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Hyponatremia physiopathology

Mattia Trunfio, Alessia Savoldi, Ottavia Viganò, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte
PURPOSE: Dengue virus is the most frequent arthropod-borne viral infection worldwide. Simultaneously to the growth of its incidence, cases of bacterial coinfection in dengue have been increasingly reported. The clinical course of dual infections may worsen for reciprocal interactions and delays in the diagnosis, so that clinicians should be aware of this eventuality. Therefore, we reviewed literature to provide an overview of the epidemiological, clinical, and physiopathological issues related to bacterial coinfections and bacteremia in dengue...
July 22, 2016: Infection
Cédric Rafat, Martin Flamant, Stéphane Gaudry, Emmanuelle Vidal-Petiot, Jean-Damien Ricard, Didier Dreyfuss
Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte derangement in the setting of the intensive care unit. Life-threatening neurological complications may arise not only in case of a severe (<120 mmol/L) and acute fall of plasma sodium levels, but may also stem from overly rapid correction of hyponatremia. Additionally, even mild hyponatremia carries a poor short-term and long-term prognosis across a wide range of conditions. Its multifaceted and intricate physiopathology may seem deterring at first glance, yet a careful multi-step diagnostic approach may easily unravel the underlying mechanisms and enable physicians to adopt the adequate measures at the patient's bedside...
December 2015: Annals of Intensive Care
Rodrigo Tagle, Rodrigo Tagle V, Mónica Acevedo, Gloria Valdés
The present review examines the types of hypertension that women may suffer throughout life, their physiopathological characteristics and management. In early life, the currently used low-dose oral contraceptives seldom cause hypertension. Pregnancy provokes preeclampsia, its main medical complication, secondary to inadequate transformation of the spiral arteries and the subsequent multisystem endothelial damage caused by deportation of placental factors and microparticles. Hypertension in preeclampsia is an epiphenomenon which needs to be controlled at levels that reduce maternal risk without impairing placental perfusion...
February 2013: Revista Médica de Chile
Urban Fläring, Per-Arne Lönnqvist, Björn Frenckner, Jan F Svensson, Ingimar Ingolfsson, Lena Wallensteen, Shayarina Stigzelius, Jan Kowalski, Rafael T Krmar
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte abnormality observed in post-operative pediatric patients receiving intravenous maintenance fluid therapy. If plasma sodium concentration (p-Na+) declines to levels below 125 mmol/L in < 48 h, transient or permanent brain damage may occur. There is an intense debate as to whether the administered volume (full rate vs. restricted rate of infusion) and the composition of solutions used for parenteral maintenance fluid therapy (hypotonic vs...
2011: BMC Pediatrics
Aurélie Vuagniaux, Peter Vollenweider
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients and may be associated with non negligible morbidity and mortality. Here we summerize its diagnostic approach based on the physiopathology. Assessment of volume status, measurement of plasma and urinary osmolality remain key steps in the management of this electrolyte disorder.
November 3, 2010: Revue Médicale Suisse
Gina González Robledo, Diana Silva Cantillo, Josep Comín Colet
Hyponatremia is a well-known adverse prognostic factor in patients with chronic heart failure. The mechanisms linking hyponatremia with poor outcomes in these patients are not well understood and may be related to the presence of the abnormal management of water and neurohormonal activation seen in patients with chronic heart failure, which in turn are associated with a worse prognosis. Possibly, free-water retention exceeds the degree of sodium retention in chronic heart failure, which could partially explain the hyponatremia found in these patients...
May 2010: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
Javier Marco Martínez
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disturbance. This disorder is usually produced by water retention due to the patient's inability to balance water excretion with ingestion of liquids. The present article provides basic information on the physiopathology and epidemiology of hyponatremia in certain contexts such as the ambulatory and hospitalized settings, the geriatric population, exercise-induced hyponatremia, drug-induced hyponatremia and finally hyponatremia observed in some common diseases such as heart failure, liver cirrhosis, pneumonia and HIV infection...
May 2010: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
Dan Olteanu, Diana Lupu
Ascites, dilutional hyponatremia and hepatorenal syndrome are three clinical manifestations of the same physiopathological disorder: cirrhotic portal hypertension, hyperproduction of nitric oxide, arterial vasodilation with reduction of efficient arterial volume, which have as consequences renal vasoconstriction, sympathetic stimulation, the stimulation of renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system and of vasopressin secretion. In dilutional hyponatremia, the selective receptor V2 (vasopressin 1) antagonists may be efficient according to Spanish and American specialists and also according to personal experience...
April 2010: Journal of Medicine and Life
A Passeron, S Dupeux, A Blanchard
Hypotonic hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality encountered in hospitalized patients. It is often asymptomatic but associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Prompt recognition of the underlying cause using a systematic physiology based approach and careful evaluation the chronicity of the hyponatremia is mandatory for an optimal management. One should first document hypotonicity, and then assess the renal response to hypotonicity to exclude water intoxication, and the extracellular volumes...
April 2010: La Revue de Médecine Interne
M D Macías Robles, M P López Fonticiella, M Maciá Bobés, A Fernández San Martín
Acute and severe hyponatremia causes a metabolic encephalothy. It is physiopathologically based on the cerebral edema, and its fatal symptoms include seizures and coma. We present a case of an extreme hyponatremia of multifactorial etiology in a schizophrenic patient with potomania. Potomania does not usually cause hyponatremia, unless it coexists with other trigger factors. This patient had a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), and a deep hypokaliemia, due to vomiting and a treatment with indapamida, which perpetuates the deficit of extracellular sodium...
January 2009: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
J-F Augusto, J Sayegh, M-C Malinge, F Illouz, J-F Subra, P-H Ducluzeau
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is usually diagnosed during childhood by respiratory or gastro-intestinal symptoms. Hyponatremic hypochloremic dehydration with metabolic alkalosis is a rare but typical presentation of CF in infants. In contrast, only 3 cases have been described in adults. We report a case of CF in a 33-year-old Caucasian female presenting with a severe sodium and chloride depletion caused by inappropriate sweating. She experienced three episodes of severe dehydration before the diagnosis was suspected...
April 2008: Clinical Nephrology
Andrés Cárdenas, Pere Ginès
Cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by complications associated with portal hypertension and liver failure. Renal function disorders are a common complication in patients with cirrhosis and are associated with high morbidity and mortality and poor prognosis. Renal function alterations in these patients include sodium and water retention and renal vasoconstriction. Sodium retention causes the formation of ascites and edema, solute-free water leads to dilutional hyponatremia, and renal vasoconstriction gives rise to the development of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS)...
January 2008: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
P de Groote
Hyponatraemia is a common clinical finding in cardiac failure, complicating the management of these patients. Vasopressin plays a fundamental role in the physiopathology of the hyponatraemia of cardiac failure and binds to two distinct specific receptors, receptor V1a and V2. The V2 receptors, situated in the renal collecting duct, control the resorbtion of free water. The V1a receptors, present everywhere, are responsible for the vasoconstrictive effect of vasopressin. Specific antagonists of vasopressin receptors are being evaluated in pathologies associated with hyponatraemia...
March 2006: Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1965: La Revue Française D'endocrinologie Clinique, Nutrition, et Métabolisme
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 1963: Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société Médicale des Hôpitaux de Paris
R Sanchez
Widespread destruction of the skin induces a large necrotic mass and a break of the skin barrier. It also leads to an intense inflammatory reaction. This activates keratinocytes, endothelial cells and neutrophils. Certain mediators (e.g. endothelin, histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, catecholamines, vasopressin, prostaglandins, cytokines and nitrogen monoxide) are thus released in large quantities and act both at the site of the burns and at a distance. The abnormally high level of albumin in the capillary wall and the increased capacity of absorption of the interstitial areas around the burns are the main abnormalities observed...
March 2002: Pathologie-biologie
M Cerqueira-Gomes, J Polónia, F Brandão, C Ramalhão, D B da Faria
This review updates some recent advances of a new and exciting developments in basic and clinical cardiology: a) the role, in the congestive heart failure (CHF), of the neurohumoral systems (NHS) which act to maintain circulatory homeostatic equilibrium, and b) the therapeutic implications of such a role. Six NHS, acting in CHF, have presently been identified: three of them induce vasoconstriction and sodium retention (sympathetic nervous systems, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and arginine-vasopressine system); the remaining three offset or balance the former ones, acting, therefore as "counterregulators" (prostaglandins--PGE2 and PGI2--, dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic factor)...
May 2001: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
M Flamant, C Legendre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2000: La Revue du Praticien
G Garini, A Guariglia, M Aroldi
Hyponatremia in virtually all patients results from water retention due to an inability to excrete ingested water. In most cases, this defect represents the persistent secretion of ADH (such as in effective circulating volume depletion, and in the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion), although free water excretion can also be limited in disorders in which ADH levels may be appropriately suppressed (such as in advanced renal failure, and in primary polydipsia). The symptoms of hyponatremia primarily reflect neurologic dysfunction induced by cerebral edema and are related both to the severity and to the rapidity of reductions in the plasma sodium concentration...
February 1999: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
C Tommasino, P Picozzi
Cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is one of the most important causes of cerebral ischemia, and is the leading cause of death and disability after aneurysmal rupture. The optimal treatment of vasospasm awaits development of agents for blocking or inactivating spasmogenic substances, or blocking arterial smooth muscle contraction. Rheological and/or hemodynamic manipulation using triple-H (hypertensive-hypervolemic-hemodilution) therapy to prevent or reverse ischemic consequences are relatively effective, but complicated and hazardous, and should be viewed principally as interim measures awaiting development of more specific therapies for arterial narrowing...
March 1998: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
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