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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324837/status-of-pesticides-pollution-in-tanzania-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Raheli Elibariki, Mihayo Musabila Maguta
Various studies have been conducted in Tanzania to assess the magnitude of pesticides pollution associated with pesticides application, storage, disposal as well as knowledge of farmers on pesticides handling. The studies analysed samples from different matrices covering vegetation, biota, water, sediments and soil. The objective of this review was to summarise the results of pesticides residues reported in different components of the environment to give a clear picture of pesticides pollution status in the country for law enforcement as well as for taking precaution measures...
March 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319268/developmental-changes-in-feeding-behaviors-of-infant-chimpanzees-at-mahale-tanzania-implications-for-nutritional-independence-long-before-cessation-of-nipple-contact
#2
Takuya Matsumoto
OBJECTIVES: Weaning of chimpanzees is considered to occur at 4-5-years-old with complete cessation of nipple contact and timing of reconception calculated by inter-birth interval minus gestation length. This is also the basis of "early weaning" in humans (i.e., approximately 2.5-years-old). However, recent studies of the survival of orphans and the first molar (M1) eruption in wild chimpanzees have predicted that infants move toward nutritional independence at 3-years-old. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate ontogeny of feeding behavior at around 3-years-old in wild infant chimpanzees...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319155/relationships-between-abiotic-environment-plant-functional-traits-and-animal-body-size-at-mount-kilimanjaro-tanzania
#3
David Schellenberger Costa, Alice Classen, Stefan Ferger, Maria Helbig-Bonitz, Marcell Peters, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Michael Kleyer
The effect-response framework states that plant functional traits link the abiotic environment to ecosystem functioning. One ecosystem property is the body size of the animals living in the system, which is assumed to depend on temperature or resource availability, among others. For primary consumers, resource availability may directly be related to plant traits, while for secondary consumers the relationship is indirect. We used plant traits to describe resource availability along an elevational gradient on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318552/development-of-a-sustainable-project-in-tanzania-based-on-simple-innovative-ideas
#4
William Gamble, John Toso, Bobby Griffin, Barbara Griffin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303533/urban-health-in-tanzania-questioning-the-urban-advantage
#5
Francis Levira, Gemma Todd
How are health inequalities articulated across urban and rural spaces in Tanzania? This research paper explores the variations, differences, and inequalities, in Tanzania's health outcomes-to question both the idea of an urban advantage in health and the extent of urban-rural inequalities in health. The three research objectives aim to understand: what are the health differences (morbidity and mortality) between Tanzania's urban and rural areas; how are health inequalities articulated within Tanzania's urban and rural areas; and how are health inequalities articulated across age groups for rural-urban Tanzania? By analyzing four national datasets of Tanzania (National Census, Household Budget Survey, Demographic Health Survey, and Health Demographic Surveillance System), this paper reflects on the outcomes of key health indicators across these spaces...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302884/zoonotic-diseases-sharing-insights-from-interdisciplinary-research
#6
Mary R Ryan, Sarah Cleaveland
Researchers and others involved with the Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems (ZELS) initiative gathered in Tanzania earlier this year to discuss progress with projects being carried out as part of the five- year programme. Mary Ryan and Sarah Cleaveland report.
March 18, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302546/rheumatic-heart-disease-epidemiology-and-health-systems-barriers-and-facilitators-a-systematic-review-of-studies-from-uganda-and-tanzania
#7
Annesinah H Moloi, Sumaya Mall, Mark E Engel, Renae Stafford, Zhang Wan Zhu, Liesl J Zuhlke, David A Watkins
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is an important and preventable cause of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: As part of a recent RHD initiative in Uganda and Tanzania, we systematically reviewed group A streptococcal disease (GAS), acute rheumatic fever (ARF), and RHD in these countries. METHODS: Using a systematic review and meta-analysis/meta-synthesis, we searched PubMed, Embase, and grey literature for quantitative and qualitative studies conducted in Uganda and Tanzania that included individuals affected by GAS, ARF, and RHD...
March 14, 2017: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301564/temperature-dependent-phenology-of-plutella-xylostella-lepidoptera-plutellidae-simulation-and-visualization-of-current-and-future-distributions-along-the-eastern-afromontane
#8
Benignus V Ngowi, Henri E Z Tonnang, Evans M Mwangi, Tino Johansson, Janet Ambale, Paul N Ndegwa, Sevgan Subramanian
There is a scarcity of laboratory and field-based results showing the movement of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) across a spatial scale. We studied the population growth of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) under six constant temperatures, to understand and predict population changes along altitudinal gradients and under climate change scenarios. Non-linear functions were fitted to continuously model DBM development, mortality, longevity and oviposition. We compiled the best-fitted functions for each life stage to yield a phenology model, which we stochastically simulated to estimate the life table parameters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299897/towards-canine-rabies-elimination-economic-comparisons-of-three-project-sites
#9
J L Elser, B G Hatch, L H Taylor, L H Nel, S A Shwiff
An appreciation of the costs of implementing canine rabies control in different settings is important for those planning new or expanded interventions. Here we compare the costs of three canine rabies control projects in South Africa, the Philippines and Tanzania to identify factors that influence the overall costs of rabies control efforts. There was considerable variation in the cost of vaccinating each dog, but across the sites these were lower where population density was higher, and later in the projects when dog vaccination coverage was increased...
March 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299893/co-circulation-of-multiple-genotypes-of-african-swine-fever-viruses-among-domestic-pigs-in-zambia-2013-2015
#10
E Simulundu, H M Chambaro, Y Sinkala, M Kajihara, H Ogawa, A Mori, J Ndebe, G Dautu, L Mataa, C H Lubaba, C Simuntala, P Fandamu, M Simuunza, G S Pandey, K L Samui, G Misinzo, A Takada, A S Mweene
During 2013-2015, several and severe outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) affected domestic pigs in six provinces of Zambia. Genetic characterization of ASF viruses (ASFVs) using standardized genotyping procedures revealed that genotypes I, II and XIV were associated with these outbreaks. Molecular and epidemiological data suggest that genotype II ASFV (Georgia 2007/1-like) detected in Northern Province of Zambia may have been introduced from neighbouring Tanzania. Also, a genotype II virus detected in Eastern Province of Zambia showed a p54 phylogenetic relationship that was inconsistent with that of p72, underscoring the genetic variability of ASFVs...
March 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299518/addressing-the-first-90-a-highly-effective-partner-notification-approach-reaches-previously-undiagnosed-sexual-partners-in-tanzania
#11
Catherine Kahabuka, Marya Plotkin, Alice Christensen, Charlene Brown, Mustafa Njozi, Renatus Kisendi, Werner Maokola, Erick Mlanga, Ruth Lemwayi, Kelly Curran, Vincent Wong
To meet UNAIDS' 90-90-90 treatment goals, effective approaches to HIV testing services (HTSs) are urgently needed. In 2015, a cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate effectiveness and feasibility of partner notification for HTS in Tanzania. Men and women newly diagnosed with HIV were enrolled as index clients, listed sexual partners, and given options to notify and link their partners to HTS. Of 653 newly diagnosed individuals, 390 index clients were enrolled, listed 438 sexual partners, of whom 249 (56...
March 15, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296885/oral-health-in-transition-the-hadza-foragers-of-tanzania
#12
Alyssa N Crittenden, John Sorrentino, Sheniz A Moonie, Mika Peterson, Audax Mabulla, Peter S Ungar
Conventional wisdom holds that a decline in oral health accompanies the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture, given increased consumption of carbohydrates. This widely touted example of the mismatch between our biology and modern lifestyle has been intuited largely from the bioarchaeological record of the Neolithic Revolution in the New World. Recent studies of other populations have, however, challenged the universality of this assertion. Here, we present the first comprehensive study of oral health among a living population in transition from the bush to village life, the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania, to test the hypothesis that the shift from foraging to farming, or agricultural intensification, inevitably leads to increased periodontal disease, caries, and orthodontic disorders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296802/the-effects-of-hiv-on-fertility-by-infection-duration-evidence-from-african-population-cohorts-before-antiretroviral-treatment-availability
#13
Milly Marston, Jessica Nakiyingi-Miiro, Sylvia Kusemererwa, Mark Urassa, Denna Michael, Constance Nyamukapa, Simon Gregson, Basia Zaba, Jeffrey W Eaton
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relationship between HIV natural history and fertility by duration of infection in east and southern Africa before the availability of antiretroviral therapy and assess potential biases in estimates of age-specific subfertility when using retrospective birth histories in cross-sectional studies. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of prospective population-based HIV cohort studies in Masaka (Uganda), Kisesa (Tanzania) and Manicaland (Zimbabwe). METHODS: Women aged 15-49 years who had ever tested for HIV were included...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296019/health-care-provider-communication-training-in-rural-tanzania-empowers-hiv-infected-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-to-discuss-adherence-problems
#14
S Erb, E Letang, T R Glass, A Natamatungiro, D Mnzava, H Mapesi, M Haschke, U Duthaler, B Berger, L Muri, J Bader, C Marzolini, L Elzi, T Klimkait, W Langewitz, M Battegay
OBJECTIVES: Self-reported adherence assessment in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is challenging and may overestimate adherence. The aim of this study was to improve the ability of health care providers to elicit patients' reports of nonadherence using a "patient-centred" approach in a rural sub-Saharan African setting. METHODS: A prospective interventional cohort study of HIV-infected patients on ART for ≥ 6 months attending an HIV clinic in rural Tanzania was carried out...
March 13, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295224/sickle-cell-disease-in-africa-an-overview-of-the-integrated-approach-to-health-research-education-and-advocacy-in-tanzania-2004-2016
#15
REVIEW
Furahini Tluway, Julie Makani
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the single most important genetic cause of childhood mortality globally. Tanzania has one of the highest annual births of SCD individuals in the world, estimated to reach 11 000 births a year. Without intervention, 50-90% of children will die in childhood. However, cost-effective interventions have the potential to reduce childhood mortality by up to 70%. The effects of SCD are multi-dimensional, ranging from causing high morbidity and mortality, and reducing the quality of life, to imposing a high socio-economic burden on individuals, families and health systems...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294472/knowledge-and-practice-regarding-dengue-and-chikungunya-a-cross-sectional-study-among-healthcare-workers-and-community-in-northern-tanzania
#16
Debora C Kajeguka, Rachelle E Desrochers, Rose Mwangi, Maseke R Mgabo, Michael Alifrangis, Reginald A Kavishe, Franklin W Mosha, Manisha A Kulkarni
OBJECTIVE: To investigate knowledge and prevention practices regarding dengue and chikungunya amongst community members, as well as knowledge, treatment and diagnostic practices among healthcare workers. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 125 community members and 125 healthcare workers from 13 health facilities in six villages in the Hai district of Tanzania. A knowledge score was generated based on participant responses to a structured questionnaire, with a score of 40 or higher (out of 80 and 50 total scores for community members and healthcare workers, respectively) indicating good knowledge...
March 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289727/seroprevalence-of-zika-virus-in-wild-african-green-monkeys-and-baboons
#17
Connor R Buechler, Adam L Bailey, Andrea M Weiler, Gabrielle L Barry, Meghan E Breitbach, Laurel M Stewart, Anna J Jasinska, Nelson B Freimer, Cristian Apetrei, Jane E Phillips-Conroy, Clifford J Jolly, Jeffrey Rogers, Thomas C Friedrich, David H O'Connor
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently spread through the Americas and has been associated with a range of health effects, including birth defects in children born to women infected during pregnancy. Although the natural reservoir of ZIKV remains poorly defined, the virus was first identified in a captive "sentinel" macaque monkey in Africa in 1947. However, the virus has not been reported in humans or nonhuman primates (NHPs) in Africa outside Gabon in over a decade. Here, we examine ZIKV infection in 239 wild baboons and African green monkeys from South Africa, the Gambia, Tanzania, and Zambia using combinations of unbiased deep sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and an antibody capture assay that we optimized using serum collected from captive macaque monkeys exposed to ZIKV, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286672/is-ultrasonography-useful-for-population-studies-on-schistosomiasis-mansoni-an-evaluation-based-on-a-survey-on-a-population-from-kome-island-tanzania
#18
Mats Sl Asztely, Bo Eriksson, Reverianus M Gabone, Lars-Åke Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Observation of characteristic alterations at liver ultrasonography in clinical schistosomiasis mansoni cases has initiated utilization of this examination method in population surveys in areas where this disease is endemic. PURPOSE: To present results of liver ultrasonography and their relation to epidemiological data of a population in an area endemic for S. mansoni, to estimate the precision of classification of periportal anatomy changes known as periportal fibrosis (PPF), and to evaluate the relevance of ultrasonography in epidemiological studies on S...
December 2016: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283293/linking-energy-sanitation-agriculture-intersectional-resource-management-in-smallholder-households-in-tanzania
#19
Ariane Krause, Vera Susanne Rotter
In order to create sustainable systems for resource management, residues from cooking and ecological sanitation (EcoSan) can be employed in recycling-driven soil fertility management. However, the link between energy, sanitation, and agricultural productivity is often neglected. Hence, the potential self-sufficient nature of many smallholdings in sub-Saharan Africa is underexploited. OBJECTIVE: To compare those cooking and sanitation technologies most commonly used in north-western Tanzania with locally developed alternatives, with respect to (i) resource consumption, (ii) potential to recover resources, and (iii) environmental emissions...
March 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283146/health-libraries-and-information-services-in-tanzania-a-strategic-assessment
#20
Hussein Haruna, Majaliwa Mtoroki, Dan D Gerendasy, Ellen G Detlefsen
BACKGROUND: The intention of the Government of Tanzania is to establish more health information resource canters in all health facilities. With this regard, health information science personnel are needed to provide adequate and accurate health information services. However, availability of these personnel remains to be a challenge because of their non-existence. OBJECTIVE: To identify the current status and local impact of health sciences libraries and user perception of these libraries, as a prerequisite to the development of a competence-based curriculum for health information science training in Tanzania...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
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