infections, mainly induced by Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Human herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2), and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) could be responsible for AD's neuropathology...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642197/risk-of-hepatocellular-cancer-in-hcv-patients-treated-with-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#18
Fasiha Kanwal, Jennifer Kramer, Steven M Asch, Maneerat Chayanupatkul, Yumei Cao, Hashem B El-Serag
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The risk of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) after sustained virological response (SVR) with direct acting antivirals (DAA) is unclear. Our aim was to examine the risk and determinants of HCC in patients cured with DAA. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of HCV patients who were treated with DAA in any of the 129 Veterans Health Administration hospitals between 1/1/2015 and 12/31/2015. We calculated the annual incidence rates for HCC by SVR...
June 19, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641865/influence-of-baseline-meld-score-in-the-efficacy-of-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-simeprevir-and-sofosbuvir
#19
José María Moreno-Planas, Juan Ramón Larrubia-Marfil, Juan José Sánchez-Ruano, Julia Morillas-Ariño, Roberto Patón-Arenas, Rosa María Sáiz-Chumillas, Emilia Tébar-Romero, Alfredo Lucendo-Villarín, Pilar Gancedo-Bringas, Mario Solera-Muñoz, María Del Mar Vicente-Gutiérrez, Elisa Martínez-Alfaro
INTRODUCTION: There are few published studies on predictors of response to treatment with sofosbuvir and simeprevir in HCV patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to analyse possible predictors of response to simeprevir (SMV) and sofosbuvir (SOF) in patients infected with hepatitis C genotypes 1 or 4. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study in 12 hospitals. The primary efficacy endpoint was SVR rate 12 weeks after end of treatment (SVR12)...
June 19, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641784/ultrasonographic-fatty-liver-indicator-detects-mild-steatosis-and-correlates-with-metabolic-histological-parameters-in-various-liver-diseases
#20
Stefano Ballestri, Fabio Nascimbeni, Enrica Baldelli, Alessandra Marrazzo, Dante Romagnoli, Giovanni Targher, Amedeo Lonardo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fatty liver is a common feature of different types of liver diseases. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography for diagnosing fatty liver are variable. A semi-quantitative ultrasound score, i.e., the ultrasonographic fatty liver indicator (US-FLI), is closely associated with metabolic/histological variables in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic performance of US-FLI in detecting varying degrees of histological steatosis, and to examine the association of US-FLI with metabolic/histological parameters in 352 biopsied patients with various chronic liver diseases (173 with hepatitis C [HCV], 23 with hepatitis B [HBV], 123 with NAFLD and 33 with other etiologies)...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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