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Cognitive Error

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334237/safety-of-working-patterns-among-uk-neuroradiologists-what-can-we-learn-from-the-aviation-industry-and-cognitive-science
#1
John Reicher, Stuart Currie, Daniel Birchall
As the volume and complexity of imaging in the UK continues to rise, there is pressure on radiologists to spend increasing lengths of time reporting to cope with the growing workload. However, there is limited guidance for radiologists about structuring the working day to achieve the necessary balance between satisfactory reporting volume and maintaining quality and safety. We surveyed 86 Neuroradiologists (receiving 59 responses), regarding time spent reporting, frequency and duration of work breaks, and break activities...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333611/cognitive-dysfunction-after-generalized-tonic-clonic-status-epilepticus-in-adults
#2
K N Power, A Gramstad, N E Gilhus, K O Hufthammer, B A Engelsen
OBJECTIVES: Generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus (GTC-SE) is considered a risk for cognitive impairment. Research with standardized tools is scarce and non-conclusive. We systematically assessed short-term and long-term cognitive function after GTC-SE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients were tested after the clinical post-ictal phase of GTC-SE (timepoint 1) and again after 1 year (timepoint 2). Twenty controls were examined with the same tests...
January 14, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333531/patient-reported-outcome-measures-prom-as-a-preoperative-assessment-tool
#3
Sunghye Kim, Pamela W Duncan, Leanne Groban, Hannah Segal, Rica Moonyeen Abbott, Jeff D Williamson
Aim of review: Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) on functional, social, and behavioral factors might be important preoperative predictors of postoperative outcomes. We conducted a literature review to explore associations of preoperative depression, socioeconomic status, social support, functional status/frailty, cognitive status, self-management skills, health literacy, and nutritional status with surgical outcomes. Methods: Two electronic data bases, including PubMed and Google Scholar, were searched linking either depression, socioeconomic status, social support, functional status/frailty, cognitive status, self-management skills, health literacy, or nutritional status with surgery, postoperative complications, or perioperative period within the past 2 decades...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332050/supplemental-retinal-carotenoids-enhance-memory-in-healthy-individuals-with-low-levels-of-macular-pigment-in-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Rebecca Power, Robert F Coen, Stephen Beatty, Riona Mulcahy, Rachel Moran, Jim Stack, Alan N Howard, John M Nolan
BACKGROUND: There is a biologically plausible rationale whereby the dietary carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), which are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP) in the central retina (macula), support the maintenance of cognition via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of supplemental L, Z, and MZ on memory, executive function, and verbal fluency among healthy individuals with low MP levels...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331842/predicting-1-year-disability-and-mortality-of-injured-older-adults
#5
Alvin D Jeffery, Mary S Dietrich, Cathy A Maxwell
PURPOSE: The growing incidence of elderly patients injured from falls, combined with a growing understanding of the contribution of cognition and frailty to mortality, prompted this work. Our objective was to develop a clinical risk prediction model for prognosticating disability and mortality among injured older adults 1 year after hospitalization. METHODS: Secondary analysis of prospective longitudinal data from an urban Level 1 trauma center. A proportional odds regression model was used to model mortality and functional status as ordinal outcomes...
January 6, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331446/intolerance-of-uncertainty-neural-and-psychophysiological-correlates-of-the-perception-of-uncertainty-as-threatening
#6
REVIEW
Ema Tanovic, Dylan G Gee, Jutta Joormann
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) reflects the perception of uncertainty as threatening, regardless of the true probability of threat. IU is elevated in various forms of psychopathology, uniquely associated with anxiety and depression symptoms after controlling for related constructs, and prospectively predicts symptoms. Given the ubiquity of uncertainty in daily life and the clinical implications of IU, recent work has begun to investigate the neural and psychophysiological correlates of IU. This review summarizes the existing literature and integrates findings within a mechanistic neural model of responding to uncertainty...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331204/a-cognitive-model-for-multidigit-number-reading-inferences-from-individuals-with-selective-impairments
#7
Dror Dotan, Naama Friedmann
We propose a detailed cognitive model of multi-digit number reading. The model postulates separate processes for visual analysis of the digit string and for oral production of the verbal number. Within visual analysis, separate sub-processes encode the digit identities and the digit order, and additional sub-processes encode the number's decimal structure: its length, the positions of 0, and the way it is parsed into triplets (e.g., 314987 → 314,987). Verbal production consists of a process that generates the verbal structure of the number, and another process that retrieves the phonological forms of each number word...
November 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329978/data-quality-over-data-quantity-in-computational-cognitive-neuroscience
#8
Antonio Kolossa, Bruno Kopp
We analyzed factors that may hamper the advancement of computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN). These factors include a particular statistical mindset, which paves the way for the dominance of statistical power theory and a preoccupation with statistical replicability in the behavioral and neural sciences. Exclusive statistical concerns about sampling error occur at the cost of an inadequate representation of the problem of measurement error. We contrasted the manipulation of data quantity (sampling error, by varying the number of subjects) against the manipulation of data quality (measurement error, by varying the number of data per subject) in a simulated Bayesian model identifiability study...
January 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324862/taking-two-to-tango-fmri-analysis-of-improvised-joint-action-with-physical-contact
#9
Léa A S Chauvigné, Michel Belyk, Steven Brown
Many forms of joint action involve physical coupling between the participants, such as when moving a sofa together or dancing a tango. We report the results of a novel two-person functional MRI study in which trained couple dancers engaged in bimanual contact with an experimenter standing next to the bore of the magnet, and in which the two alternated between being the leader and the follower of joint improvised movements. Leading showed a general pattern of self-orientation, being associated with brain areas involved in motor planning, navigation, sequencing, action monitoring, and error correction...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322470/associations-between-the-drug-burden-index-potentially-inappropriate-medications-and-quality-of-life-in-residential-aged-care
#10
Stephanie L Harrison, Lisa Kouladjian O'Donnell, Clare E Bradley, Rachel Milte, Suzanne M Dyer, Emmanuel S Gnanamanickam, Enwu Liu, Sarah N Hilmer, Maria Crotty
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate polypharmacy may negatively impact the quality of life of residents in aged care facilities, but it remains unclear which medications may influence this reduced quality of life. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine whether the Drug Burden Index and potentially inappropriate medications were associated with quality of life in older adults living in residential care with a high prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia...
January 11, 2018: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321468/length-of-stay-and-functional-outcomes-among-patients-with-stroke-discharged-from-an-inpatient-rehabilitation-facility-in-saudi-arabia
#11
Saad M Bindawas, Vishal Vennu, Hussam Mawajdeh, Hisham M Alhaidary, Emad Moftah
BACKGROUND In many countries, the length of stay (LOS) for inpatient rehabilitation following stroke has gradually decreased. It is unclear whether this trend is associated with differences in functional outcomes, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to examine associations between LOS and functional outcomes among patients with stroke discharged from an inpatient rehabilitation facility in Saudi Arabia. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study included all patients (N=409) aged ≥18 years who were admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation for stroke during 2008-2014...
January 11, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318855/-effects-of-acupuncture-at-shenmen-ht-7-on-brainwaves-and-cognitive-ability-in-rats-with-sleep-deprivation
#12
Jia Li, Jiao-Ping Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of acupuncture at "Shenmen" (HT 7) on brainwaves and cognitive ability in rats with sleep deprivation. METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, acupuncture group and sham acupuncture group, 15 rats in each group. Insomnia model rats were established by sleep deprivation for 72 hours. Acupuncture was applied to acupuncture group at bilateral "Shenmen" (HT 7) for 20 min, once daily for 7 days. Rats in the sham acupuncture group received superficial insertion of 1 mm and without retaining needle...
December 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317467/evaluating-team-decision-making-as-an-emergent-phenomenon
#13
John Kinnear, Nick Wilson, Anthony O'Dwyer
BACKGROUND: The complexity of modern clinical practice has highlighted the fallibility of individual clinicians' decision-making, with effective teamwork emerging as a key to patient safety. Dual process theory is widely accepted as a framework for individual decision-making, with type 1 processes responsible for fast, intuitive and automatic decisions and type 2 processes for slow, analytical decisions. However, dual process theory does not explain cognition at the group level, when individuals act in teams...
January 9, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317224/determining-reliability-of-a-dual-task-functional-mobility-protocol-for-individuals-with-lower-extremity-amputations
#14
Courtney Frengopoulos, Michael Wc Payne, Jeffrey Holmes, Ricardo Viana, Susan W Hunter
OBJECTIVES: To determine the relative and absolute reliability of a dual-task functional mobility assessment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Academic Rehabilitation Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty individuals with lower extremity amputation (LEA) attending an outpatient amputee clinic (age= 58.21±12.59; 80.0% male). Subjects were stratified into three groups: 1) transtibial amputations of vascular etiology (TTA-vas), transtibial amputations of non-vascular etiology (TTA-nonvas); transfemoral or bilateral amputees (TFA/bilat) of any etiology...
January 6, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316782/validation-of-the-conversion-between-the-mini-mental-state-examination-and-montreal-cognitive-assessment-in-korean-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Ryul Kim, Han-Joon Kim, Aryun Kim, Mi-Hee Jang, Hyun Jeong Kim, Beomseok Jeon
Objective: Two conversion tables between the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) have recently been established for Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to validate them in Korean patients with PD and to evaluate whether they could be influenced by educational level. Methods: A total of 391 patients with PD who undertook both the Korean MMSE and the Korean MoCA during the same session were retrospectively assessed...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316244/hemispatial-neglect-and-serial-order-in-verbal-working-memory
#16
Sophie Antoine, Mariagrazia Ranzini, Jean-Philippe van Dijck, Hichem Slama, Mario Bonato, Ann Tousch, Myrtille Dewulf, Jean-Christophe Bier, Wim Gevers
Working memory refers to our ability to actively maintain and process a limited amount of information during a brief period of time. Often, not only the information itself but also its serial order is crucial for good task performance. It was recently proposed that serial order is grounded in spatial cognition. Here, we compared performance of a group of right hemisphere-damaged patients with hemispatial neglect to healthy controls in verbal working memory tasks. Participants memorized sequences of consonants at span level and had to judge whether a target consonant belonged to the memorized sequence (item task) or whether a pair of consonants were presented in the same order as in the memorized sequence (order task)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313245/effect-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-on-cognitive-function-and-covert-hepatic-encephalopathy-diagnosis-in-cirrhotic-veterans
#17
Thomas K Burroughs, James B Wade, Michael S Ellwood, Andrew Fagan, Douglas M Heuman, Michael Fuchs, Jasmohan S Bajaj
BACKGROUND: In veterans, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often associated with substance abuse, which in turn can lead to cirrhosis. Cirrhotic patients are prone to cognitive impairment, which is typically due to covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE), but can also be affected by PTSD. The aim was to define the impact of PTSD on cognitive performance and the diagnosis of CHE in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Outpatient veterans with cirrhosis underwent two separate modalities for CHE cognitive testing [Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Scale (PHES) and Inhibitory Control Test (ICT)]...
January 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307670/validity-and-comprehensibility-of-outcome-measures-in-children-with-shoulder-and-elbow-disorders-creation-of-a-new-pediatric-and-adolescent-shoulder-and-elbow-survey-pedi-ases
#18
Benton Heyworth, Lara Cohen, Johan von Heideken, Mininder S Kocher, Maura Daly Iversen
BACKGROUND: Valid patient-reported outcomes (PROs) for the shoulder and elbow do not exist for children. We assessed children's comprehension of the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) standardized shoulder assessment form, identified response errors, and modified items to create a new pediatric shoulder and elbow PRO. METHODS: We recruited 50 children (aged 10-18 years) with shoulder or elbow disorders from a children's hospital-based orthopedic clinic for this qualitative study...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304418/cortical-sources-of-resting-state-electroencephalographic-rhythms-probe-brain-function-in-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-individuals
#19
Claudio Babiloni, Giuseppe Noce, Alfredo Pennica, Paolo Onorati, Paolo Capotosto, Claudio Del Percio, Paolo Roma, Valentina Correr, Elisa Piccinni, Ginevra Toma, Andrea Soricelli, Francesco Di Campli, Laura Gianserra, Lorenzo Ciullini, Antonio Aceti, Elisabetta Teti, Loredana Sarmati, Gloria Crocetti, Raffaele Ferri, Valentina Catania, Maria Teresa Pascarelli, Massimo Andreoni, Stefano Ferracuti
OBJECTIVE: Here we evaluated the hypothesis that resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) cortical sources correlated with cognitive functions and discriminated asymptomatic treatment-naïve HIV subjects (no AIDS). METHODS: EEG, clinical, and neuropsychological data were collected in 103 treatment-naïve HIV subjects (88 males; mean age 39.8 years ± 1.1 standard error of the mean, SE). An age-matched group of 70 cognitively normal and HIV-negative (Healthy; 56 males; 39...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298104/associations-between-mild-cognitive-dysfunction-and-end-of-life-outcomes-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#20
Keiko Kurita, M Cary Reid, Eugenia L Siegler, Eli L Diamond, Holly G Prigerson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive function of patients with advanced cancer is frequently compromised. OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent that patients' cognitive screening scores was associated with their end-of-life (EoL) treatment preferences, advance care planning (ACP), and care. DESIGN: Patients were interviewed at baseline and administered a cognitive screen. Caregivers completed a postmortem assessment. SETTING/SUBJECTS: Patients with distant metastases and disease progression after first-line chemotherapy and their caregivers (n = 609) were recruited from outpatient clinics and completed baseline and postmortem assessments...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
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