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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934206/estimating-the-prevalence-and-intensity-of-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-among-rural-communities-in-western-tanzania-the-influence-of-sampling-strategy-and-statistical-approach
#1
Jared S Bakuza, Matthew J Denwood, Gamba Nkwengulila, Barbara K Mable
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni is a parasite of major public health importance in developing countries, where it causes a neglected tropical disease known as intestinal schistosomiasis. However, the distribution of the parasite within many endemic regions is currently unknown, which hinders effective control. The purpose of this study was to characterize the prevalence and intensity of infection of S. mansoni in a remote area of western Tanzania. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples were collected from 192 children and 147 adults residing in Gombe National Park and four nearby villages...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931421/magnitude-of-the-cytomegalovirus-infection-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-clinics-in-the-city-of-mwanza-tanzania
#2
Elieza Chibwe, Mariam M Mirambo, Albert Kihunrwa, Stephen E Mshana
BACKGROUND: Despite, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection being associated with a potential risk to the fetus, there is limited data from Tanzania and many other developing countries regarding the epidemiology and the impact of CMV infections. This cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2014 and June 2015 among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the city of Mwanza, Tanzania to investigate the magnitude and associated factors of CMV infection. METHODS: The specific CMV IgM and IgG antibodies were detected using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 20, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931140/infection-with-echinostoma-sp-in-a-group-of-travellers-to-lake-tanganyika-tanzania-in-january-2017
#3
Ruth N Chunge, Charles N Chunge
A small group of travellers became infected with Echinostoma sp. after ingesting raw fish which they caught in Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania, in January 2017. The infection was diagnosed by finding the characteristic eggs in stool samples collected over a 2-week period following their return to Kenya. Echinostoma is a genus of parasitic flukes normally known to infect humans in southeast Asia and the Far East. This appears to be the first report of echinostomiasis in East Africa which can be attributed clearly to ingestion of locally caught raw fish...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931136/what-proportion-of-international-travellers-acquire-a-travel-related-illness-a-review-of-the-literature
#4
Kristina M Angelo, Phyllis E Kozarsky, Edward T Ryan, Lin H Chen, Mark J Sotir
Introduction: As international travel increases, travellers may be at increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases not endemic in their home countries. Many journal articles and reference books related to travel medicine cite that between 22-64% of international travellers become ill during or after travel; however, this information is minimal, outdated and limited by poor generalizability. We aim to provide a current and more accurate estimate of the proportion of international travellers who acquire a travel-related illness...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931118/unpacking-the-enabling-factors-for-hand-cord-and-birth-surface-hygiene-in-zanzibar-maternity-units
#5
Giorgia Gon, Said M Ali, Catriona Towriss, Catherine Kahabuka, Ali O Ali, Sue Cavill, Mohammed Dahoma, Sally Faulkner, Haji S Haji, Ibrahim Kabole, Emma Morrison, Rukaiya M Said, Amour Tajo, Yael Velleman, Susannah L Woodd, And Wendy J Graham
Recent national surveys in The United Republic of Tanzania have revealed poor standards of hygiene at birth in facilities. As more women opt for institutional delivery, improving basic hygiene becomes an essential part of preventative strategies for reducing puerperal and newborn sepsis. Our collaborative research in Zanzibar provides an in-depth picture of the state of hygiene on maternity wards to inform action. Hygiene was assessed in 2014 across all 37 facilities with a maternity unit in Zanzibar. We used a mixed methods approach, including structured and semi-structured interviews, and environmental microbiology...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928433/measuring-the-role-of-seagrasses-in-regulating-sediment-surface-elevation
#6
Maria Potouroglou, James C Bull, Ken W Krauss, Hilary A Kennedy, Marco Fusi, Daniele Daffonchio, Mwita M Mangora, Michael N Githaiga, Karen Diele, Mark Huxham
Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other 'blue carbon' habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927444/erratum-to-prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-carriage-on-admission-among-patients-attending-regional-hospitals-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#7
Agricola Joachim, Sabrina J Moyo, Lillian Nkinda, Mtebe Majigo, Elia Mmbaga, Naboth Mbembati, Said Aboud, Eligius F Lyamuya
Following publication of the original article [1], author Elia Mmbaga pointed out that her name had been misspelt as Elia Mbaga.
September 19, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923579/early-steps-for-successful-management-in-small-scale-fisheries-an-analysis-of-fishers-managers-and-scientists-opinions-preceding-implementation
#8
Sieglind Wallner-Hahn, Maricela de la Torre-Castro
This study analyzes fishers', managers' and scientists' opinions on management measures to facilitate the initiation of management processes towards more sustainable small-scale seagrass fisheries in Zanzibar, Tanzania. The results show that most fishers and managers agreed on the need to include seagrasses specifically in future management. There was further agreement on dragnets being the most destructive gears, and the use of dragnets being a major threat to local seagrass ecosystems. Gear restrictions excluding illegal dragnets were the favored management measure among fishers...
September 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922513/purpose-processes-partnerships-and-products-4ps-to-advance-participatory-socio-environmental-modeling
#9
Steven Gray, Alexey Voinov, Michael Paolisso, Rebecca Jordan, Todd BenDor, Pierre Bommel, Pierre Glynn, Beatrice Hedelin, Klaus Hubacek, Josh Introne, Nagesh Kolagani, Bethany Laursen, Christina Prell, Laura Schmitt-Olabisi, Alison Singer, Eleanor Sterling, Moira Zellner
Including stakeholders in environmental model building and analysis is an increasingly popular approach to understanding ecological change. This is because stakeholders often hold valuable knowledge about socio-environmental dynamics and collaborative forms of modeling produce important boundary objects used to collectively reason about environmental problems. Although the number of participatory modeling (PM) case studies and the number of researchers adopting these approaches has grown in recent years, the lack of standardized reporting and limited reproducibility have prevented PM's establishment and advancement as a cohesive field of study...
September 18, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915850/-love-me-parents-impact-evaluation-of-a-national-social-and-behavioral-change-communication-campaign-on-maternal-health-outcomes-in-tanzania
#10
Michelle R Kaufman, Jennifer J Harman, Marina Smelyanskaya, Jennifer Orkis, Robert Ainslie
BACKGROUND: Despite marked improvements over the last few decades, maternal mortality in Tanzania remains among the world's highest at 454 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Many factors contribute to this disparity, such as a lack of attendance at antenatal care (ANC) services and low rates of delivery at a health facility with a skilled provider. The Wazazi Nipendeni (Love me, parents) social and behavioral change communication campaign was launched in Tanzania in 2012 to improve a range of maternal health outcomes, including individual birth planning, timely ANC attendance, and giving birth in a healthcare facility...
September 15, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915823/patients-with-acute-poisoning-presenting-to-an-urban-emergency-department-of-a-tertiary-hospital-in-tanzania
#11
Ghaniya S Mbarouk, Hendry R Sawe, Juma A Mfinanga, John Stein, Shankar Levin, Victor Mwafongo, Michael S Runyon, Teri A Reynolds, Kent R Olson
BACKGROUND: Poisoning is a major public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting patients of all age groups. Poisoned patients often present to the emergency department (ED) and prompt evaluation and appropriate management are imperative to ensure optimal outcomes. Unfortunately, little is known about the specific presentations of poisoned patients in East Africa. We describe the clinical and epidemiological features of patients presenting to the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) ED with suspected toxicological syndromes...
September 16, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912958/a-nurse-delivered-mental-health-intervention-for-obstetric-fistula-patients-in-tanzania-results-of-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Melissa H Watt, Mary V Mosha, Alyssa C Platt, Kathleen J Sikkema, Sarah M Wilson, Elizabeth L Turner, Gileard G Masenga
BACKGROUND: Obstetric fistula has severe psychological consequences, but no evidence-based interventions exist to improve mental health in this population. This pilot trial evaluated a psychological intervention for women receiving surgical care for obstetric fistula. METHODS: A parallel two-armed pilot RCT was conducted between 2014 and 2016. The intervention was six individual sessions, based on psychological theory and delivered by a nurse facilitator. The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Moshi, Tanzania...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911008/maternal-dietary-l-arginine-and-adverse-birth-outcomes-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#13
Anne Marie Darling, Chloe R McDonald, Willy S Urassa, Kevin C Kain, Ramadhani S Mwiru, Wafaie W Fawzi
The amino acid arginine is a physiological precursor to nitric oxide, which is a key mediator of embryonic survival, fetal growth, and pregnancy maintenance. We evaluated the association between consumption of the amino acid arginine and the rate of adverse birth outcomes using data from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled micronutrient supplementation trial among pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (2001-2004). Dietary intakes of arginine were assessed using repeated 24-hour recalls that were administered throughout pregnancy...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905377/implementation-challenges-and-outcomes-of-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study-of-a-group-prenatal-care-model-in-malawi-and-tanzania
#14
Crystal L Patil, Carrie S Klima, Alana D Steffen, Sebalda C Leshabari, Heather Pauls, Kathleen F Norr
OBJECTIVE: To identify implementation challenges associated with conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of group prenatal care (PNC) and report outcomes of the pilot. METHODS: A multi-site randomized pilot was conducted in Malawi and Tanzania between July 31, 2014, and June 30, 2015. Women aged at least 16 years with a pregnancy of 20-24 weeks were randomly assigned using sealed envelopes (1:1) to individual or group PNC. Structured interviews were conducted at baseline, in the third trimester and 6-8 weeks after delivery...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899355/genetic-tests-for-estimating-dairy-breed-proportion-and-parentage-assignment-in-east-african-crossbred-cattle
#15
Eva M Strucken, Hawlader A Al-Mamun, Cecilia Esquivelzeta-Rabell, Cedric Gondro, Okeyo A Mwai, John P Gibson
BACKGROUND: Smallholder dairy farming in much of the developing world is based on the use of crossbred cows that combine local adaptation traits of indigenous breeds with high milk yield potential of exotic dairy breeds. Pedigree recording is rare in such systems which means that it is impossible to make informed breeding decisions. High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays allow accurate estimation of breed composition and parentage assignment but are too expensive for routine application...
September 12, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898269/faecal-carriage-of-ctx-m-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-among-street-children-dwelling-in-mwanza-city-tanzania
#16
Nyambura Moremi, Heike Claus, Ulrich Vogel, Stephen E Mshana
BACKGROUND: Data on ESBL carriage of healthy people including children are scarce especially in developing countries. We analyzed the prevalence and genotypes of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE) in Tanzanian street children with rare contact to healthcare facilities but significant interactions with the environment, animals and other people. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Between April and July 2015, stool samples of 107 street children, who live in urban Mwanza were analyzed for EPE...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895070/needs-for-professional-education-to-optimize-cervical-cancer-screenings-in-low-income-countries-a-case-study-from-tanzania
#17
Anne E Lavelle, Dejun Su, Crispin Kahesa, Amr S Soliman
Cervical cancer is a significant health problem in many developing countries. Due to limited treatment facilities for cancer in Tanzania, a screening referral program was developed between two urban clinics and Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI), the only cancer treatment center in Tanzania. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the program and to identify opportunities for professional education. The study included 139 patients who were referred to ORCI from the screening clinics of Magomeni and Temeke between January 2015 and May 2016...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893240/the-influence-of-age-on-insecticide-susceptibility-of-anopheles-arabiensis-during-dry-and-rainy-seasons-in-rice-irrigation-schemes-of-northern-tanzania
#18
Saada Mbepera, Gamba Nkwengulila, Rose Peter, Emmanuel A Mausa, Aneth M Mahande, Maureen Coetzee, Eliningaya J Kweka
BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance is the major emerging challenge facing the malaria vector control programmes in Tanzania. Proper monitoring and detection is of paramount importance guiding the vector control programmes. This paper presents the effect of mosquito aging on insecticide resistance status in Anopheles arabiensis populations in dry and rainy seasons in northern Tanzania. METHODS: Anopheles gambiae s.l. larvae were sampled from rice fields in both dry and rainy seasons and reared in the insectary to adults...
September 11, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893211/clinical-performance-and-patient-outcome-after-simulation-based-training-in-prevention-and-management-of-postpartum-haemorrhage-an-educational-intervention-study-in-a-low-resource-setting
#19
Ellen Nelissen, Hege Ersdal, Estomih Mduma, Bjørg Evjen-Olsen, Jos Twisk, Jacqueline Broerse, Jos van Roosmalen, Jelle Stekelenburg
BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal mortality. Prevention and adequate treatment are therefore important. However, most births in low-resource settings are not attended by skilled providers, and knowledge and skills of healthcare workers that are available are low. Simulation-based training effectively improves knowledge and simulated skills, but the effectiveness of training on clinical behaviour and patient outcome is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of obstetric simulation-based training on the incidence of PPH and clinical performance of basic delivery skills and management of PPH...
September 11, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891762/reading-and-phonological-awareness-in-africa
#20
Katherine J Alcock, Damaris S Ngorosho, Matthew C H Jukes
Literacy levels in Africa are low, and school instruction outcomes are not promising. Africa also has a disproportionate number of unschooled children. Phonological awareness (PA), especially phoneme awareness, is critically associated with literacy, but there is little evidence about whether PA is gained through literacy, schooling, or both, because most children studied are in education and can read at least letters. Our previous study of PA and reading in children in and out of school in Tanzania found that PA was associated with reading ability, not schooling or age, and many unschooled children learned to read...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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