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Human papillomavirus

Bryan A Johnson, Heather L Aloor, Cary A Moody
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) exhibit constitutive activation of ATM and ATR DNA damage response (DDR) pathways, which are required for productive viral replication. Expression of HPV31 E7 alone is sufficient to activate the DDR through an unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that the E7 Rb binding domain is required to increase levels of many DDR proteins, including ATM, Chk2, Chk1, the MRN components MRE11, Rad50, and NBS1, as well as the homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA1 and Rad51. Interestingly, we have found that the increase in these DNA repair proteins does not occur solely at the level of transcription, but that E7 broadly increases the half-life of these DDR factors, a phenotype that is lost in the E7 Rb binding mutant...
October 19, 2016: Virology
M Butsashvili, M Kajaia, M Kochlamazashvili, M Zarandia, T Gagua, D Meskhishvili, N Avaliani, G Kamkamidze
Of the 100 types of human papillomaviruses (HPV), approximately 35 infect the genital tract. The viruses are categorized as "high risk" and "low risk" depending on whether they are known to cause cancer or not. Cervical cancer is an important cause of cancer mortality in Georgia, and worldwide. Only limited and incomplete data are available about the epidemiology of HPV infection and related molecular and cellular changes in Georgia. Objectives of our study included the estimation of the prevalence and the distribution of HPV genotypes among women in Georgia...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Anthony L Cunningham, Nathalie Garçon, Oberdan Leo, Leonard R Friedland, Richard Strugnell, Béatrice Laupèze, Mark Doherty, Peter Stern
In the 21st century, an array of microbiological and molecular allow antigens for new vaccines to be specifically identified, designed, produced and delivered with the aim of optimising the induction of a protective immune response against a well-defined immunogen. New knowledge about the functioning of the immune system and host pathogen interactions has stimulated the rational design of vaccines. The design toolbox includes vaccines made from whole pathogens, protein subunits, polysaccharides, pathogen-like particles, use of viral/bacterial vectors, plus adjuvants and conjugation technology to increase and broaden the immune response...
October 18, 2016: Vaccine
L-C Horn, C E Brambs, R Handzel, S Lax, I Sändig, D Schmidt, K Schierle
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification from 2014 differentiates between different subtypes of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. A gastric subtype was recently described that showed no association with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, has a poor prognosis, is mainly diagnosed in women of Asian origin and can occur in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Although no clear grading system has been recommended in the WHO classification, it is likely that grading of adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix will partly be based on the different patterns of invasion...
October 20, 2016: Der Pathologe
Kalpesh Lalla, Farzana Mahomed, Shabnum Meer
OBJECTIVE: The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in keratinizing odontogenic cysts (OC) has only rarely been studied. We describe the clinicopathologic findings in a series of OCs that had unusual keratinization patterns and were investigated for a possible HPV etiology. STUDY DESIGN: Tissue samples from 29 patients with keratinizing OCs were studied for light microscopic features suggestive of HPV infection and by an HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: The mean age at presentation was 31...
November 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Daniel C Anacker, Heather L Aloor, Caitlin N Shepard, Gina M Lenzi, Bryan A Johnson, Baek Kim, Cary A Moody
Productive replication of human papillomaviruses (HPV) is restricted to the uppermost layers of the differentiating epithelia. How HPV ensures an adequate supply of cellular substrates for viral DNA synthesis in a differentiating environment is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that HPV31 positive cells exhibit increased dNTP pools and levels of RRM2, a component of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) complex, which is required for de novo synthesis of dNTPs. RRM2 depletion blocks productive replication, suggesting RRM2 provides dNTPs for viral DNA synthesis in differentiating cells...
October 17, 2016: Virology
Dongmei Gao, Yuanyuan Zhang, Mingyue Zhu, Shuang Liu, Xinling Wang
The study aimed to investigate the state of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in patients with cervical cancer in the Uyghur population in China and to identify miRNA as biomarker for cervical cancer and HPV infection. We also performed genotyping to determine the variation in the types of HPV. Using microRNA (miRNA) microarray technology, differential miRNA expression between HPV-infected cervical cancer and uninfected normal cervical tissues was determined; the microarray results were verified by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using 20 samples of both the tissues...
2016: PloS One
Sonia Menon, Aibibula Wusiman, Marie Claude Boily, Mbabazi Kariisa, Hillary Mabeya, Stanley Luchters, Frode Forland, Rodolfo Rossi, Steven Callens, Davy Vanden Broeck
BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data on the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in the HIV positive population and in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Kenya. This may be different from genotypes found in abnormal cytology. Yet, with the advent of preventive HPV vaccines that target HPV 16 and 18, and the nonavalent vaccine targeting 90% of all ICC cases, such HPV genotype distribution data are indispensable for predicting the impact of vaccination and HPV screening on prevention...
2016: PloS One
Anagha Loharikar, Laure Dumolard, Susan Chu, Terri Hyde, Tracey Goodman, Carsten Mantel
Since the global Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was launched in 1974, vaccination against six diseases (tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and measles) has prevented millions of deaths and disabilities (1). Significant advances have been made in the development and introduction of vaccines, and licensed vaccines are now available to prevent 25 diseases (2,3). Historically, new vaccines only became available in low-income and middle-income countries decades after being introduced in high-income countries...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Mark Spitzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
David A Siegel, Reda Wilson, Edward J Wilkinson, Julia W Gargano, Meg Watson, Brenda Y Hernandez, Marc T Goodman, Charles F Lynch, Elizabeth R Unger, Mona Saraiya
CONTEXT: -Knowing the subtype of vulvar cancer histology is important for estimating human papillomavirus-related cancer etiology. Surveillance of human papillomavirus-related vulvar cancers informs public health decisions related to vaccination against human papillomavirus. OBJECTIVE: -To assess the accuracy of registry classifications of vulvar cancer and determine the histologic classification of cases reported as not otherwise specified. DESIGN: -Pathology specimens were collected from Florida, Iowa, and Hawaii cancer registries...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
Mario Cezar Saffi Junior, Ivone da Silva Duarte, Rodrigo Barbosa de Oliveira Brito, Giovana Garcia Prado, Sergio Makabe, Humberto Dellê, Cleber P Camacho
Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. The relation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) with CC and its precursor lesions was first suspected for over 40 years. The indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) is an immune modulator enzyme responsible for the immune system tissue protection mechanism, which may be the key to the tumoural persistence. HPV oncoprotein E7 promotes the increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 (CDKN2A/p16). The isolated and combined analysis of CDKN2A/p16 mRNA to CC diagnosis was done with promising results...
November 2016: Medical Oncology
Shokrollah Zandi, Razyeh Ahmad Zadeh, Sayedeh Reyhaneh Yousefi, Fardin Gharibi
BACKGROUND: Warts are common dermatological lesion caused by skin epithelial cells' infection with human Papillomavirus (HPV). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a new method for the treatment of dermal warts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this clinical trial study, 60 patients (older than 10 years) with dermal warts living in Baneh city, west of Iran, were allocated into the intervention and control groups using the block randomized method in 2012...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
M Jentschke, P Hillemanns
Introduction: Cervical cancer screening programs all over the world are being radically revised; preventive screening is increasingly based on detecting infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). This change was driven by large international studies (comparing cytological and HPV-based screening), which were then summarized in systematic reviews or HTA reports. We carried out a systematic comparison of these meta-analyses, comparing their contents, quality, results and recommendations. Material and Methods: A systematic search in MEDLINE identified eight meta-analyses...
October 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
Jeni Staykova, Tanja Belovska, Ayla Murad, Sevinch Kakid, Aneta Nacheva, Evelina Shikova
AIM: Although sexually transmitted viral infections are significant and increasing public health concern, little is known about their prevalence among Bulgarian women. The aim of this study was to investigate cervical viral infections in asymptomatic women. METHODS: The study group included 52 randomly selected asymptomatic female volunteers from Bulgarian border town Kardzhali. Cervical specimens were tested by real-time PCR for human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
M Formánek, D Jančatová, P Komínek, P Matoušek, K Zeleník
OBJECTIVE: The human papillomavirus causes recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Although human papillomavirus prevalence is high, the incidence of papillomatosis is low. Thus, factors other than human papillomavirus infection probably contribute to recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. This study investigated whether patients with papillomatosis are more often infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 and chlamydia trachomatis and whether laryngopharyngeal reflux occurs in this group of patients more often...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Ying Liu, Chaoting Zhang, Weijiao Gao, Limin Wang, Yaqi Pan, Yunong Gao, Zheming Lu, Yang Ke
HPV integration plays an important role in cervical carcinogenesis. HPV genotypes and the exact integration sites were investigated using HPV capture technology combined with next generation sequencing in 166 women. Three, one and six integration sites were verified in 7 HPV-positive 'normal cervical epithelium', 6 HPV-positive CIN2 and 15 HPV-positive CIN 3 samples, respectively. Of the 10 integrations, one and nine were involved with HPV33 and HPV16, respectively. Our study accurately evaluated HPV integration level in CINs and normal cervical tissues using high-throughput viral integration detection method providing basic evidence for HPV integration-driven cervical carcinogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Guglielmo Ronco, Marco Zappa, Silvia Franceschi, Sara Tunesi, Adele Caprioglio, Massimo Confortini, Annarosa Del Mistro, Francesca Carozzi, Nereo Segnan, Manuel Zorzi, Paolo Giorgi-Rossi
BACKGROUND: Women positive to human papillomavirus (HPV+) testing at cervical screening need triage, typically cytology and immediate colposcopy in case of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or worse (ASCUS+) or, in cytology-normal HPV+ women, HPV test repeat after 1 year and colposcopy referral if still HPV+. Our hypothesis was that substantial variations in triage positivity and sensitivity may produce little variation in overall referral to colposcopy and on sensitivity of the entire screening process...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Jacqueline R Kelly, Zain A Husain, Barbara Burtness
Increasingly, squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (OPSCC) is attributable to transformation resulting from high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Such cancers are significantly more responsive to treatment than traditional tobacco- and alcohol-associated squamous cell cancers of the head and neck. Conventional management with definitive chemoradiation, surgery and adjuvant radiation, or radiation given with altered fractionation schemes, while effective, incurs long-term morbidity that escalates with treatment intensity and significantly impairs quality of life...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
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