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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102971/how-is-physical-activity-measured-in-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-outcome-measures-and-their-psychometric-properties
#1
REVIEW
Lara Edbrooke, Linda Denehy, Selina M Parry, Ronan Astin, Sandy Jack, Catherine L Granger
Physical activity (PA) levels are low in patients with lung cancer. Emerging evidence supports the use of interventions to increase PA in this population. We aimed to (1) identify and synthesize outcome measures which assess PA levels in patients with lung cancer and (2) to evaluate, synthesize and compare the psychometric properties of these measures. A systematic review of articles from searches was conducted of five electronic databases and personal records. Eligible studies were those which assessed PA using either performance-based or patient-reported measures...
February 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102934/crosstalk-between-angiotensin-and-the-non-amyloidogenic-pathway-of-alzheimer-s-amyloid-precursor-protein
#2
Anna Maria Kanarek, Annika Wagner, Jim Küppers, Michael Gütschow, Rolf Postina, Elzbieta Kojro
The association between hypertension and an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia is well established. Many data suggest that modulation of the renin-angiotensin system may be meaningful for the prevention and therapy of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular AD. Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by α-secretase precludes formation of neurotoxic Aβ peptides and is expected to counteract the development of AD. An established approach for the up-regulation of α-secretase cleavage is activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)...
January 19, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102899/b-type-natriuretic-peptide-guided-treatment-for-heart-failure
#3
REVIEW
Julie McLellan, Carl J Heneghan, Rafael Perera, Alison M Clements, Paul P Glasziou, Karen E Kearley, Nicola Pidduck, Nia W Roberts, Sally Tyndel, F Lucy Wright, Clare Bankhead
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a condition in which the heart does not pump enough blood to meet all the needs of the body. Symptoms of heart failure include breathlessness, fatigue and fluid retention. Outcomes for patients with heart failure are highly variable; however on average, these patients have a poor prognosis. Prognosis can be improved with early diagnosis and appropriate use of medical treatment, use of devices and transplantation. Patients with heart failure are high users of healthcare resources, not only due to drug and device treatments, but due to high costs of hospitalisation care...
December 22, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102741/tutorial-on-biostatistics-linear-regression-analysis-of-continuous-correlated-eye-data
#4
Gui-Shuang Ying, Maureen G Maguire, Robert Glynn, Bernard Rosner
PURPOSE: To describe and demonstrate appropriate linear regression methods for analyzing correlated continuous eye data. METHODS: We describe several approaches to regression analysis involving both eyes, including mixed effects and marginal models under various covariance structures to account for inter-eye correlation. We demonstrate, with SAS statistical software, applications in a study comparing baseline refractive error between one eye with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and the unaffected fellow eye, and in a study determining factors associated with visual field in the elderly...
January 19, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102582/beliefs-about-the-causes-of-depression-and-recovery-and-their-impact-on-adherence-dosage-and-successful-tapering-of-antidepressants
#5
Nicola S Klein, Gerard D van Rijsbergen, Mascha C Ten Doesschate, Steven D Hollon, Huibert Burger, Claudi L H Bockting
BACKGROUND: Continuation of antidepressant medication (ADM) after remission is widely used to prevent depressive relapse/recurrence. Little is known about predictors of ADM use in terms of adherence, dosage, and successful tapering. The current study aimed to explore beliefs about the causes of depression and recovery (i.e., causal beliefs) and to examine whether they predict ADM use. METHODS: The data were drawn from a controlled trial and an extension of this trial with additional experience sampling...
January 19, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102552/could-urinary-nerve-growth-factor-be-a-biomarker-for-overactive-bladder%C3%A2-a-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Wei Sheng, Hongwei Zhang, Kirschner-Hermanns Ruth
OBJECTIVE: The previously reported association between urinary nerve growth factor (NGF) and overactive bladder (OAB) was controversial. We performed this meta-analysis based on current available studies to sum up all evidence on this association. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library from inception to September 2016. Pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model...
January 19, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102546/ataluren-and-similar-compounds-specific-therapies-for-premature-termination-codon-class-i-mutations-for-cystic-fibrosis
#7
REVIEW
Aisha A Aslam, Colin Higgins, Ian P Sinha, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a common life-shortening genetic disorder in the Caucasian population (less common in other ethnic groups) caused by the mutation of a single gene that codes for the production of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. This protein coordinates the transport of salt (and bicarbonate) across cell surfaces and the mutation most notably affects the airways. In the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, defective protein results in a dehydrated surface liquid and compromised mucociliary clearance...
January 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102489/genetic-variants-and-anterior-cruciate-ligament-rupture-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Mustafa Kaynak, Frank Nijman, Joyce van Meurs, Max Reijman, Duncan E Meuffels
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a familial predisposition for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and have been followed by genetic-association studies on polymorphisms in candidate genes in recent years. To date, no systematic review with a best-evidence synthesis has evaluated the influence of genetics on this devastating knee injury. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the association between genetic variants and ACL rupture. METHODS: We performed an extensive search in Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed Publisher, Cochrane Register of Clinical Trials, and Google scholar up to 24 August 2015...
January 19, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102448/development-of-a-new-assessment-tool-for-cervical-myelopathy-using-hand-tracking-sensor-part-1-validity-and-reliability
#9
M Abdulhadi Alagha, Mahmoud A Alagha, Eleanor Dunstan, Olaf Sperwer, Kate A Timmins, Bronek M Boszczyk
PURPOSE: To assess the reliability and validity of a hand motion sensor, Leap Motion Controller (LMC), in the 15-s hand grip-and-release test, as compared against human inspection of an external digital camera recording. METHODS: Fifty healthy participants were asked to fully grip-and-release their dominant hand as rapidly as possible for two trials with a 10-min rest in-between, while wearing a non-metal wrist splint. Each test lasted for 15 s, and a digital camera was used to film the anterolateral side of the hand on the first test...
January 19, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102361/effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-different-recommended-doses-of-ppis-and-h2ras-in-gerd-network-meta-analysis-and-grade-system
#10
Chao Zhang, Joey S W Kwong, Rui-Xia Yuan, Hao Chen, Chang Xu, Yi-Pin Wang, Gong-Li Yang, Jin-Zhu Yan, Le Peng, Xian-Tao Zeng, Hong Weng, Jie Luo, Yu-Ming Niu
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are used for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, the clinical evidence for treatment is poor. We evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of different doses of PPIs, H2RAs and placebo in adults with GERD. Six online databases were searched through September 1, 2016. All related articles were included and combined with a Bayesian network meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The GRADE systems were employed to assess the main outcome...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102282/trump-s-vaccine-commission-idea-is-biased-and-dangerous
#11
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102210/is-sex-bias-orchestrated-in-the-skin
#12
Aridaman Pandit, Linde Meyaard, Timothy R D J Radstake
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102073/estimates-of-health-impacts-and-radiative-forcing-in-winter-haze-in-eastern-china-through-constraints-of-surface-pm2-5-predictions
#13
Meng Gao, Pablo E Saide, Jinyuan Xin, Yuesi Wang, Zirui Liu, Yuxuan Wang, Zifa Wang, Mariusz Pagowski, Sarath K Guttikunda, Gregory R Carmichael
The Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) Three-Dimensional Variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system is extended to treat the MOSAIC aerosol model in WRF-Chem, and to be capable of assimilating surface PM2.5 concentrations. The coupled GSI-WRF-Chem system is applied to reproduce aerosol levels over China during an extremely polluted winter month, January 2013. After assimilating surface PM2.5 concentrations, the correlation coefficients between observations and model results averaged over the assimilated sites are improved from 0...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101951/rigidity-and-flexibility-in-the-tetrasaccharide-linker-of-proteoglycans-from-atomic-resolution-molecular-simulation
#14
Cathy Ng, Padmavathy Nandha Premnath, Olgun Guvench
Proteoglycans (PGs) are covalent conjugates between protein and carbohydrate (glycosaminoglycans). Certain classes of glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate utilize a specific tetrasaccharide linker for attachment to the protein component: GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-3Galβ1-4Xylβ1-O-Ser. Toward understanding the conformational preferences of this linker, the present work used all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with Adaptive Biasing Force (ABF) sampling to determine high-resolution, high-precision conformational free energy maps ΔG(φ, ψ) for each glycosidic linkage between constituent disaccharides, including the variant where GlcA is substituted with IdoA...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101895/on-the-rarity-of-dioecy-in-flowering-plants
#15
Jos Käfer, Gabriel A B Marais, John R Pannell
Dioecy, the co-existence of separate male and female individuals in a population, is a rare but phylogenetically widespread sexual system in flowering plants. While research has concentrated on why and how dioecy evolves from hermaphroditism, the question of why dioecy is rare, despite repeated transitions to it, has received much less attention. Previous phylogenetic and theoretical studies have suggested that dioecy might be an evolutionary dead end. However, recent research indicates that the phylogenetic support for this hypothesis is attributable to a methodological bias, and that there is no evidence for reduced diversification in dioecious angiosperms...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101761/the-sg13s114-polymorphism-of-the-alox5ap-gene-is-associated-with-ischemic-stroke-in-europeans-a-meta-analysis-of-8062-subjects
#16
Zhongjun Chen, Jinyu Zheng, Wenguang Liu, Kun Yang, Kai Li, Baosheng Huang, Ronglan Zhu, Xiaocheng Lu, Lixin Li
The association between ALOX5AP SG13S114 polymorphism and ischemic stroke (IS) susceptibility has extensively been investigated, especially in white populations; however, the results were inconclusive. Here, we perform a meta-analysis to clarify the effect of SG13S114 variant on the IS risk in Europeans. The Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, and Medline were searched up to August 1st, 2016. Data were extracted and the odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by a fixed-effects or random-effects model...
January 18, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101729/air-pollution-and-successful-aging-recent-evidence-and-new-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Gali Cohen, Yariv Gerber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Worldwide demographic changes occurring in a relatively short period have led to a growing interest in the determinants of aging "successfully" and how to promote a healthier old age. As environmental exposures such as ambient air pollution are believed to play a role in the process of aging, they might represent one of the pathways turning potential successful agers to unsuccessful agers. We aimed to critically review the current epidemiological evidence of the associations between chronic exposure to ambient air pollution and several key determinants of unsuccessful aging and to identify specific populations of unsuccessful agers that are potentially more vulnerable to air pollution's health effects...
January 18, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101722/the-effect-of-antibiotic-coated-sutures-on-the-incidence-of-surgical-site-infections-in-abdominal-closures-a-meta-analysis
#18
Basheer Elsolh, Lisa Zhang, Sunil V Patel
OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aims to determine if antibiotic-impregnated sutures for abdominal fascial closure prevent postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs), hernias, and/or dehiscence. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (1946-2016) were searched. Randomized controlled trials comparing antibiotic-impregnated sutures to standard sutures for abdominal closure were eligible. Risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane Handbooks definitions. RESULTS: Four-hundred fifty articles were reviewed; five eligible studies (N = 3117) were identified...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101676/patterns-of-statin-initiation-and-continuation-in-patients-with-breast-or-colorectal-cancer-towards-end-of-life
#19
Amelia Smith, Laura Murphy, Kathleen Bennett, Thomas I Barron
PURPOSE: Cross-sectional studies show that statins, used in cardiovascular disease prevention, are often discontinued approaching death. Studies investigating associations between statin exposure and cancer outcomes, not accounting for these exposure changes, are prone to reverse causation bias. The aim of this study was to describe longitudinally the changes in statin initiation and continuation prior to death in patients with breast or colorectal cancer, thus establishing an appropriate exposure lag time...
January 18, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101630/association-between-sleep-apnea-and-low-bone-mass-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
H Eimar, H Saltaji, S Ghorashi, D Isfeld, J E MacLean, D Gozal, D Graf, C Flores-Mir
: We performed a systematic review of the literature to assess the association between sleep apnea and bone metabolism diseases including osteoporosis in adult population. Results from clinical trials suggest that the association between sleep apnea and low bone mass in adults is possible. INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to synthesize existing evidence on the potential association between sleep apnea and low bone mass in adults. METHODS: Electronic searches of five databases were performed...
January 18, 2017: Osteoporosis International
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