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Cognitive Error

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806582/beck-s-cognitive-theory-and-the-response-style-theory-of-depression-in-adolescents-with-and-without-mild-to-borderline-intellectual-disability
#1
Martine M Weeland, Karin S Nijhof, R Otten, Ignace P R Vermaes, Jan K Buitelaar
AIM: This study tests the validity of Beck's cognitive theory and Nolen-Hoeksema's response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without MBID. METHODS: The relationship between negative cognitive errors (Beck), response styles (Nolen-Hoeksema) and depressive symptoms was examined in 135 adolescents using linear regression. RESULTS: The cognitive error 'underestimation of the ability to cope' was more prevalent among adolescents with MBID than among adolescents with average intelligence...
August 11, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804398/the-transfer-of-skills-from-cognitive-and-physical-training-to-activities-of-daily-living-a-randomised-controlled-study
#2
Magdalena Hagovska, Iveta Nagyova
Ageing is associated with the deterioration of all cognitive functions, including attention, memory and psychomotor speed. It has not yet been clearly confirmed whether the effects of cognitive and physical interventions can improve activities of daily living (ADL). This study compared the effectiveness of cognitive and physical training on cognitive functions and the transfer to ADL. Eighty older people with mild cognitive impairment (mean age 67.07 ± 4.3 years) were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 40) and a control group (n = 40)...
June 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803165/exploring-the-determinants-of-confidence-in-the-bat-and-ball-problem
#3
Aba Szollosi, Bence Bago, Barnabas Szaszi, Balazs Aczel
People often fail to solve deceptively simple mathematical problems, a tendency popularly demonstrated by the bat-and-ball problem. The most prominent explanation of this finding is that, to spare cognitive effort, people substitute the difficult task with an easier one, without being aware of the substitution. Despite this latter assumption, recent studies have found decreased levels of post-decision confidence ratings when people gave the answer of an easier calculation, suggesting that people are sensitive to their errors...
August 10, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801301/exploring-user-learnability-and-learning-performance-in-an-app-for-depression-usability-study
#4
Colleen Stiles-Shields, Enid Montague, Emily G Lattie, Stephen M Schueller, Mary J Kwasny, David C Mohr
BACKGROUND: Mental health apps tend to be narrow in their functioning, with their focus mostly being on tracking, management, or psychoeducation. It is unclear what capability such apps have to facilitate a change in users, particularly in terms of learning key constructs relating to behavioral interventions. Thought Challenger (CBITs, Chicago) is a skill-building app that engages users in cognitive restructuring, a core component of cognitive therapy (CT) for depression. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the learnability and learning performance of users following initial use of Thought Challenger...
August 11, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798411/group-augmentation-in-realistic-visual-search-decisions-via-a-hybrid-brain-computer-interface
#5
Davide Valeriani, Caterina Cinel, Riccardo Poli
Groups have increased sensing and cognition capabilities that typically allow them to make better decisions. However, factors such as communication biases and time constraints can lead to less-than-optimal group decisions. In this study, we use a hybrid Brain-Computer Interface (hBCI) to improve the performance of groups undertaking a realistic visual-search task. Our hBCI extracts neural information from EEG signals and combines it with response times to build an estimate of the decision confidence. This is used to weigh individual responses, resulting in improved group decisions...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798012/internet-delivered-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-children-with-pain-related-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-feasibility-study
#6
Maria Lalouni, Brjánn Ljótsson, Marianne Bonnert, Erik Hedman-Lagerlöf, Jens Högström, Eva Serlachius, Ola Olén
BACKGROUND: Pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (P-FGIDs; eg, irritable bowel syndrome) are highly prevalent in children and associated with low quality of life, anxiety, and school absence. Treatment options are scarce, and there is a need for effective and accessible treatments. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (Internet-CBT) based on exposure exercises is effective for adult and adolescent irritable bowel syndrome, but it has not been evaluated for younger children...
August 10, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797212/effect-of-conceptual-and-lexical-errorless-versus-trial-and-error-learning-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#7
Brandy L Callahan, Nicole D Anderson
Errorless learning (EL), involving presenting the target information during encoding, is generally considered effective for teaching information to memory-impaired populations. However, evidence suggests that trial-and-error learning (TEL) can benefit healthy older adults' memory when guesses are conceptually related to the target. To determine whether TEL can benefit persons with mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), 24 participants with aMCI were given cues associated with nine target words. Half the sample received Conceptual cues (e...
August 11, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797209/working-memory-and-auditory-imagery-predict-sensorimotor-synchronization-with-expressively-timed-music
#8
Ian D Colley, Peter E Keller, Andrea R Halpern
Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) is prevalent and readily studied in musical settings, as most people are able to perceive and synchronize with a beat (e.g. by finger tapping). We took an individual differences approach to understanding SMS to real music characterized by expressive timing (i.e. fluctuating beat regularity). Given the dynamic nature of SMS, we hypothesized that individual differences in working memory and auditory imagery-both fluid cognitive processes-would predict SMS at two levels: 1) mean absolute asynchrony (a measure of synchronization error), and 2) anticipatory timing (i...
August 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796560/facial-emotion-decoding-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Marco De Risi, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Angelo Picardi, Sara Casciato, Liliana G Grammaldo, Alfredo D'Aniello, Deborah Lanni, Stefano Meletti, Nicola Modugno
PURPOSE: In line with the growing attention on non-motor symptoms and disturbance of affective and emotional processing in Parkinson's disease, we aimed to study different aspects of facial emotion expression evaluation in a group of PD without cognitive decline in treatment with common antiparkinsonian drugs, matched for sex, age, and education with healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 30 patients (13 male; mean age: 63.3±6.7; mean age of disease onset: 56...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794169/assessing-the-association-between-thinking-dispositions-and-clinical-error
#10
John Kinnear, Nick Wilson
BACKGROUND: Dual-process theory suggests that type 1 thinking results in a propensity to make 'intuitive' decisions based on limited information. Type 2 processes, on the other hand, are able to analyse these initial responses and replace them with rationalised decisions. Individuals may have a preference for different modes of rationalisation, on a continuum from careful to cursory. These 'dispositions' of thinking reside in type 2 processes and may result in error when the preference is for 'quick and casual' decision-making...
August 9, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780602/executive-function-after-exhaustive-exercise
#11
Mizuki Sudo, Takaaki Komiyama, Ryo Aoyagi, Toshiya Nagamatsu, Yasuki Higaki, Soichi Ando
PURPOSE: Findings concerning the effects of exhaustive exercise on cognitive function are somewhat equivocal. The purpose of this study was to identify physiological factors that determine executive function after exhaustive exercise. METHODS: Thirty-two participants completed the cognitive tasks before and after an incremental exercise until exhaustion (exercise group: N = 18) or resting period (control group N = 14). The cognitive task was a combination of a Spatial Delayed-Response (Spatial DR) task and a Go/No-Go task, which requires executive function...
August 5, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777058/causal-evidence-from-humans-for-the-role-of-mediodorsal-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-in-working-memory
#12
Jari Peräkylä, Lihua Sun, Kai Lehtimäki, Jukka Peltola, Juha Öhman, Timo Möttönen, Keith H Ogawa, Kaisa M Hartikainen
The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) with its extensive connections to the lateral pFC has been implicated in human working memory and executive functions. However, this understanding is based solely on indirect evidence from human lesion and imaging studies and animal studies. Direct, causal evidence from humans is missing. To obtain direct evidence for MD's role in humans, we studied patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory epilepsy. This treatment is thought to prevent the generalization of a seizure by disrupting the functioning of the patient's anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT) with high-frequency electric stimulation...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771032/reliability-of-computerized-neurocognitive-tests-for-concussion-assessment-a-meta-analysis
#13
James L Farnsworth, Lucas Dargo, Brian G Ragan, Minsoo Kang
OBJECTIVE:   Although widely used, computerized neurocognitive tests (CNTs) have been criticized because of low reliability and poor sensitivity. A systematic review was published summarizing the reliability of Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores; however, this was limited to a single CNT. Expansion of the previous review to include additional CNTs and a meta-analysis is needed. Therefore, our purpose was to analyze reliability data for CNTs using meta-analysis and examine moderating factors that may influence reliability...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769784/cortical-surface-thickness-in-the-middle-aged-brain-with-white-matter-hyperintense-lesions
#14
Ying Zhuang, Xianjun Zeng, Bo Wang, Muhua Huang, Honghan Gong, Fuqing Zhou
Background and purpose: Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have suggested that cortical atrophy is regionally distributed in middle-aged subjects with white matter hyperintense (WMH) lesions. However, few studies have assessed cortical thickness in middle-aged WMH subjects. In this study, we examined cortical thickness as well as cortical morphometry associated with the presence of WMH lesion load in middle-aged subjects. Participants and methods: Thirty-six middle-aged subjects with WMH lesions (WMH group) and without clinical cognitive impairment, and 34 demographically matched healthy control subjects (HCS group) participated in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769596/more-accurate-systolic-blood-pressure-measurement-is-required-for-improved-hypertension-management-a-perspective
#15
Meir Nitzan, Itzchak Slotki, Linda Shavit
The commonly used techniques for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measurement are the auscultatory Korotkoff-based sphygmomanometry and oscillometry. The former technique is relatively accurate but is limited to a physician's office because its automatic variant is subject to noise artifacts. Consequently, the Korotkoff-based measurement overestimates the blood pressure in some patients due to white coat effect, and because it is a single measurement, it cannot properly represent the variable blood pressure...
2017: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769097/the-association-between-structure-function-relationships-and-cognitive-impairment-in-elderly-glaucoma-patients
#16
Megumi Honjo, Jiro Numaga, Tadashi Hara, Ryo Asaoka
Accurate measurement of visual field (VF) is important in accessing glaucoma, however this may not be achieved in patients with dementia or mild cognitive impairment (CI). We investigated the association between CI and structure-function relationships in elderly glaucoma patients. The study included 94 eyes of 51 glaucoma patients aged ≥75 years with no diagnoses of dementia. CI was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Using the leave-one-out cross-validation, the mean deviation (MD) of the Humphrey 30-2 VF was predicted from measurements of optical coherence tomography, and the relationship between the squared prediction error and the MMSE score, together with age, fixation loss (FL), false positive (FP), and false negative (FN) percentages that were analyzed using the linear mixed model...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767083/full-duplex-cooperative-sensing-for-spectrum-heterogeneous-cognitive-radio-networks
#17
Peng Liu, Wangdong Qi, En Yuan, Li Wei, Yuexin Zhao
In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), spectrum sensing is critical for guaranteeing that the opportunistic spectrum access by secondary users (SUs) will not interrupt legitimate primary users (PUs). The application of full-duplex radio to spectrum sensing enables SU to carry out sensing and transmission simultaneously, improving both spectrum awareness and CRN throughput. However, the issue of spectrum sensing with full-duplex radios deployed in heterogeneous environments, where SUs may observe different spectrum activities, has not been addressed...
August 2, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766462/visual-correlates-of-fitness-to-drive-in-adults-with-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Sherrilene Classen, Sarah Krasniuk, Sarah A Morrow, Liliana Alvarez, Miriam Monahan, Tim Danter, Heather Rosehart
The impact of visual and visual-cognitive impairments on fitness to drive in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) are not well studied. We quantified visual correlates of fitness to drive in 30 PwMS. PwMS completed visual ability and visual attention assessments, and a standardized on-road assessment, and were compared with 145 older volunteer drivers. PwMS (vs. older volunteer drivers) made more total ( W = 12,139, p = .03) and critical driving errors (predictive of crashes) in adjustment to stimuli ( W = 11,352, p < ...
August 1, 2017: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765577/cacna1c-polymorphisms-impact-cognitive-recovery-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-in-a-six-week-open-label-trial
#19
Kangguang Lin, Guiyun Xu, Lingling Shi, Weicong Lu, Lijie Guan, Huiyi Ouyang, Kun Chen, Yamei Dang, Libing Zhou, Kwok-Fai So
Cognitive impairments in bipolar patients deteriorate as the disorder progresses. Little is known about whether genetic risks impact cognitive recovery during the course from depression to remission. In this six-week open-label trial, we shed light on the impacts of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C (CACNA1C) gene on cognitive recovery in 192 bipolar patients suffering a major depressive episode (MDE). The primary outcome measures were changes in a battery of neuropsychological tests following 6-week treatment...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765056/predicting-brain-age-with-deep-learning-from-raw-imaging-data-results-in-a-reliable-and-heritable-biomarker
#20
James H Cole, Rudra P K Poudel, Dimosthenis Tsagkrasoulis, Matthan W A Caan, Claire Steves, Tim D Spector, Giovanni Montana
Machine learning analysis of neuroimaging data can accurately predict chronological age in healthy people. Deviations from healthy brain ageing have been associated with cognitive impairment and disease. Here we sought to further establish the credentials of 'brain-predicted age' as a biomarker of individual differences in the brain ageing process, using a predictive modelling approach based on deep learning, and specifically convolutional neural networks (CNN), and applied to both pre-processed and raw T1-weighted MRI data...
July 29, 2017: NeuroImage
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