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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536918/-cognitive-errors-in-diagnostic-decision-making
#1
REVIEW
Martin Gäbler
Approximately 10-15% of our diagnostic decisions are faulty and may lead to unfavorable and dangerous outcomes, which could be avoided. These diagnostic errors are mainly caused by cognitive biases in the diagnostic reasoning process.Our medical diagnostic decision-making is based on intuitive "System 1" and analytical "System 2" diagnostic decision-making and can be deviated by unconscious cognitive biases.These deviations can be positively influenced on a systemic and an individual level. For the individual, metacognition (internal withdrawal from the decision-making process) and debiasing strategies, such as verification, falsification and rule out worst-case scenarios, can lead to improved diagnostic decisions making...
May 23, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490292/countering-cognitive-biases-in-minimising-low-value-care
#2
REVIEW
Ian A Scott, Jason Soon, Adam G Elshaug, Robyn Lindner
Cognitive biases in decision making may make it difficult for clinicians to reconcile evidence of overuse with highly ingrained prior beliefs and intuition. Such biases can predispose clinicians towards low value care and may limit the impact of recently launched campaigns aimed at reducing such care. Commonly encountered biases comprise commission bias, illusion of control, impact bias, availability bias, ambiguity bias, extrapolation bias, endowment effects, sunken cost bias and groupthink. Various strategies may be used to counter such biases, including cognitive huddles, narratives of patient harm, value considerations in clinical assessments, defining acceptable levels of risk of adverse outcomes, substitution, reflective practice and role modelling, normalisation of deviance, nudge techniques and shared decision making...
May 15, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380048/a-study-of-the-transferability-of-influenza-case-detection-systems-between-two-large-healthcare-systems
#3
Ye Ye, Michael M Wagner, Gregory F Cooper, Jeffrey P Ferraro, Howard Su, Per H Gesteland, Peter J Haug, Nicholas E Millett, John M Aronis, Andrew J Nowalk, Victor M Ruiz, Arturo López Pineda, Lingyun Shi, Rudy Van Bree, Thomas Ginter, Fuchiang Tsui
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the accuracy and transferability of Bayesian case detection systems (BCD) that use clinical notes from emergency department (ED) to detect influenza cases. METHODS: A BCD uses natural language processing (NLP) to infer the presence or absence of clinical findings from ED notes, which are fed into a Bayesain network classifier (BN) to infer patients' diagnoses. We developed BCDs at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (BCDUPMC) and Intermountain Healthcare in Utah (BCDIH)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260198/neurons-internalize-functionalized-micron-sized-silicon-dioxide-microspheres
#4
Veronica J Wallace, Raffaello Cimbro, F Javier Rubio, Lowella V Fortuno, Julie C Necarsulmer, Pyry P Koivula, Mark J Henderson, Lindsay M DeBiase, Brandon L Warren, Brandon K Harvey, Bruce T Hope
Microparticles have potential as neuron-specific delivery platforms and devices with many applications in neuroscience, pharmacology, and biomedicine. To date, most literature suggests that neurons are not phagocytic cells capable of internalizing microparticles larger than 0.5 μm. We report that neurons transport fluorescently labeled silica microspheres with diameters of 1-2 μm into neurons in vitro and in rat brain without having overt effects on cell viability. Using flow cytometry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and confocal and electron microscopy, we first found that SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells internalized 1-μm silicon microspheres with surface charges of -70 mV (hydroxyl and carboxyl), -30 mV (amino), and +40 mV (ammonio)...
March 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257143/modeling-and-analyzing-respondent-driven-sampling-as-a-counting-process
#5
Yakir Berchenko, Jonathan D Rosenblatt, Simon D W Frost
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is an approach to sampling design and analysis which utilizes the networks of social relationships that connect members of the target population, using chain-referral. RDS sampling will typically oversample participants with many acquaintances. Naïve estimators, such as the sample average, will thus be biased towards the state of the most highly connected individuals. Current methodology cannot estimate population size from RDS, and promotes inverse probability weighted estimators for population parameters such as HIV prevalence...
March 3, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230894/diagnosing-crime-and-diagnosing-disease-bias-reduction-strategies-in-the-forensic-and-clinical-sciences
#6
Joseph J Lockhart, Saty Satya-Murti
Cognitive effort is an essential part of both forensic and clinical decision-making. Errors occur in both fields because the cognitive process is complex and prone to bias. We performed a selective review of full-text English language literature on cognitive bias leading to diagnostic and forensic errors. Earlier work (1970-2000) concentrated on classifying and raising bias awareness. Recently (2000-2016), the emphasis has shifted toward strategies for "debiasing." While the forensic sciences have focused on the control of misleading contextual cues, clinical debiasing efforts have relied on checklists and hypothetical scenarios...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197896/algebraic-reasoning-and-bat-and-ball-problem-variants-solving-isomorphic-algebra-first-facilitates-problem-solving-later
#7
Jerome D Hoover, Alice F Healy
The classic bat-and-ball problem is used widely to measure biased and correct reasoning in decision-making. University students overwhelmingly tend to provide the biased answer to this problem. To what extent might reasoners be led to modify their judgement, and, more specifically, is it possible to facilitate problem solution by prompting participants to consider the problem from an algebraic perspective? One hundred ninety-seven participants were recruited to investigate the effect of algebraic cueing as a debiasing strategy on variants of the bat-and-ball problem...
February 14, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137712/sparse-network-modeling-and-metscape-based-visualization-methods-for-the-analysis-of-large-scale-metabolomics-data
#8
Sumanta Basu, William Duren, Charles R Evans, Charles F Burant, George Michailidis, Alla Karnovsky
Motivation: Recent technological advances in mass spectrometry, development of richer mass spectral libraries and data processing tools have enabled large scale metabolic profiling. Biological interpretation of metabolomics studies heavily relies on knowledge-based tools that contain information about metabolic pathways. Incomplete coverage of different areas of metabolism and lack of information about non-canonical connections between metabolites limits the scope of applications of such tools...
May 15, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095052/increased-gamma-connectivity-during-working-memory-retention-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Neil W Bailey, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Jerome J Maller, Rebecca A Segrave, Caley M Sullivan, Paul B Fitzgerald
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Alterations to functional connectivity following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) may lead to impaired cognitive performance and major depressive disorder (MDD). In particular, functional gamma band connectivity is thought to reflect information binding important for working memory. The objective of this study was to determine whether altered functional gamma connectivity may be a factor in MDD following TBI (TBI-MDD). RESEARCH DESIGN: This study assessed individuals with TBI-MDD, as well as individuals with TBI alone and MDD alone using electroencephalographic recordings while participants performed a working memory task to assess differences in functional connectivity between these groups...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032912/thematic-mapping-maps-much-territory-but-needs-stronger-evidence-based-coordinates-a-commentary
#10
Tracy D Eells
Thematic mapping (TM) is a transtheoretical, transdiagnostic, pattern-focused method of case formulation. It involves systematically gathering a broad range relevant client information, collecting representative behavioral episodes, using inductive and deductive reasoning to identify themes and subthemes that characterize a client's dysfunctional patterns, and then developing a treatment plan to address them. The TM method includes debiasing steps to minimize clinician judgment errors and addresses a client's cultural context...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992103/resting-state-functional-connectivity-measures-correlate-with-the-response-to-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#11
Brenton Hordacre, Bahar Moezzi, Mitchell R Goldsworthy, Nigel C Rogasch, Lynton J Graetz, Michael C Ridding
Responses to non-invasive brain stimulation are highly variable between subjects. Resting state functional connectivity was investigated as a marker of plasticity induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Twenty-six healthy adults (15 male, 26.4 ± 6.5 years) were tested. Experiment 1 investigated whether functional connectivity could predict modulation of corticospinal excitability following anodal tDCS. Experiment 2 determined test-retest reliability of connectivity measures. Three minutes of electroencephalography was recorded and connectivity was quantified with the debiased weighted phase lag index...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507563/the-importance-of-debiasing-social-media-data-to-better-understand-e-cigarette-related-attitudes-and-behaviors
#12
Jon-Patrick Allem, Emilio Ferrara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377537/downscaled-and-debiased-climate-simulations-for-north-america-from-21-000-years-ago-to-2100ad
#13
COMMENT
David J Lorenz, Diego Nieto-Lugilde, Jessica L Blois, Matthew C Fitzpatrick, John W Williams
Increasingly, ecological modellers are integrating paleodata with future projections to understand climate-driven biodiversity dynamics from the past through the current century. Climate simulations from earth system models are necessary to this effort, but must be debiased and downscaled before they can be used by ecological models. Downscaling methods and observational baselines vary among researchers, which produces confounding biases among downscaled climate simulations. We present unified datasets of debiased and downscaled climate simulations for North America from 21 ka BP to 2100AD, at 0...
July 5, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255736/manipulating-google-s-knowledge-graph-box-to-counter-biased-information-processing-during-an-online-search-on-vaccination-application-of-a-technological-debiasing-strategy
#14
Ramona Ludolph, Ahmed Allam, Peter J Schulz
BACKGROUND: One of people's major motives for going online is the search for health-related information. Most consumers start their search with a general search engine but are unaware of the fact that its sorting and ranking criteria do not mirror information quality. This misconception can lead to distorted search outcomes, especially when the information processing is characterized by heuristic principles and resulting cognitive biases instead of a systematic elaboration. As vaccination opponents are vocal on the Web, the chance of encountering their non‒evidence-based views on immunization is high...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227415/on-the-difficulty-of-mending-metacognitive-illusions-a-priori-theories-fluency-effects-and-misattributions-of-the-interleaving-benefit
#15
Veronica X Yan, Elizabeth Ligon Bjork, Robert A Bjork
Interleaving exemplars of to-be-learned categories-rather than blocking exemplars by category-typically enhances inductive learning. Learners, however, tend to believe the opposite, even after their own performance has benefited from interleaving. In Experiments 1 and 2, the authors examined the influence of 2 factors that they hypothesized contribute to the illusion that blocking enhances inductive learning: Namely, that (a) blocking creates a sense of fluent extraction during study of the features defining a given category, and (b) learners come to the experimental task with a pre-existing belief that blocking instruction by topic is superior to intermixing topics...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216170/raising-awareness-of-cognitive-biases-during-diagnostic-reasoning
#16
Kaylee van Geene, Esther de Groot, Carmen Erkelens, Dorien Zwart
INTRODUCTION: Bias in diagnostic reasoning can potentially lead to severe consequences. We explored how to design an experiential learning workshop in a general practice clerkship to raise awareness on bias. METHOD: A group of 12 students was split into two groups. Both groups 'diagnosed' two patients in two case studies. Only one group, without them knowing, were given a case including salient distracting features. The whole group discussed the influence of these distractors...
June 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125532/overconfidence-in-projecting-uncertain-spatial-trajectories
#17
Nathan Herdener, Christopher D Wickens, Benjamin A Clegg, C A P Smith
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand factors that influence the prediction of uncertain spatial trajectories (e.g., the future path of a hurricane or ship) and the role of human overconfidence in such prediction. BACKGROUND: Research has indicated that human prediction of uncertain trajectories is difficult and may well be subject to overconfidence in the accuracy of forecasts as is found in event prediction, a finding that indicates that humans insufficiently appreciate the contributions of variance in nature to their predictions...
September 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27105792/ultrasonic-instrumentation-instruction-in-dental-hygiene-programs-in-the-united-states
#18
Sharon Stemple Hinchman, Amy Funk, Christina DeBiase, Cathryn Frere
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of ultrasonic scaling instrumentation instruction in dental hygiene programs in the U.S. Currently, there is no publication available defining a consensus of instruction for ultrasonic instrumentation. METHODS: Exempt status was received from the West Virginia University Institutional Review Board. A survey was developed with dental hygiene administrators and faculty, based on assumptions and a list of questions to be answered...
April 2016: Journal of Dental Hygiene: JDH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090559/debiasing-affective-forecasting-errors-with-targeted-but-not-representative-experience-narratives
#19
Victoria A Shaffer, Elizabeth S Focella, Laura D Scherer, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether representative experience narratives (describing a range of possible experiences) or targeted experience narratives (targeting the direction of forecasting bias) can reduce affective forecasting errors, or errors in predictions of experiences. METHODS: In Study 1, participants (N=366) were surveyed about their experiences with 10 common medical events. Those who had never experienced the event provided ratings of predicted discomfort and those who had experienced the event provided ratings of actual discomfort...
October 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26778635/teaching-metacognition-in-clinical-decision-making-using-a-novel-mnemonic-checklist-an-exploratory-study
#20
Keng Sheng Chew, Steven J Durning, Jeroen Jg van Merriënboer
INTRODUCTION: Metacognition is a cognitive debiasing strategy that clinicians can use to deliberately detach themselves from the immediate context of a clinical decision, which allows them to reflect upon the thinking process. However, cognitive debiasing strategies are often most needed when the clinician cannot afford the time to use them. A mnemonic checklist known as TWED (T = threat, W = what else, E = evidence and D = dispositional factors) was recently created to facilitate metacognition...
December 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
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