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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045987/perspectives-of-family-medicine-clerkship-directors-regarding-forward-feeding-a-cera-study
#1
Lisa D Mims, Alexei O DeCastro, Ann G Kelly
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Forward feeding signifies sharing information about learners for purposes of professional and academic advancement, and promotes progression toward a competency-based educational continuum. The aim of this study is to assess reasons for difficulty or failure of the family medicine clerkship and investigate utilization and methods of forward feeding. Reasons behind medical school policies regarding forward feeding are also evaluated. METHODS: Data were collected through the 2013 Council of Academic Family Medicine (CAFM) Educational Research Alliance (CERA) Family Medicine Clerkship Director survey...
October 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045850/comparison-of-conventional-2d-ultrasound-to-mr-imaging-for-prenatal-estimation-of-birth-weight-in-twin-pregnancy
#2
Caroline Kadji, Elisa Bevilacqua, Ivan Hurtado, Andrew Carlin, Mieke M Cannie, Jacques C Jani
BACKGROUND: During prenatal follow-up of twin pregnancies, accurate identification of birthweight and birthweight discordance is important in order to identify the high risk group and plan perinatal care. Unfortunately prenatal evaluation of birthweight discordance by 2-dimensional ultrasound (US) has been far from optimal. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively compare estimates of fetal weight based on 2-dimensional US (US-EFW) and MR imaging (MR-EFW) to actual birth weight in women carrying twin pregnancies...
October 15, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045765/oral-anti-diabetic-agents-for-women-with-established-diabetes-impaired-glucose-tolerance-or-previous-gestational-diabetes-planning-pregnancy-or-pregnant-women-with-pre-existing-diabetes
#3
REVIEW
Joanna Tieu, Suzette Coat, William Hague, Philippa Middleton, Emily Shepherd
BACKGROUND: While most guidance recommends the use of insulin in women whose pregnancies are affected by pre-existing diabetes, oral anti-diabetic agents may be more acceptable to women. The effects of these oral anti-diabetic agents on maternal and infant health outcomes need to be established in pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, as well as in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus preconceptionally or during a subsequent pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of oral anti-diabetic agents in women with established diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or previous gestational diabetes who are planning a pregnancy, or pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes, on maternal and infant health...
October 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045721/selection-bias-in-the-assessment-of-frailty-and-its-role-in-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-evaluation-among-elderly-adults
#4
Danuta M Skowronski, Catharine Chambers, Gaston De Serres
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045667/survey-of-reproductive-experiences-and-outcomes-of-cancer-survivors-who-stored-reproductive-material-before-treatment
#5
K Hammarberg, M Kirkman, C Stern, R I McLachlan, G Clarke, F Agresta, D Gook, L Rombauts, B Vollenhoven, J R W Fishe
STUDY QUESTION: What are the reproductive experiences and outcomes of people who store reproductive material before cancer treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: Of respondents who had tried to achieve pregnancy since completing cancer treatment almost all had succeeded, in most cases through natural conception. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: People of reproductive age who are diagnosed with cancer can cryopreserve reproductive material to guard against the adverse effects on fertility of gonadotoxic treatment...
October 17, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045655/determinants-of-the-efficacy-of-natural-selection-on-coding-and-noncoding-variability-in-two-passerine-species
#6
Pádraic Corcoran, Toni I Gossmann, Henry J Barton, Jon Slate, Kai Zeng
Population genetic theory predicts that selection should be more effective when the effective population size (Ne) is larger, and that the efficacy of selection should correlate positively with recombination rate. Here, we analysed the genomes of 10 great tits and 10 zebra finches. Nucleotide diversity at 4-fold degenerate sites indicates that zebra finches have a 2.83-fold larger Ne. We obtained clear evidence that purifying selection is more effective in zebra finches. The proportion of substitutions at 0-fold degenerate sites fixed by positive selection (α) is high in both species (great tit 48%; zebra finch 64%) and is significantly higher in zebra finches...
October 17, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045650/association-between-race-and-receipt-of-counselling-or-medication-for-smoking-cessation-in-primary-care
#7
Denise R Hooks-Anderson, Joanne Salas, Scott Secrest, Sarah Skiöld-Hanlin, Jeffrey F Scherrer
Background: Previous evidence of race disparities in smoking cessation treatment has been limited to mostly survey studies which increase the potential for recall bias. We examined if African American versus white patients in primary care are less likely to receive any treatment or if race disparities are specific to the type of treatment offered using data pulled from a large electronic health record system. Methods: Medical record data from 3510 white and 2707 African American patients were available from primary care encounters between 2008 and 2015 and was used to define smoking status, cessation treatments (counselling and medication), and covariates...
October 14, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045602/does-routinely-collected-patient-reported-outcome-data-represent-the-actual-case-mix-of-elective-coronary-revascularization-patients
#8
Salla Oinasmaa, Jari Heiskanen, Juha Hartikainen, Mikko Hippeläinen, Heikki Miettinen, Janne Martikainen, Risto P Roine, Anna-Maija Tolppanen
Aims: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are valuable for effectiveness evaluation, but it is unknown whether the patient views obtained represent the actual case mix. We studied the representativeness of the responses obtained to a routinely administered health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaire in a cardiology unit. Methods and results: Elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG; N = 404) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI; N = 738) patients operated during 6/2012-8/2014 in the Heart Center, Kuopio University Hospital...
October 13, 2017: European Heart Journal. Quality of Care & Clinical Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045595/performance-of-apanteles-hemara-hymenoptera-braconidae-on-two-amaranth-leaf-webbers-spoladea-recurvalis-and-udea-ferrugalis-lepidoptera-crambidae
#9
S T O Othim, K M Agbodzavu, R Kahuthia-Gathu, K S Akutse, S Muchemi, S Ekesi, K K M Fiaboe
Amaranth is an African indigenous vegetable that is gaining popularity due to its nutritional, medicinal, and economic values. In East Africa, frequent outbreaks of Lepidopteran leaf-webbers, Spoladea recurvalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Udea ferrugalis Hübner (1976) are reported on this crop, causing up to 100% foliage loss. The larval endoparasitoid Apanteles hemara Nixon is also frequently found associated with these pests during the outbreaks, however, its performance on both pests has never been documented...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045478/camera-trap-placement-and-the-potential-for-bias-due-to-trails-and-other-features
#10
Joseph M Kolowski, Tavis D Forrester
Camera trapping has become an increasingly widespread tool for wildlife ecologists, with large numbers of studies relying on photo capture rates or presence/absence information. It is increasingly clear that camera placement can directly impact this kind of data, yet these biases are poorly understood. We used a paired camera design to investigate the effect of small-scale habitat features on species richness estimates, and capture rate and detection probability of several mammal species in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, USA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045458/individual-differences-in-responsivity-to-social-rewards-insights-from-two-eye-tracking-tasks
#11
Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Anthony Haffey, Loredana Canzano, Christopher P Taylor, Eugene McSorley
Humans generally prefer social over nonsocial stimuli from an early age. Reduced preference for social rewards has been observed in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). This preference has typically been noted in separate tasks that measure orienting toward and engaging with social stimuli. In this experiment, we used two eye-tracking tasks to index both of these aspects of social preference in in 77 typical adults. We used two measures, global effect and preferential looking time. The global effect task measures saccadic deviation toward a social stimulus (related to 'orienting'), while the preferential looking task records gaze duration bias toward social stimuli (relating to 'engaging')...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045427/more-or-less-on-the-influence-of-labelling-strategies-to-infer-cell-population-dynamics
#12
Michael Gabel, Roland R Regoes, Frederik Graw
The adoptive transfer of labelled cell populations has been an essential tool to determine and quantify cellular dynamics. The experimental methods to label and track cells over time range from fluorescent dyes over congenic markers towards single-cell labelling techniques, such as genetic barcodes. While these methods have been widely used to quantify cell differentiation and division dynamics, the extent to which the applied labelling strategy actually affects the quantification of the dynamics has not been determined so far...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045283/timing-of-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-risk-of-preterm-birth-in-studies-of-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-the-role-of-selection-bias
#13
Marie C D Stoner, Stephen R Cole, Joan Price, Jennifer Winston, Jeff S A Stringer
BACKGROUND: Women who initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy are reported to have lower risk of preterm birth compared to those who enter pregnancy care already receiving ART. We hypothesize this association can be largely attributed to selection bias. METHODS: We simulated a cohort of 1000 preconceptional, HIV-infected women, where half were randomly allocated to receive immediate ART and half to delay ART until their presentation for pregnancy care...
October 16, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045045/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-in-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-preclinical-studies
#14
Sajit Augustine, Marc T Avey, Brittany Harrison, Tiffany Locke, Mona Ghannad, David Moher, Bernard Thébaud
Extreme prematurity is the leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age. Currently, there is no treatment for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the most common complication of extreme prematurity. Experimental studies in animal models of BPD suggest that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are lung protective. To date, no systematic review and meta-analysis has evaluated the preclinical evidence of this promising therapy. Our protocol was registered with Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies prior to searching MEDLINE (1946 to June 1, 2015), Embase (1947 to 2015 Week 22), Pubmed, Web of Science, and conference proceedings (1990 to present) for controlled comparative studies of neonatal animal models that received MSCs or cell free MSC-derived conditioned media (MSC-CM)...
October 17, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044993/intra-articular-hyaluronic-acid-injection-in-treating-knee-osteoarthritis-assessing-risk-of-bias-in-systematic-reviews-with-robis-tool
#15
Dan Xing, Bin Wang, Wei Zhang, Ziyi Yang, Yunfei Hou, Yaolong Chen, Jianhao Lin
OBJECTIVES: Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) is a common, yet controversial therapeutic option in treating knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of the present study was to assess the risk of bias (RoB) of systematic reviews (SRs) and to summarize available evidence of HA in treating knee OA. METHODS: A systematic search of SRs published through to December 2016 was conducted using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. The RoB of included SRs was assessed by ROBIS tool...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044903/native-t1-mapping-for-characterization-of-acute-and-chronic-myocardial-infarction-in-swine-comparison-with-contrast-enhanced-mri
#16
Xi Liu, Jiang-Long Hou, Zhi-Gang Yang, Chun-Chao Xia, Lin-Jun Xie, Peng-Fei Ye, Wan-Lin Peng, Lei Li, Meng-Xi Yang, Ying-Kun Guo
BACKGROUND: Both acute and chronic myocardial infarction (AMI and CMI, respectively) exhibit delayed enhancement; however, clinical decision-making processes frequently require the differentiation of these two types of myocardial injury. PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of AMI and CMI characterization using native T1 mapping and its feasibility for discriminating AMI from CMI. STUDY TYPE: Case-control. ANIMAL MODEL: The study cohort comprised 12 AMI (mean post-MI, 3...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044897/a-comparison-of-dietary-estimates-from-the-national-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-health-survey-to-food-and-beverage-purchase-data
#17
Emma McMahon, Thomas Wycherley, Kerin O'Dea, Julie Brimblecombe
OBJECTIVE: We compared self-reported dietary intake from the very remote sample of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (VR-NATSINPAS; n=1,363) to one year of food and beverage purchases from 20 very remote Indigenous Australian communities (servicing ∼8,500 individuals). METHODS: Differences in food (% energy from food groups) and nutrients were analysed using t-test with unequal variance. RESULTS: Per-capita energy estimates were not significantly different between the surveys (899 MJ/person/day [95% confidence interval -152,1950] p=0...
October 18, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044814/determination-of-the-optimal-depth-of-a-left-internal-jugular-venous-catheter-in-infants-a-prospective-observational-study
#18
Ji-Hyun Lee, Hyo-Jin Byon, Yoon-Hyeong Choi, In-Kyung Song, Jin-Tae Kim, Hee-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Few reports exist regarding the optimal depth of a left-sided central venous catheter in pediatric patients. We aimed to provide a guideline for the optimal depth of central venous catheters at the left internal jugular vein in infants, using anatomical landmarks, age, height, and weight. METHODS: A two-stage study was conducted. In the first observational study, infants aged ≤1 year and scheduled for elective surgery requiring a central venous catheter were enrolled...
October 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044796/social-traits-social-networks-and-evolutionary-biology
#19
David N Fisher, Andrew G McAdam
The social environment is both an important agent of selection for most organisms, and an emergent property of their interactions. As an aggregation of interactions among members of a population, the social environment is a product of many sets of relationships, and so can be represented as a network or matrix. Social network analysis in animals has focused on why these networks possess the structure they do, and whether individuals' network traits, representing some aspect of their social phenotype, relate to their fitness...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044780/-hot-versus-cold-behavioral-cognitive-styles-motivational-dopaminergic-versus-cognitive-cholinergic-processing-of-a-pavlovian-cocaine-cue-in-sign-and-goal-tracking-rats
#20
Kyle K Pitchers, Louisa F Kane, Youngsoo Kim, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
Discrete Pavlovian reward cues acquire more potent incentive motivational properties (incentive salience), in some animals (sign-trackers; STs) compared to others (goal trackers; GTs). Conversely, GTs appear to be better than STs in processing more complex contextual cues, perhaps reflecting their relatively greater bias for goal-directed cue processing. Here we investigated the activity of two major prefrontal neuromodulatory input systems, dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh), in response to a discrete Pavlovian cue that was previously paired with cocaine administration in STs and GTs...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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