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Cognitive Error

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166220/does-the-cognitive-reflection-test-actually-capture-heuristic-versus-analytic-reasoning-styles-in-older-adults
#1
Christopher Hertzog, R Marit Smith, Robert Ariel
Background/Study Context: This study evaluated adult age differences in the original three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 25-42) and an expanded seven-item version of that test (Toplak et al., 2013, Thinking and Reasoning, 20, 147-168). The CRT is a numerical problem-solving test thought to capture a disposition towards either rapid, intuition-based problem solving (Type I reasoning) or a more thoughtful, analytical problem-solving approach (Type II reasoning)...
November 22, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165049/are-latent-variable-models-preferable-to-composite-score-approaches-when-assessing-risk-factors-of-change-evaluation-of-type-i-error-and-statistical-power-in-longitudinal-cognitive-studies
#2
Cécile Proust-Lima, Viviane Philipps, Jean-François Dartigues, David A Bennett, M Maria Glymour, Hélène Jacqmin-Gadda, Cécilia Samieri
As with many health constructs, cognition is difficult to measure accurately; it is assessed by multiple psychometric tests. Two approaches are commonly adopted to address this multivariate aspect in longitudinal analyses: the composite score approach summarizes the tests into a single outcome and subsequently analyzes its change; the multivariate approach relates the tests to the underlying cognitive level and simultaneously analyzes its change. We compared the quality of inference of these approaches in a simulation study based on three combinations of tests inspired by two population-based cohorts...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163114/interaction-between-bdnf-polymorphism-and-physical-activity-on-inhibitory-performance-in-the-elderly-without-cognitive-impairment
#3
Anne Canivet, Cédric T Albinet, Montserrat Rodríguez-Ballesteros, Christian Chicherio, Delphine Fagot, Nathalie André, Michel Audiffren
Background: In the elderly, physical activity (PA) enhances cognitive performances, increases brain plasticity and improves brain health. The neurotrophic hypothesis is that the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is implicated in brain plasticity and cognition, is triggered by PA because motoneurons secrete BDNF into the bloodstream during exercise. Individual differences in cognitive performance may be explained by individual differences in genetic predisposition. A single nucleotide polymorphism on the BDNF gene, BDNFVal66Met, affects activity-dependent BDNF secretion...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163101/eeg-frequency-changes-prior-to-making-errors-in-an-easy-stroop-task
#4
Rachel Atchley, Daniel Klee, Barry Oken
Background: Mind-wandering is a form of off-task attention that has been associated with negative affect and rumination. The goal of this study was to assess potential electroencephalographic markers of task-unrelated thought, or mind-wandering state, as related to error rates during a specialized cognitive task. We used EEG to record frontal frequency band activity while participants completed a Stroop task that was modified to induce boredom, task-unrelated thought, and therefore mind-wandering. Methods: A convenience sample of 27 older adults (50-80 years) completed a computerized Stroop matching task...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161969/schizophrenia-and-prospective-memory-impairments-a-review
#5
Ya Wang, Raymond C K Chan, David H K Shum
OBJECTIVE: Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to carry out intended actions in the future. Prospective forgetting has been shown to be one of the key cognitive impairments that contribute to medication non-adherence, reduced independence, and social dysfunction in individuals with schizophrenia. This review aimed to provide an up to date appraisal of the nature and extent of PM impairments in individuals with schizophrenia and those who are at risk and to discuss clinical applications in this area...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161919/the-effects-of-adhd-on-cognitive-performance
#6
Emma Claesdotter, Matti Cervin, Sofia Åkerlund, Maria Råstam, Magnus Lindvall
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing neurodevelopmental disorder. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computerized test battery with standardized procedures and solid psychometric properties targeting multiple neuropsychological functions. AIMS: The aim of this study was to look at the effects of ADHD on cognitive performance using CANTAB expressed as a statistical interaction term in regression modeling...
November 21, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159059/triangulation-of-language-cognitive-impairments-naming-errors-and-their-neural-bases-post-stroke
#7
Ajay D Halai, Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
In order to gain a better understanding of aphasia one must consider the complex combinations of language impairments along with the pattern of paraphasias. Despite the fact that both deficits and paraphasias feature in diagnostic criteria, most research has focused only on the lesion correlates of language deficits, with minimal attention on the pattern of patients' paraphasias. In this study, we used a data-driven approach (principal component analysis - PCA) to fuse patient impairments and their pattern of errors into one unified model of chronic post-stroke aphasia...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158667/different-protocols-for-analyzing-behavior-and-adaptability-in-obstacle-crossing-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Nafiseh Mollaei, Estela Bicho, Nuno Sousa, Miguel Fernandes Gago
Imbalance and tripping over obstacles as a result of altered gait in older adults, especially in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), are one of the most common causes of falls. During obstacle crossing, patients with PD modify their behavior in order to decrease the mechanical demands and enhance dynamic stability. Various descriptions of dynamic traits of gait that have been collected over longer periods, probably better synthesize the underlying structure and pattern of fluctuations in gait and can be more sensitive markers of aging or early neurological dysfunction and increased risk of falls...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157666/cognitive-flexibility-in-preschool-children-with-and-without-stuttering-disorders
#9
Naomi Eichorn, Klara Marton, Steven Pirutinsky
PURPOSE: Multifactorial explanations of developmental stuttering suggest that difficulties in self-regulation and weak attentional flexibility contribute to persisting stuttering. We tested this prediction by examining whether preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) shift their attention less flexibly than children who do not stutter (CWNS) during a modified version of the Dimension Card Change Sort (DCCS), a reliable measure of attention switching for young children. METHODS: Sixteen CWS (12 males) and 30 children CWNS (11 males) participated in the study...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148076/subjective-cognitive-complaints-psychosocial-factors-and-nursing-work-function-in-nurses-providing-direct-patient-care
#10
Tammy Barbe, Laura P Kimble, Cynthia Rubenstein
AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine relationships among subjective cognitive complaints, psychosocial factors and nursing work function in nurses providing direct patient care. BACKGROUND: Cognitive functioning is a critical component for nurses in the assurance of error prevention, identification and correction when caring for patients. Negative changes in nurses' cognitive and psychosocial functioning can adversely affect nursing care and patient outcomes...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146562/multi-method-laboratory-user-evaluation-of-an-actionable-clinical-performance-information-system-implications-for-usability-and-patient-safety
#11
Benjamin Brown, Panos Balatsoukas, Richard Williams, Matthew Sperrin, Iain Buchan
INTRODUCTION: Electronic audit and feedback (e-A&F) systems are used worldwide for care quality improvement. They measure health professionals' performance against clinical guidelines, and some systems suggest improvement actions. However, little is known about optimal interface designs for e-A&F, in particular how to present suggested actions for improvement. We developed a novel theory-informed system for primary care (the Performance Improvement plaN GeneratoR; PINGR) that covers the four principal interface components: clinical performance summaries; patient lists; detailed patient-level information; and suggested actions...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144422/atypical-processing-of-novel-distracters-in-a-visual-oddball-task-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Estate M Sokhadze, Eva V Lamina, Emily L Casanova, Desmond P Kelly, Ioan Opris, Irma Khachidze, Manuel F Casanova
Several studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormalities in P3b to targets in standard oddball tasks. The present study employed a three-stimulus visual oddball task with novel distracters that analyzed event-related potentials (ERP) to both target and non-target items at frontal and parietal sites. The task tested the hypothesis that children with autism are abnormally orienting attention to distracters probably due to impaired habituation to novelty. We predicted a lower selectivity in early ERPs to target, frequent non-target, and rare distracters...
November 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141979/measurement-errors-in-dietary-assessment-using-self-reported-24-hour-recalls-in-low-income-countries-and-strategies-for-their-prevention
#13
Rosalind S Gibson, U Ruth Charrondiere, Winnie Bell
Securing accurate measurements of dietary intake across populations is challenging. Of the methods, self-reported 24-h recalls are often used in low-income countries (LICs) because they are quick, culturally sensitive, do not require high cognitive ability, and provide quantitative data on both foods and nutrients. Measuring intakes via 24-h recalls involves 1) collecting data on food intakes, 2) the appropriate use of relevant food-composition data for calculating nutrient intakes, and 3) statistically converting observed intakes to "usual intakes" for evaluating nutrient adequacy or relations between foods and nutrients and health outcomes...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140857/that-s-inappropriate-social-norms-in-an-older-population-based-cohort
#14
Mary Ganguli, Zhaowen Sun, Eric McDade, Beth Snitz, Tiffany Hughes, Erin Jacobsen, Chung-Chou H Chang
BACKGROUND: Social cognition is not routinely assessed in older adults. We report population-based normative data on the Social Norms Questionnaire (SNQ22) which asks individuals about the appropriateness of specific behaviors in hypothetical scenarios, errors being related either to breaking with norms or to over-adhering to perceived norms. Total SNQ scores represent the number of correct responses while subscale scores are error totals. METHODS: We administered the SNQ22 to 744 adults aged 65+ within a population-based study, and examined the distribution of scores by demographics, other cognitive measures, and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR)...
November 14, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138873/effects-of-cognitive-load-on-the-amount-and-temporal-structure-of-postural-sway-variability-in-stroke-survivors
#15
Hajar Mehdizadeh, Kinda Khalaf, Hamed Ghomashchi, Ghorban Taghizadeh, Ismaeil Ebrahimi, Parvaneh Taghavi Azar Sharabiani, Seyed Javad Mousavi, Mohamad Parnianpour
This study aimed to investigate the variability in postural sway patterns during quiet standing in stroke survivors. The postural sway was measured in 19 stroke survivors, as well as 19 healthy demographically matched participants, at 3 levels of postural difficulty (rigid surface with closed and open eyes, and foam surface with closed eyes), and 3 levels of cognitive difficulty (without a cognitive task, easy and difficult cognitive tasks). Both linear analyses (the amount of postural sway variability, including the standard deviation of the COP velocity in both the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions), as well as non-linear analyses [the temporal structure of the COP variability, including % Recurrence, % Determinism, Shannon Entropy, Trend and the maximum diagonal line (D max)] were employed...
November 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136642/common-and-distinct-structural-features-of-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-the-european-network-on-psychosis-affective-disorders-and-cognitive-trajectory-enpact-study
#16
Eleonora Maggioni, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Igor Nenadic, Francesco Benedetti, Christian Gaser, Heinrich Sauer, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Sara Poletti, Veronica Marinelli, Marcella Bellani, Cinzia Perlini, Mirella Ruggeri, A Carlo Altamura, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Paolo Brambilla
INTRODUCTION: Although schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share elements of pathology, their neural underpinnings are still under investigation. Here, structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data collected from a large sample of BD and SCZ patients and healthy controls (HC) were analyzed in terms of gray matter volume (GMV) using both voxel based morphometry (VBM) and a region of interest (ROI) approach. METHODS: The analysis was conducted on two datasets, Dataset1 (802 subjects: 243 SCZ, 176 BD, 383 HC) and Dataset2, a homogeneous subset of Dataset1 (301 subjects: 107 HC, 85 BD and 109 SCZ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134281/anticipating-cognitive-effort-roles-of-perceived-error-likelihood-and-time-demands
#17
Timothy L Dunn, Michael Inzlicht, Evan F Risko
Why are some actions evaluated as effortful? In the present set of experiments we address this question by examining individuals' perception of effort when faced with a trade-off between two putative cognitive costs: how much time a task takes vs. how error-prone it is. Specifically, we were interested in whether individuals anticipate engaging in a small amount of hard work (i.e., low time requirement, but high error-likelihood) vs. a large amount of easy work (i.e., high time requirement, but low error-likelihood) as being more effortful...
November 13, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131512/the-role-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-prediction-error-and-signaling-surprise
#18
William H Alexander, Joshua W Brown
In the past two decades, reinforcement learning (RL) has become a popular framework for understanding brain function. A key component of RL models, prediction error, has been associated with neural signals throughout the brain, including subcortical nuclei, primary sensory cortices, and prefrontal cortex. Depending on the location in which activity is observed, the functional interpretation of prediction error may change: Prediction errors may reflect a discrepancy in the anticipated and actual value of reward, a signal indicating the salience or novelty of a stimulus, and many other interpretations...
November 13, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129800/saikosaponin-d-mediated-downregulation-of-neurogenesis-results-in-cognitive-dysfunction-by-inhibiting-akt-foxg-1-pathwayin-mice
#19
Xu Lixing, Ji Zhouye, Guo Liting, Zhang Ruyi, Qu Rong, Ma Shiping
Saikosaponin-d (SSd), one of the main constituents of the total saikosaponins extracted from Bupleurum falcatum L, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effect. Recently, SSd was proved to improve depressive symptoms although exhibit hepatotoxicity in animals, but the central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of SSd remains unclear. The present study investigated the SSd-induced impairment in hippocampal cognitive function and explored the possible mechanisms involved. After intragastric administration of SSd (4mg/kg, 8mg/kg) for 7 days, the learning and memory abilities of mice were evaluated by behavioral experiments...
November 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128872/prenatal-kynurenine-treatment-in-rats-causes-schizophrenia-like-broad-monitoring-deficits-in-adulthood
#20
Britta Hahn, Carolyn H Reneski, Ana Pocivavsek, Robert Schwarcz
RATIONALE: Elevated brain kynurenic acid (KYNA) levels are implicated in the pathology and neurodevelopmental pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In rats, embryonic treatment with kynurenine (EKyn) causes elevated brain KYNA levels in adulthood and cognitive deficits reminiscent of schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence suggests that people with schizophrenia have a narrowed attentional focus, and we aimed at establishing whether these abnormalities may be related to KYNA dysregulation...
November 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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