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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677702/is-the-pelvis-sexually-dimorphic-in-turtles
#1
Gerardo A Cordero
Variation in the pelvis is intrinsically linked to life history evolution. This is perhaps best exemplified by sexually dimorphic pelvic variation in bipedal primates. Yet, whether this trend is applicable to other taxa is unclear. Using turtle anatomy as a model, I tested the hypothesis that the pelvis is also sexually dimorphic in egg-laying tetrapods. I sampled a natural turtle population with female-biased sexual size dimorphism (i.e. larger females). I show that the area of the egg canal (pelvic aperture) is greater in females...
April 20, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677686/bicycle-helmets-to-wear-or-not-to-wear-a-meta-analyses-of-the-effects-of-bicycle-helmets-on-injuries
#2
Alena Høye
A meta-analysis has been conducted of the effects of bicycle helmets on serious head injury and other injuries among crash involved cyclists. 179 effect estimates from 55 studies from 1989-2017 are included in the meta-analysis. The use of bicycle helmets was found to reduce head injury by 48%, serious head injury by 60%, traumatic brain injury by 53%, face injury by 23%, and the total number of killed or seriously injured cyclists by 34%. Bicycle helmets were not found to have any statistically significant effect on cervical spine injury...
April 17, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677603/the-comparative-evidence-basis-for-the-efficacy-of-second-generation-antidepressants-in-the-treatment-of-depression-in-the-us-a-bayesian-meta-analysis-of-food-and-drug-administration-reviews
#3
Rei Monden, Annelieke M Roest, Don van Ravenzwaaij, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Richard Morey, Klaas J Wardenaar, Peter de Jonge
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown similar efficacy of different antidepressants in the treatment of depression. METHOD: Data of phase-2 and -3 clinical-trials for 16 antidepressants (levomilnacipran, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, venlafaxine, paroxetine, escitalopram, vortioxetine, mirtazapine, venlafaxine XR, sertraline, fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine CR, nefazodone, bupropion, vilazodone), approved by the FDA for the treatment of depression between 1987 and 2016, were extracted from the FDA reviews that were used to evaluate efficacy prior to marketing approval, which are less liable to reporting biases...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677551/growth-detection-and-virulence-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-the-presence-of-other-microorganisms-microbial-interactions-from-species-to-strain-level
#4
REVIEW
Evangelia A Zilelidou, Panagiotis N Skandamis
Like with all food microorganisms, many basic aspects of L. monocytogenes life are likely to be influenced by its interactions with bacteria living in close proximity. This pathogenic bacterium is a major concern both for the food industry and health organizations since it is ubiquitous and able to withstand harsh environmental conditions. Due to the ubiquity of Listeria monocytogenes, various strains may contaminate foods at different stages of the supply chain. Consequently, simultaneous exposure of consumers to multiple strains is also possible...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677550/impacts-of-transportation-sector-emissions-on-future-u-s-air-quality-in-a-changing-climate-part-i-projected-emissions-simulation-design-and-model-evaluation
#5
Patrick Campbell, Yang Zhang, Fang Yan, Zifeng Lu, David Streets
Emissions from the transportation sector are rapidly changing worldwide; however, the interplay of such emission changes in the face of climate change are not as well understood. This two-part study examines the impact of projected emissions from the U.S. transportation sector (Part I) on ambient air quality in the face of climate change (Part II). In Part I of this study, we describe the methodology and results of a novel Technology Driver Model (see graphical abstract) that includes 1) transportation emission projections (including on-road vehicles, non-road engines, aircraft, rail, and ship) derived from a dynamic technology model that accounts for various technology and policy options under an IPCC emission scenario, and 2) the configuration/evaluation of a dynamically downscaled Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677521/investigating-the-interplay-between-substrate-stiffness-and-ligand-chemistry-in-directing-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation-within-3d-macro-porous-substrates
#6
Matthew G Haugh, Ted J Vaughan, Christopher M Madl, Rosanne M Raftery, Laoise M McNamara, Fergal J O'Brien, Sarah C Heilshorn
Dimensionality can have a profound impact on stiffness-mediated differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, while we have begun to understand cellular response when encapsulated within 3D substrates, the behavior of cells within macro-porous substrates is relatively underexplored. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of macro-porous topographies on stiffness-mediated differentiation of MSCs. We developed macro-porous recombinant elastin-like protein (ELP) substrates that allow independent control of mechanical properties and ligand chemistry...
April 16, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677339/systematic-misperceptions-of-3-d-motion-explained-by-bayesian-inference
#7
Bas Rokers, Jacqueline M Fulvio, Jonathan W Pillow, Emily A Cooper
People make surprising but reliable perceptual errors. Here, we provide a unified explanation for systematic errors in the perception of three-dimensional (3-D) motion. To do so, we characterized the binocular retinal motion signals produced by objects moving through arbitrary locations in 3-D. Next, we developed a Bayesian model, treating 3-D motion perception as optimal inference given sensory noise in the measurement of retinal motion. The model predicts a set of systematic perceptual errors, which depend on stimulus distance, contrast, and eccentricity...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677321/probing-the-temporal-dynamics-of-the-exploration-exploitation-dilemma-of-eye-movements
#8
Benedikt V Ehinger, Lilli Kaufhold, Peter König
When scanning a visual scene, we are in a constant decision process regarding whether to further exploit the information content at the current fixation or to go on and explore the scene. The balance of these two processes determines the distribution of fixation durations. Using a gaze-contingent paradigm, we experimentally interrupt this process to probe its state. Here, we developed a guided-viewing task where only a single 3° aperture of an image ("bubble") is displayed. Subjects had to fixate the bubble for an experimentally controlled time (forced fixation time)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677301/association-between-baseline-ldl-c-level-and-total-and-cardiovascular-mortality-after-ldl-c-lowering-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Eliano P Navarese, Jennifer G Robinson, Mariusz Kowalewski, Michalina Kolodziejczak, Felicita Andreotti, Kevin Bliden, Udaya Tantry, Jacek Kubica, Paolo Raggi, Paul A Gurbel
Importance: Effects on specific fatal and nonfatal end points appear to vary for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering drug trials. Objective: To evaluate whether baseline LDL-C level is associated with total and cardiovascular mortality risk reductions. Data Sourcesand Study Selection: Electronic databases (Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, TCTMD, ClinicalTrials.gov, major congress proceedings) were searched through February 2, 2018, to identify randomized clinical trials of statins, ezetimibe, and PCSK9-inhibiting monoclonal antibodies...
April 17, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677196/catechol-o-methyltransferase-moderates-effect-of-stress-mindset-on-affect-and-cognition
#10
Alia J Crum, Modupe Akinola, Bradley P Turnwald, Ted J Kaptchuk, Kathryn T Hall
There is evidence that altering stress mindset-the belief that stress is enhancing vs. debilitating-can change cognitive, affective and physiological responses to stress. However individual differences in responsiveness to stress mindset manipulations have not been explored. Given the previously established role of catecholamines in both placebo effects and stress, we hypothesized that genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines, would moderate responses to an intervention intended to alter participants' mindsets about stress...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677113/growing-neural-pc-12-cell-on-crosslinked-silica-aerogels-increases-neurite-extension-in-the-presence-of-an-electric-field
#11
Kyle J Lynch, Omar Skalli, Firouzeh Sabri
Externally applied electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to enhance the nerve regeneration process and to influence the directionality of neurite outgrowth. In addition, the physical and chemical properties of the substrate used for nerve-cell regeneration is critical in fostering regeneration. Previously, we have shown that polyurea-crosslinked silica aerogels (PCSA) exert a positive influence on the extension of neurites by PC-12 cells, a cell-line model widely used to study neurite extension and electrical excitability...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676976/compliance-of-randomized-clinical-trials-in-noncarious-cervical-lesions-with-the-consort-statement-a-systematic-review-of-methodology
#12
A Reis, J L de Geus, L Wambier, M Schroeder, A D Loguercio
The literature was reviewed to evaluate the compliance of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with the CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT ) and the risk of bias of these studies through the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool (CCRT). RCTs were searched at Cochrane Library, PubMed, and other electronic databases to find studies about adhesive systems for cervical lesions. The compliance of the articles with CONSORT was evaluated using the following scale: 0 = no description, 1 = poor description, and 2 = adequate description...
May 2018: Operative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676800/validation-of-an-in-vitro-sun-protection-factor-spf-method-in-blinded-ring-testing
#13
M Pissavini, C Tricaud, G Wiener, A Lauer, M Contier, L Kolbe, C Trullás Cabanas, F Boyer, V Nollent, E Meredith, E Dietrich, P J Matts
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to investigate the utility of a new in vitro SPF test method in blinded ring-testing, against new ISO acceptance criteria. METHODS: 24 blinded, commercial, emulsion-type, primary sunscreen products, covering the full range of labelled SPF in Europe (SPF6 - 50+), were tested by 3 test institutes using the current ISO24444:2010 In Vivo SPF Test Method and simultaneously by 3 separate test laboratories using a new candidate in vitro SPF test method, developed under the leadership of Cosmetics Europe (CE)...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676755/drinking-water-disinfection-by-products-exposure-and-health-effects-on-pregnancy-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#14
Funanani Mashau, Esper Jacobeth Ncube, Kuku Voyi
Epidemiological studies have found that maternal exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) may lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes although the findings tend to be inconsistent. The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence in associated with drinking water DBP exposure in relation to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Peer-reviewed articles were identified using electronic databases searched for studies published in the English language. Studies selected for review were evaluated for exposure assessment, confounders, and analyses risks of bias in the selection, outcomes assessment, and attrition...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676733/deep-uv-narrow-band-photodetector-based-on-ion-beam-synthesized-indium-oxide-quantum-dots-in-al2o3-matrix
#15
Saravanan Rajamani, Kanika Arora, Anton Konakov, Alexey Belov, Dmitry Korolev, Alyona Nikolskaya, Alexey N Mikhaylov, Sergey Surodin, Ruslan Kryukov, Dmitri Nikolichev, Artem Sushkov, Dmitry Pavlov, David Tetelbaum, Mukesh Kumar, Mahesh Kumar
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have attracted tremendous attention owing to their novel electrical and optical properties due to the size dependent quantum confinement effects. This provides an advantage of tunable wavelength detection, which is essential to realize spectrally selective photodetectors. We report the fabrication and characterization of high performance narrow band ultraviolet photodetector (UV-B) based on In2O3 nanocrystals embedded in Al2O3 matrices. The In2O3 nanocrystals are synthesized in Al2O3 matrix by sequential implantation of In+ and N2+ ions and post-implantation annealing...
April 20, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676606/awareness-of-mutational-artefacts-in-suboptimal-dna-samples-possible-risk-for-therapeutic-choices
#16
Sara Mariani, Luca Bertero, Vittoria Coppola, Giorgio Saracco, Alberto Arezzo, Paola Francia di Celle, Jasna Metovic, Caterina Marchiò, Paola Cassoni
BACKGROUND: Technical biases due to PCR artefacts could represent an insidious obstacle for mutational analysis and precision medicine. METHODS: The authors report a retrospective analysis by fast COLD-PCR and sequencing of 31 suboptimal tumor DNA samples obtained from FFPE tissues and liquid biopsies. RESULTS: In FFPE tumor tissues and plasma liquid biopsies of patients with lung and colorectal adenocarcinoma, we observed a significant rate of artefactual KRAS mutations, unveiled by repeated analysis following UDG pretreatment as well as by simple repetition without UDG pretreatment step, thus suggesting a DNA damage different from cytosine deamination...
April 20, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676540/effects-of-omega-3-supplementation-on-adipocytokines-in-prediabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
REVIEW
Tarik Becic, Christian Studenik
BACKGROUND: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effects of omega-3 supplementation on adipocytokine levels in adult prediabetic and diabetic individuals. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Cochrane Trial Register, World Health Organization Clinical Trial Registry Platform, and Clinicaltrial.gov Registry from inception to August 1, 2017 for randomized controlled trials. Pooled effects of interventions were assessed as mean difference using random effects model...
April 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676521/inhibitory-regulation-of-skin-fibrosis-in-systemic-sclerosis-by-apelin-apj-signaling
#18
Yoko Yokoyama, Akiko Sekiguchi, Chisako Fujiwara, Akihiko Uchiyama, Akihito Uehara, Sachiko Ogino, Ryoko Torii, Osamu Ishikawa, Sei-Ichiro Motegi
OBJECTIVE: Apelin/APJ signaling has been identified to regulate cardiac and arterial fibrosis and involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Objective was to elucidate the role of apelin in skin fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Expressions of apelin/APJ in normal and SSc fibroblasts were compared. Effects of siRNA depletion and the addition of apelin in fibroblasts were analyzed. Effect of apelin injections on bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis in mice was investigated...
April 20, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676489/improving-the-echocardiographic-assessment-of-pulmonary-pressure-using-the-tricuspid-regurgitant-signal-the-chin-vs-the-beard
#19
Stephen J Kyranis, Jilani Latona, David Platts, Natalie Kelly, Michael Savage, Martin Brown, Christian Hamilton-Craig, Gregory M Scalia, Darryl Burstow
AIM: Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a fundamental investigation for the noninvasive assessment of pulmonary hemodynamics and right heart function. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation and agreement of Doppler calculation of right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) using "chin" and "beard" measurements of tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRVmax ), with invasive pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and PVR...
April 20, 2018: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676439/oral-and-sublingual-immunotherapy-for-egg-allergy
#20
REVIEW
Olga Romantsik, Maria Angela Tosca, Simona Zappettini, Maria Grazia Calevo
BACKGROUND: Clinical egg allergy is a common food allergy. Current management relies upon strict allergen avoidance. Oral immunotherapy might be an optional treatment, through desensitization to egg allergen. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of oral and sublingual immunotherapy in children and adults with immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated egg allergy as compared to a placebo treatment or an avoidance strategy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched 13 databases for journal articles, conference proceedings, theses and trials registers using a combination of subject headings and text words (last search 31 March 2017)...
April 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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