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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908391/prevalence-profile-and-prognosis-of-severe-obesity-in-contemporary-hospitalized-heart-failure-trial-populations
#1
Emer Joyce, Anuradha Lala, Susanna R Stevens, Lauren B Cooper, Omar F AbouEzzeddine, John D Groarke, Justin L Grodin, Eugene Braunwald, Kevin J Anstrom, Margaret M Redfield, Lynne W Stevenson
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the prevalence, profile, and prognosis of severe obesity in a large contemporary acute heart failure (AHF) population. BACKGROUND: Better prognosis has been reported for obese heart failure (HF) patients than nonobese HF patients, but in other cardiovascular populations, this effect has not been demonstrated for severely obese patients. METHODS: A cohort of 795 participants with body mass index (BMI) measured at time of admission and complete follow-up were identified from enrollment in 3 contemporary AHF trials (DOSE [Diuretic Strategies Optimization Evaluation], CARRESS-HF [Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure], and ROSE [Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure])...
December 2016: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901125/rab14-specifies-the-apical-membrane-through-arf6-mediated-regulation-of-lipid-domains-and-cdc42
#2
Ruifeng Lu, Jean M Wilson
The generation of cell polarity is essential for the development of multi-cellular organisms as well as for the function of epithelial organs in the mature animal. Small GTPases regulate the establishment and maintenance of polarity through effects on cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking, and signaling. Using short-term 3-dimensional culture of MDCK cells, we find that the small GTPase Rab14 is required for apical membrane specification. Rab14 knockdown results in disruption of polarized lipid domains and failure of the Par/aPKC/Cdc42 polarity complex to localize to the apical membrane...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898438/rescue-therapies-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-what-to-try-first
#3
Onnen Moerer, Tommaso Tonetti, Michael Quintel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe respiratory failure due to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) might require rescue therapy measures beyond even extended standard care to ensure adequate oxygenation and survival. This review provides a summary and assessment of treatment options that can be beneficial when the standard approach fails. RECENT FINDINGS: 'Life-threatening' conditions or refractory hypoxemia during mechanical ventilation are more a matter of personal rating than an objective diagnosis based on defined and/or unanimously agreed thresholds that would mandate the use of rescue therapies...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896787/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-pheochromocytoma-induced-cardiogenic-shock
#4
Guillaume Hekimian, Fatima Kharcha, Nicolas Bréchot, Matthieu Schmidt, Cécile Ghander, Guillaume Lebreton, Xavier Girerd, Christophe Tresallet, Jean-Louis Trouillet, Pascal Leprince, Jean Chastre, Alain Combes, Charles-Edouard Luyt
BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytoma, a rare catecholamine-producing tumor, might provoke stress-induced Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy and severe cardiogenic shock. Because venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) rescue of pheochromocytoma-induced refractory cardiogenic shock has rarely been reported, we reviewed our ICU patients' presentations and outcomes. METHODS: All pheochromocytoma-induced refractory cardiogenic shock cases managed with VA-ECMO (January 2007-March 2015) were prospectively included and reviewed...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895320/clinical-experience-with-pancreas-graft-rescue-from-severe-thrombus-after-simultaneous-pancreas-kidney-transplantation-by-early-detection-with-doppler-ultrasound-a-case-report
#5
Mitsunobu Takeda, Daisaku Yamada, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Tadafumi Asaoka, Takehiro Noda, Hiroshi Wada, Kunihito Goto, Koichi Kawamoto, Yutaka Takeda, Masahiro Tanemura, Toshinori Ito, Masaki Mori, Yuichiro Doki
BACKGROUND Graft thrombosis is the main cause of early graft loss after transplantation. In Japan, pancreases available for transplantation are frequently from marginal donors due to diverse backgrounds in the population. However, marginal tissues increase the risk of early thrombosis in the graft. CASE REPORT Here, we describe a 41-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus who underwent a simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. The pancreas was retrieved from a 34-year-old man who had experienced severe hemodynamic instability...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893754/cyp26-enzymes-facilitate-second-heart-field-progenitor-addition-and-maintenance-of-ventricular-integrity
#6
Ariel B Rydeen, Joshua S Waxman
Although retinoic acid (RA) teratogenicity has been investigated for decades, the mechanisms underlying RA-induced outflow tract (OFT) malformations are not understood. Here, we show zebrafish embryos deficient for Cyp26a1 and Cyp26c1 enzymes, which promote RA degradation, have OFT defects resulting from two mechanisms: first, a failure of second heart field (SHF) progenitors to join the OFT, instead contributing to the pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs), and second, a loss of first heart field (FHF) ventricular cardiomyocytes due to disrupted cell polarity and extrusion from the heart tube...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892503/trans-translation-is-essential-in-the-human-pathogen-legionella-pneumophila
#7
Romain Brunel, Xavier Charpentier
Trans-translation is a ubiquitous bacterial mechanism for ribosome rescue in the event of translation stalling. Although trans-translation is not essential in several bacterial species, it has been found essential for viability or virulence in a wide range of pathogens. We describe here that trans-translation is essential in the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila, the etiologic agent of Legionnaire's disease (LD), a severe form of nosocomial and community-acquired pneumonia. The ssrA gene coding for tmRNA, the key component of trans-translation, could not be deleted in L...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885446/post-cardiotomy-rescue-extracorporeal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-neonates-with-single-ventricle-after-intractable-cardiac-arrest-attrition-after-hospital-discharge-and-predictors-of-outcome
#8
Anastasios C Polimenakos, Vincent Rizzo, Chawki F El-Zein, Michel N Ilbawi
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) in children with cardiac arrest refractory to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been reported with encouraging results. We reviewed outcomes of neonates with functional single ventricle (FSV) surviving post-cardiotomy ECPR after hospital discharge. Fifty-eight patients who required post-cardiotomy extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) since the introduction of our ECPR protocol (January 2007-December 2011) were identified. Forty-one were neonates...
November 24, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884410/complications-after-cardiac-operations-all-are-not-created-equal
#9
Todd C Crawford, J Trent Magruder, Joshua C Grimm, Alejandro Suarez-Pierre, Christopher M Sciortino, Kaushik Mandal, Kenton J Zehr, John V Conte, Robert S Higgins, Duke E Cameron, Glenn J Whitman
BACKGROUND: Postoperative complications are associated with increased morbidity and mortality after cardiac operations. We sought to quantify the effect of multiple complications on noninstitutionalized recovery after cardiac operations. METHODS: We identified 2,477 adult patients from our institutional cardiac surgery database who underwent one of seven index cardiac surgical operations from 2011 to 2014. We calculated failure-to-rescue rates for all individual complications and combinations of complications...
November 21, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880903/mirnas-are-essential-for-the-regulation-of-the-pi3k-akt-foxo-pathway-and-receptor-editing-during-b%C3%A2-cell-maturation
#10
Maryaline Coffre, David Benhamou, David Rieß, Lili Blumenberg, Valentina Snetkova, Marcus J Hines, Tirtha Chakraborty, Sofia Bajwa, Kari Jensen, Mark M W Chong, Lelise Getu, Gregg J Silverman, Robert Blelloch, Dan R Littman, Dinis Calado, Doron Melamed, Jane A Skok, Klaus Rajewsky, Sergei B Koralov
B cell development is a tightly regulated process dependent on sequential rearrangements of immunoglobulin loci that encode the antigen receptor. To elucidate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the orchestration of B cell development, we ablated all miRNAs at the earliest stage of B cell development by conditionally targeting the enzymes critical for RNAi in early B cell precursors. Absence of any one of these enzymes led to a block at the pro- to pre-B cell transition due to increased apoptosis and a failure of pre-B cells to proliferate...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877065/poor-adhesion-of-fentanyl-transdermal-patches-may-mimic-end-of-dosage-failure-after-48-hours-and-prompt-early-patch-replacement-in-hospitalized-cancer-pain-patients
#11
Isabelle Arnet, Sabrina Schacher, Eva Balmer, Dieter Koeberle, Kurt E Hersberger
CONTEXT: Renewal of fentanyl transdermal patch (transdermal therapeutic system [TTS]) should occur every 3 days (72 hours) according to manufacturer's guidelines. Some studies mentioned patients reporting end-of-dose failure, and thus, some authors recommend shortening the interval of application to 2 days (48 hours). However, reasons for early replacement are mostly unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of early replacement of fentanyl TTS in a cancer center in Basel, Switzerland, and to assess the reasons for early replacement in stationary patients...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875409/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-beyond-rescue-therapy-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#12
Alain Combes, Nicolas Bréchot, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Matthieu Schmidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes the results of past and more recent series on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) and discusses its potential indications beyond the rescue of patients with lung failure refractory to conventional mechanical ventilation. RECENT FINDINGS: Successful VV-ECMO treatment in patients with extremely severe influenza A(H1N1)-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and positive results of the CESAR trial have led to an exponential use of the technology in recent years...
November 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875263/reversible-developmental-stasis-in-response-to-nutrient-availability-in-the-xenopus-laevis-cns
#13
C R McKeown, C K Thompson, H T Cline
Many organisms confront intermittent nutrient restriction, but the mechanisms to cope with nutrient fluctuations during development are not well understood. This is particularly true of the brain, the development and function of which is energy intensive. Here we examine the effects of nutrient availability on visual system development in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. During the first week of development, tadpoles draw nutrients from maternally-provided yolk. Upon yolk depletion, animals forage for food. By altering access to external nutrients after yolk depletion, we identified a period of reversible stasis during tadpole development...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872272/oxygenator-failure-in-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-a-case-report
#14
Chinmay Patvardhan, Kamen Valchanov
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy can be used to rescue patients who develop respiratory failure with acute myeloid leukaemia. We describe a unique case of rapid failure of an oxygenator on ECMO, secondary to high leukocyte count and cell lysis in an adult patient with acute myeloid leukaemia.
November 20, 2016: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871162/eradication-rate-by-duration-of-third-line-rescue-therapy-with-levofloxacin-after-helicobacter-pylori-treatment-failure-in-clinical-practice
#15
Hyung Min Noh, Su Jin Hong, Jae Pil Han, Kyung Woo Park, Yun Nah Lee, Tae Hee Lee, Bong Min Ko, Joon Seong Lee, Moon Sung Lee
Background/Aims: This study evaluated the eradication rate of levofloxacin-containing rescue therapy by treatment duration in patients in whom previous first- and second-line treatment failed. Methods: Fifty-five patients with persistent Helicobacter pylori infection after first-line therapy and second-line therapy were studied in a single referral academic center. We compared the eradication rates by the treatment duration of third-line therapy. Results: Of 55 patients, 12 (21...
November 25, 2016: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868195/predicting-patterns-of-long-term-adaptation-and-extinction-with-population-genetics
#16
J Bertram, K Gomez, J Masel
Population genetics struggles to model extinction; standard models track the relative rather than absolute fitness of genotypes, while the exceptions describe only the short-term transition from imminent doom to evolutionary rescue. But extinction can result from failure to adapt not only to catastrophes, but also to a backlog of environmental challenges. We model long-term adaptation to long series of small challenges, where fitter populations reach higher population sizes. The population's long-term fitness dynamic is well approximated by a simple stochastic Markov chain model...
November 21, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859332/patients-outcome-after-rescue-plerixafor-administration-for-autologous-stem-cell-mobilization-a-single-center-retrospective-analysis
#17
Silvia Spoerl, Robert Peter, Dagmar Wäscher, Katharina Götze, Mareike Verbeek, Christian Peschel, Angela M Krackhardt
BACKGROUND: Plerixafor is predominantly used for patients mobilizing inadequate stem cell numbers for autologous transplantation after stimulation with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We here report on 300 patients undergoing stem cell mobilization with G-CSF, among them 36 poor mobilizers (CD34+ cell counts < 50 × 10(6) /L blood) receiving G-CSF alone and 49 receiving G-CSF in combination with plerixafor for rescue intervention...
November 18, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858246/sequential-therapy-consisting-of-glucocorticoid-infusions-followed-by-granulocyte-monocyte-absorptive-apheresis-in-patients-with-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#18
Kazuhiro Watanabe, Yoshihito Uchida, Kayoko Sugawara, Kayoko Naiki, Mie Inao, Nobuaki Nakayama, Satoshi Mochida
BACKGROUND: Activated leukocytes infiltrating the liver contribute to the provocation of alcoholic hepatitis. Glucocorticoid induces the demargination of leukocytes from the hepatic sinusoids, whereas granulocyte-monocyte absorptive apheresis (GMA) removes leukocytes from the circulation. Thus, the usefulness of a sequential therapy consisting of glucocorticoid infusions followed by GMA was evaluated in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. METHODS: Patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis received intravenous injections of methylprednisolone (1,000 mg/day) for 3 or 4 days, and then GMA was performed every day for 3 days...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856618/coenzyme-q-deficiency-causes-impairment-of-the-sulfide-oxidation-pathway
#19
Marcello Ziosi, Ivano Di Meo, Giulio Kleiner, Xing-Huang Gao, Emanuele Barca, Maria J Sanchez-Quintero, Saba Tadesse, Hongfeng Jiang, Changhong Qiao, Richard J Rodenburg, Emmanuel Scalais, Markus Schuelke, Belinda Willard, Maria Hatzoglou, Valeria Tiranti, Catarina M Quinzii
Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is an electron acceptor for sulfide-quinone reductase (SQR), the first enzyme of the hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathway. Here, we show that lack of CoQ in human skin fibroblasts causes impairment of hydrogen sulfide oxidation, proportional to the residual levels of CoQ. Biochemical and molecular abnormalities are rescued by CoQ supplementation in vitro and recapitulated by pharmacological inhibition of CoQ biosynthesis in skin fibroblasts and ADCK3 depletion in HeLa cells. Kidneys of Pdss2(kd/kd) mice, which only have ~15% residual CoQ concentrations and are clinically affected, showed (i) reduced protein levels of SQR and downstream enzymes, (ii) accumulation of hydrogen sulfides, and (iii) glutathione depletion...
November 17, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855182/a-non-human-primate-model-of-severe-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#20
Luis F Reyes, Marcos I Restrepo, Cecilia A Hinojosa, Nilam J Soni, Anukul T Shenoy, Ryan P Gilley, Norberto Gonzalez-Juarbe, Julio R Noda, Vicki T Winter, Melissa A de la Garza, Robert E Shade, Jacqueline J Coalson, Luis D Giavedoni, Antonio Anzueto, Carlos J Orihuela
RATIONALE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and infectious death in adults worldwide. A non-human primate model is needed to study the molecular mechanisms that underlie the development of severe pneumonia, identify diagnostic tools, explore potential therapeutic targets, and test clinical interventions during pneumococcal pneumonia. OBJECTIVE: To develop a non-human primate model of pneumococcal pneumonia. METHODS: Seven adult baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were surgically tethered to a continuous monitoring system that recorded heart rate, temperature, and electrocardiography...
2016: PloS One
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