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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791745/nursing-as-a-pathway-to-women-s-empowerment-and-inter-generational-mobility
#1
Sharon Brownie, Abdul Haq Wahedna, Nigel Crisp
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of nursing education on the intergenerational mobility of graduates of nursing upskilling programs. BACKGROUND: Challenges for low and middle-income countries include poverty and limited access to health, education, and social services compounded by workforce shortages, inequality, and female disempowerment. Little is known about the impact of nursing education on women's empowerment and intergenerational mobility in such settings...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788005/morphological-identification-of-hair-recovered-from-feces-for-detection-of-cannibalism-in-eastern-chimpanzees
#2
Christopher S Walker, Kara K Walker, Gabo Paulo, Anne E Pusey
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are primarily frugivorous but consume a variable amount of meat from a variety of organisms, including other chimpanzees. Cannibalism is rare, usually follows lethal aggression, and does not occur following natural deaths. While chimpanzee cannibalism has been documented at multiple sites, many instances of this behavior go unrecorded. Identification of chimpanzee remains in feces, however, can provide indirect evidence of cannibalism. Hair, in particular, typically passes through the gastrointestinal tract undamaged and is commonly used for purposes of identification in wildlife forensics...
May 22, 2018: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787579/conformity-of-package-inserts-information-to-regulatory-requirements-among-selected-branded-and-generic-medicinal-products-circulating-on-the-east-african-market
#3
Hiiti B Sillo, Nelson E Masota, Sunday Kisoma, Lembit Rago, Veronica Mgoyela, Eliangiringa A Kaale
BACKGROUND: Availability of correct and adequate information about medicines is an important aspect in ensuring rational use of medicines and hence facilitating safety and expected efficacy of medicines during therapy. Package inserts have proven to be a good source of information to the prescribers and patients whereby they have been useful in highlighting important information pertaining proper use and handling of the medicines. The present study was aimed at establishing the extent to which package inserts of medicines circulating on the markets of the East African Community (EAC) Partner States conform to medicines information requirements as established in the harmonized guidelines as well as national guidelines...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784001/appropriateness-of-malaria-diagnosis-and-treatment-for-fever-episodes-according-to-patient-history-and-anti-malarial-blood-measurement-a-cross-sectional-survey-from-tanzania
#4
Joanna Gallay, Dominic Mosha, Erick Lutahakana, Festo Mazuguni, Martin Zuakulu, Laurent Arthur Decosterd, Blaise Genton, Emilie Pothin
BACKGROUND: Monitoring the impact of case management strategies at large scale is essential to evaluate the public health benefit they confer. The use of methodologies relying on objective and standardized endpoints, such as drug levels in the blood, should be encouraged. Population drug use, diagnosis and treatment appropriateness in case of fever according to patient history and anti-malarials blood concentration was evaluated. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey took place between May and August 2015 in three regions of Tanzania with different levels of malaria endemicity...
May 21, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781882/no-hiv-transmission-from-virally-suppressed-mothers-during-breastfeeding-in-rural-tanzania
#5
Ezekiel Luoga, Fiona Vanobberghen, Rahel Bircher, Amina Nyuri, Alex J Ntamatungiro, Dorcas Mnzava, Getrud J Mollel, Emilio Letang, Manuel Battegay, Maja Weisser, Anna Gamell
BACKGROUND: To what extent antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) during breastfeeding remains unclear. We assessed the MTCT risk from mothers on ART to their infants during breastfeeding. SETTING: Ifakara, rural Tanzania. METHODS: We included infants born between 01/2013 and 05/2016 to mothers who initiated ART before delivery, had a negative HIV DNA-PCR at 4-12 weeks, and exclusively breastfed for ≥6 months...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780890/evaluation-of-an-e-learning-course-for-clubfoot-treatment-in-tanzania-a-multicenter-study
#6
Silvia D Vaca, Nicholus M Warstadt, Isidor H Ngayomela, Rachel Nungu, Emmanuel S Kowero, Sakti Srivastava
In total, 80% of clubfoot cases occur in low- and middle-income countries, where lack of clinical knowledge of the Ponseti method of treatment presents as a major barrier to treatment. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of an electronic learning course to teach clinicians in Tanzania Ponseti method theory. A total of 30 clinicians were recruited from clinics with high referral rates for clubfoot patients and invited to 1 of 3 training sites: Mbeya (n = 15), Zanzibar (n = 10), and Mwanza (n = 5)...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779491/trypanosoma-brucei-rhodesiense-infection-in-a-chinese-traveler-returning-from-the-serengeti-national-park-in-tanzania
#7
Qin Liu, Xiao-Ling Chen, Mu-Xin Chen, Han-Guo Xie, Qing Liu, Zhu-Yun Chen, Yao-Ying Lin, Hua Zheng, Jia-Xu Chen, Yi Zhang, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is one of the most complex parasitic diseases known to humankind. It usually occurs in endemic areas in Africa, but is occasionally detected in returning travelers and migrants in non-endemic countries. CASE PRESENTATION: In August 2017, a case of HAT was diagnosed in China in a traveler returning from the Masai Mara area in Kenya and the Serengeti area in Tanzania. The traveler visited Africa from 23 July to 5 August, 2017...
May 21, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778992/school-area-road-safety-assessment-and-improvements-sarsai-programme-reduces-road-traffic-injuries-among-children-in-tanzania
#8
Ayikai Poswayo, Simon Kalolo, Katheryn Rabonovitz, Jeffrey Witte, Alejandro Guerrero
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of a paediatric road traffic injury (RTI) prevention programme in urban Sub-Saharan Africa. SETTING: Dares Salaam, Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Household surveys were conducted in catchment areas around 18 primary schools in Dar es Salaam, Republic of Tanzania; the catchment areas were divided into control and intervention groups. Collected data included basic demographic information on all school-aged household members and whether or not they had been involved in an RTI in the previous 12 months, and, if so, what the characteristics of that RTI were...
May 19, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778630/bcg-vaccination-protects-against-infection-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-ascertained-by-tuberculin-skin-testing
#9
Pelzer Pt, Mutayoba B, Cobelens Fgj
OBJECTIVES: There is conflicting evidence as to whether Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination offers protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection ascertained by a positive tuberculin skin test (TST). We investigated the association between BCG vaccination status and TST results in a set of surveys at increasing TST cut-off values to take cross-reactions to BCG vaccination into account. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from three consecutive tuberculin surveys done among schoolchildren in Tanzania between 1990 and 2002...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778101/prevalence-of-self-reported-symptoms-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-knowledge-and-sexual-behaviour-among-youth-in-semi-rural-tanzania-in-the-period-of-adolescent-friendly-health-services-strategy-implementation
#10
Ramadhani Abdul, Annette A M Gerritsen, Mary Mwangome, Eveline Geubbels
BACKGROUND: Global evidence shows that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) prevalence and sexual risk behaviours are high among youth, and knowledge about STIs is low. In Tanzania, there is limited recent evidence regarding these issues. The aim of this study was to describe the health seeking behaviour of youth reporting STI symptoms in semi-rural Tanzania and to evaluate the association of socio-demographic characteristics, STI knowledge and sexual risk behaviour with STI symptom reporting...
May 19, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774893/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-sensitivity-pattern-of-urinary-tract-infection-among-children-with-cerebral-palsy-moshi-tanzania
#11
Amon Ryakitimbo, Rune Philemon, Festo Mazuguni, Levina Msuya
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is a challenging yet common clinical condition. Children with CP bare the greatest risk of contracting UTI because of their difficulties in neuromotor control which lead to delay of bladder control, causing incomplete bladder emptying and urine retention. Method: This was an analytical cross-sectional study that was conducted from September 2016 to March 2017 at Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania - Moshi and Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre Neurological Pediatrics Outpatient Clinic...
2018: Pediatric Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774840/widespread-treponema-pallidum-infection-in-nonhuman-primates-tanzania
#12
Idrissa S Chuma, Emmanuel K Batamuzi, D Anthony Collins, Robert D Fyumagwa, Luisa K Hallmaier-Wacker, Rudovick R Kazwala, Julius D Keyyu, Inyasi A Lejora, Iddi F Lipende, Simone Lüert, Filipa M D Paciência, Alexander Piel, Fiona A Stewart, Dietmar Zinner, Christian Roos, Sascha Knauf
We investigated Treponema pallidum infection in 8 nonhuman primate species (289 animals) in Tanzania during 2015-2017. We used a serologic treponemal test to detect antibodies against the bacterium. Infection was further confirmed from tissue samples of skin-ulcerated animals by 3 independent PCRs (polA, tp47, and TP_0619). Our findings indicate that T. pallidum infection is geographically widespread in Tanzania and occurs in several species (olive baboons, yellow baboons, vervet monkeys, and blue monkeys)...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773229/oldowan-technological-behaviour-at-hwk-ee-olduvai-gorge-tanzania
#13
Ignacio de la Torre, Rafael Mora
HWK EE (Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania) is a late Oldowan site dated to ∼1.7 Ma that contains a large fossil and lithic assemblage. This paper reports on the technology of the recently excavated stone tool collection, over 18,000 pieces. Our results indicate that reduction sequences were generally short, flaking productivity was low, and knapping methods were largely simple and expedient, lacking the technical skills observed in other Oldowan assemblages. Conspicuous differences are observed in the chaînes opératoires of the three main raw materials used at HWK EE: the quartzite reduction sequence can be reconstructed in full at the site, most of the lava detached pieces are missing, and there is a preferential use of chert for retouched tools...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771998/risk-factors-for-inappropriate-blood-requisition-among-hospitals-in-tanzania
#14
Wilhellmuss I Mauka, Tara B Mtuy, Michael J Mahande, Sia E Msuya, Innocent B Mboya, Abdul Juma, Rune N Philemon
BACKGROUND: Blood is a critical aspect of treatment in life saving situations, increasing demand. Blood requisition practices greatly effect sufficient supply in blood banks. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for inappropriate blood requisition in Tanzania. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study using secondary data of 14,460 patients' blood requests from 42 transfusion hospitals. Primary data were obtained by using cluster-sampling design. Data were analysed using a two-level mixed-effects Poisson regression to determine fixed-effects of individual-level factors and hospital level factors associated with inappropriate blood requests...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770721/drivers-of-patient-costs-in-accessing-hiv-aids-services-in-tanzania
#15
Thomas Mnzava, Eunice Mmari, Andres Berruti
BACKGROUND: Patient costs pose a challenge in accessing antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The study aimed at identifying drivers for out-of-pocket (OOP) costs in Tanzania. METHODS: In 2009, 500 adult patients who attended 10 HIV clinics across 7 regions of Tanzania were asked about time and resources consumed to access HIV services. Bivariate and multivariate median regression models were used to determine the main drivers for OOP costs...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769582/mathematical-models-of-human-mobility-of-relevance-to-malaria-transmission-in-africa
#16
John M Marshall, Sean L Wu, Hector M Sanchez C, Samson S Kiware, Micky Ndhlovu, André Lin Ouédraogo, Mahamoudou B Touré, Hugh J Sturrock, Azra C Ghani, Neil M Ferguson
As Africa-wide malaria prevalence declines, an understanding of human movement patterns is essential to inform how best to target interventions. We fitted movement models to trip data from surveys conducted at 3-5 sites throughout each of Mali, Burkina Faso, Zambia and Tanzania. Two models were compared in terms of their ability to predict the observed movement patterns - a gravity model, in which movement rates between pairs of locations increase with population size and decrease with distance, and a radiation model, in which travelers are cumulatively "absorbed" as they move outwards from their origin of travel...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769124/knowledge-towards-cervical-cancer-prevention-and-screening-practices-among-women-who-attended-reproductive-and-child-health-clinic-at-magu-district-hospital-lake-zone-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Mabula M Mabelele, John Materu, Faraja D Ng'ida, Michael J Mahande
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a global leading cause of morbidity and mortality, attributable to the death of approximately 266,000 women every year. Majority (87%) of cervical cancer deaths occur in developing countries including Tanzania. Though knowledge of cervical cancer is an important determinant of women's participation in prevention and screening for cervical cancer, little is known about this topic in Tanzania. This study aimed to determine the knowledge of cervical cancer prevention services and screening practices among women who attended Reproductive Child Health clinic at a district hospital in Lake Zone, Tanzania...
May 16, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767818/adapting-the-risk-environment-framework-to-understand-substance-use-gender-based-violence-and-hiv-risk-behaviors-among-female-sex-workers-in-tanzania
#18
Anna M Leddy, Carol Underwood, Michele R Decker, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Noya Galai, Deanna Kerrigan
Female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by HIV and gender-based violence (GBV). Substance use overlaps with these co-occurring epidemics to further increase FSWs' risk for negative health outcomes. We explored the relationship between substance use, GBV, and consistent condom use utilizing baseline data from a cohort of 496 FSWs in Tanzania. Results demonstrate high levels of alcohol use and GBV, and low levels of consistent condom use. Frequent intoxication during sex work was associated with increased odds of recent GBV (aOR 1...
May 16, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764384/caesarean-section-audit-to-improve-quality-of-care-in-a-rural-referral-hospital-in-tanzania
#19
Luuk Dekker, Tessa Houtzager, Omary Kilume, John Horogo, Jos van Roosmalen, Angelo Sadock Nyamtema
BACKGROUND: Caesarean section (CS) is often a life-saving procedure, but can also lead to serious complications, even more so in low-resource settings. Therefore unnecessary CS should be avoided and optimal circumstances for vaginal delivery should be created. In this study, we aim to audit indications for Caesarean sections and improve decision-making and obstetric management. METHODS: Audit of all cases of CS performed from January to August 2013 was performed in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania...
May 15, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761418/growing-and-learning-when-consumption-is-seasonal-long-term-evidence-from-tanzania
#20
Paul Christian, Brian Dillon
This article shows that the seasonality of food consumption during childhood, conditional on average consumption, affects long-run human capital development. We develop a model that distinguishes differences in average consumption levels, seasonal fluctuations, and idiosyncratic shocks, and estimate the model using panel data from early 1990s Tanzania. We then test whether the mean and seasonality of a child's consumption profile affect height and educational attainment in 2010. Results show that the negative effects of greater seasonality are 30 % to 60 % of the magnitudes of the positive effects of greater average consumption...
May 14, 2018: Demography
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