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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156358/peer-norms-moderate-the-association-between-mental-health-and-sexual-risk-behaviors-among-young-men-living-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#1
L M Hill, J Moody, N C Gottfredson, L J Kajula, B W Pence, V F Go, S Maman
BACKGROUND: Young men living in Dar es Salaam's informal settlements face environmental stressors that may expose them to multiple determinants of HIV risk including poor mental health and risky sexual behavior norms. We aimed to understand how these co-occurring risk factors not only independently affect men's condom use and sexual partner concurrency, but also how they interact to shape these risk behaviors. METHODS: Participants in the study were male members of 59 social groups known as "camps" in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania...
November 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156310/context-and-characteristics-of-illicit-drug-use-in-coastal-and-interior-tanzania
#2
Jenny Tiberio, Yovin Ivo Laurent, Joel Ndayongeje, Amani Msami, Susie Welty, Alois Ngonyani, Syangu Mwankemwa, Moza Makumbuli, Willi McFarland, Meghan D Morris
BACKGROUND: An increase in heroin seizures in East Africa may signal wider local consumption of illicit drugs. Most information about drug use in Tanzania is from the economic capital, Dar es Salaam, and well-travelled Zanzibar. More data are needed on the extent, trends, and characteristics of illicit drug use in the vast coast and interior of the country. METHODS: The study was a rapid assessment, triangulating data from in-depth interviews of primary key informants (people who use drugs [PWUD]), secondary informants (police, community members, service providers), and ethnographic mapping of hotspots in 12 regions of Tanzania...
November 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155665/cholera-mortality-during-urban-epidemic-dar-es-salaam-tanzania-august-16-2015-january-16-2016-1
#3
Lindsey S McCrickard, Amani Elibariki Massay, Rupa Narra, Janneth Mghamba, Ahmed Abade Mohamed, Rogath Saika Kishimba, Loveness John Urio, Neema Rusibayamila, Grace Magembe, Muhammud Bakari, James J Gibson, Rachel Barwick Eidex, Robert E Quick
In 2015, a cholera epidemic occurred in Tanzania; most cases and deaths occurred in Dar es Salaam early in the outbreak. We evaluated cholera mortality through passive surveillance, burial permits, and interviews conducted with decedents' caretakers. Active case finding identified 101 suspected cholera deaths. Routine surveillance had captured only 48 (48%) of all cholera deaths, and burial permit assessments captured the remainder. We interviewed caregivers of 56 decedents to assess cholera management behaviors...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153333/new-excavations-at-the-hwk-ee-site-archaeology-paleoenvironment-and-site-formation-processes-during-late-oldowan-times-at-olduvai-gorge-tanzania
#4
Ignacio de la Torre, Rosa M Albert, Adrián Arroyo, Richard Macphail, Lindsay J McHenry, Rafael Mora, Jackson K Njau, Michael C Pante, Carlos A Rivera-Rondón, Ágata Rodríguez-Cintas, Ian G Stanistreet, Harald Stollhofen, Karol Wehr
This paper reports the results of renewed fieldwork at the HWK EE site (Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania). HWK EE is positioned across the boundary between Lower and Middle Bed II, a crucial interval for studying the emergence of the Acheulean at Olduvai Gorge. Our excavations at HWK EE have produced one of the largest collections of fossils and artefacts from any Oldowan site, distributed across several archaeological units and a large excavation surface in four separate trenches that can be stratigraphically correlated...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152419/supradapedon-revisited-geological-explorations-in-the-triassic-of-southern-tanzania
#5
Max C Langer, Átila A S da Rosa, Felipe C Montefeltro
The upper Triassic deposits of the Selous Basin in south Tanzania have not been prospected for fossil tetrapods since the middle of last century, when Gordon M. Stockley collected two rhynchosaur bone fragments from the so called "Tunduru beds". Here we present the results of a field trip conducted in July 2015 to the vicinities of Tunduru and Msamara, Ruvuma Region, Tanzania, in search for similar remains. Even if unsuccessful in terms of fossil discoveries, the geological mapping conducted during the trip improved our knowledge of the deposition systems of the southern margin of the Selous Basin during the Triassic, allowing tentative correlations to its central part and to neighbouring basins...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152308/emergency-blood-transfusion-practices-among-anaemic-children-presenting-to-an-urban-emergency-department-of-a-tertiary-hospital-in-tanzania
#6
Catherine R Shari, Hendry R Sawe, Brittany L Murray, Victor G Mwafongo, Juma A Mfinanga, Michael S Runyon
Background: Severe anaemia contributes significantly to mortality, especially in children under 5 years of age. Timely blood transfusion is known to improve outcomes. We investigated the magnitude of anaemia and emergency blood transfusion practices amongst children under 5 years presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) of Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Tanzania. Methods: This prospective observational study enrolled children under 5 years old with anaemia, over a 7-week period in August and September of 2015...
2017: BMC Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149073/micronutrient-deficiencies-among-breastfeeding-infants-in-tanzania
#7
Alexandra L Bellows, Emily R Smith, Alfa Muhihi, Christina Briegleb, Ramadhani A Noor, Salum Mshamu, Christopher Sudfeld, Honorati Masanja, Wafaie W Fawzi
Infant mortality accounts for the majority of child deaths in Tanzania, and malnutrition is an important underlying cause. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to describe the micronutrient status of infants in Tanzania and assess predictors of infant micronutrient deficiency. We analyzed serum vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, and ferritin levels from 446 infants at two weeks of age, 408 infants at three months of age, and 427 mothers three months post-partum. We used log-Poisson regression to estimate relative risk of being deficient in vitamin D and vitamin B12 for infants in each age group...
November 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147848/simultaneous-point-of-care-detection-of-anemia-and-sickle-cell-disease-in-tanzania-the-rapid-study
#8
Luke R Smart, Emmanuela E Ambrose, Kevin C Raphael, Adolfine Hokororo, Erasmus Kamugisha, Erika A Tyburski, Wilbur A Lam, Russell E Ware, Patrick T McGann
Both anemia and sickle cell disease (SCD) are highly prevalent across sub-Saharan Africa, and limited resources exist to diagnose these conditions quickly and accurately. The development of simple, inexpensive, and accurate point-of-care (POC) assays represents an important advance for global hematology, one that could facilitate timely and life-saving medical interventions. In this prospective study, Robust Assays for Point-of-care Identification of Disease (RAPID), we simultaneously evaluated a POC immunoassay (Sickle SCAN™) to diagnose SCD and a first-generation POC color-based assay to detect anemia...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147116/influence-of-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-practices-on-common-infections-among-under-five-children-in-longido-and-monduli-districts-of-arusha-tanzania
#9
Hoyce Amini Mshida, Neema Kassim, Martin Epafras Kimanya, Emmanuel Mpolya
The study aimed at assessing water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and their influence on infectious diseases among under-five children in semipastoral communities of Arusha. The study was cross-sectional in design. Prevalence of infectious diseases among under-five children was derived from patients' attendance register. Mothers randomly sampled from households were interviewed using questionnaire. Information regarding child morbidity and sociodemographic and WASH characteristics was gathered. Hospital data revealed that 2/3 of under-five patients visited the hospitals annually were suffering from infectious diseases...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147059/tetanus-in-adult-males-bugando-medical-centre-united-republic-of-tanzania
#10
Riaz Aziz, Robert N Peck, Samuel Kalluvya, Bernard Kenemo, Alphonce Chandika, Jennifer A Downs
Problem: In the United Republic of Tanzania, the incidence of non-neonatal circumcision-related tetanus is probably underreported. Approach: We analysed charts and extracted information on outcome and wound location for non-neonatal cases of tetanus admitted to the intensive care unit of Bugando Medical Centre between 2001 and 2016. Local setting: Bugando Medical Centre, which is one of four teaching referral hospitals in the United Republic of Tanzania, has a 13-bed intensive care unit that manages all admitted patients with tetanus...
November 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147054/service-readiness-of-health-facilities-in-bangladesh-haiti-kenya-malawi-namibia-nepal-rwanda-senegal-uganda-and-the-united-republic-of-tanzania
#11
Hannah H Leslie, Donna Spiegelman, Xin Zhou, Margaret E Kruk
Objective: To evaluate the service readiness of health facilities in Bangladesh, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nepal, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Methods: Using existing data from service provision assessments of the health systems of the 10 study countries, we calculated a service readiness index for each of 8443 health facilities. This index represents the percentage availability of 50 items that the World Health Organization considers essential for providing health care...
November 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145463/the-chicken-or-the-egg-exploring-bi-directional-associations-between-newcastle-disease-vaccination-and-village-chicken-flock-size-in-rural-tanzania
#12
Julia de Bruyn, Peter C Thomson, Brigitte Bagnol, Wende Maulaga, Elpidius Rukambile, Robyn G Alders
Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143624/randomized-controlled-pilot-of-a-group-antenatal-care-model-and-the-sociodemographic-factors-associated-with-pregnancy-related-empowerment-in-sub-saharan-africa
#13
Crystal L Patil, Carrie S Klima, Sebalda C Leshabari, Alana D Steffen, Heather Pauls, Molly McGown, Kathleen F Norr
BACKGROUND: The links between empowerment and a number of health-related outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa have been documented, but empowerment related to pregnancy is under-investigated. Antenatal care (ANC) is the entry point into the healthcare system for most women, so it is important to understand how ANC affects aspects of women's sense of control over their pregnancy. We compare pregnancy-related empowerment for women randomly assigned to the standard of care versus CenteringPregnancy-based group ANC (intervention) in two sub-Saharan countries, Malawi and Tanzania...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143618/using-the-missed-opportunity-tool-as-an-application-of-the-lives-saved-tool-list-for-intervention-prioritization
#14
Yvonne Tam, Luwei Pearson
BACKGROUND: The Missed Opportunity tool was developed as an application in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to allow users to quickly compare the relative impact of interventions. Global Financing Facility (GFF) investment cases have been identified as a potential application of the Missed Opportunity analyses in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania, to use 'lives saved' as a normative factor to set priorities. METHODS: The Missed Opportunity analysis draws on data and methods in LiST to project maternal, stillbirth, and child deaths averted based on changes in interventions' coverage...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142588/characterization-of-hormonal-receptors-and-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-in-tissues-of-women-with-breast-cancer-at-muhimbili-national-hospital-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#15
Amos Rodger Mwakigonja, Nyanda Elias Lushina, Ally Mwanga
Background: Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and deaths among women worldwide. In Tanzania there is no published data on human epidermal growth receptor-2 (HER2/neu) expression in breast carcinoma. Hormonal receptors and HER2/neu status reportedly influence post-mastectomy adjuvant therapy and predict treatment outcome and prognosis. Here we evaluate hormonal receptors and HER-2 status in biopsies of women with breast cancer at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). Methods: A cross-sectional study of female breast post-modified radical mastectomy (MRM)/incisional biopsies confirmed to be carcinoma at the Histopathology Unit (January-December 2013)...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140871/hiv-prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#16
Elia John Mmbaga, Kåre Moen, Germana Henry Leyna, Rose Mpembeni, Melkizedeck Thomas Leshabari
INTRODUCTION: Limited studies and differential risk behaviours among men who have sex with men(MSM) in Africa calls for population specific studies. We present results from the largest integrated bio-behavioural survey among MSM in Africa to inform programming. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study utilizing respondent driven sampling to recruit MSM aged 18 and above. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and HIV-related risks were collected and all participants were tested for HIV, Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 (HSV-2), Hepatitis-B Virus (HBV) and Syphilis...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137678/disentangling-regional-trade-agreements-trade-flows-and-tobacco-affordability-in-sub-saharan-africa
#17
Adriana Appau, Jeffrey Drope, Ronald Labonté, Michal Stoklosa, Raphael Lencucha
BACKGROUND: In principle, trade and investment agreements are meant to boost economic growth. However, the removal of trade barriers and the provision of investment incentives to attract foreign direct investments may facilitate increased trade in and/or more efficient production of commodities considered harmful to health such as tobacco. We analyze existing evidence on trade and investment liberalization and its relationship to tobacco trade in Sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: We compare tobacco trading patterns to foreign direct investments made by tobacco companies...
November 14, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137513/trends-in-the-alignment-and-harmonization-of-reproductive-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-funding-2008-13
#18
Melisa Martinez-Alvarez, Arnab Acharya, Leonardo Arregoces, Lara Brearley, Catherine Pitt, Christopher Grollman, Josephine Borghi
Donor financing to low- and middle-income countries for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health increased substantially from 2008 to 2013. However, increased spending by donors might not improve outcomes, if funds are delivered in ways that undermine countries' public financial management systems and incur high transaction costs for project implementation. We combined quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the quality of funding for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health globally and in Tanzania, based on two principles of aid effectiveness: the alignment of donor financing with the recipient country's public health financial management systems, and donor harmonization for coordinated, transparent, and collectively effective actions...
November 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132687/pliocene-crocodiles-from-kanapoi-turkana-basin-kenya
#19
Christopher A Brochu
Three crocodylid species are known from the Pliocene Kanapoi locality in the western Turkana Basin. One of these, Crocodylus thorbjarnarsoni, includes material previously referred to Crocodylus niloticus (the modern Nile crocodile currently living in Lake Turkana) and Rimasuchus lloydi. C. thorbjarnarsoni was a gigantic horned crocodile similar in overall shape to most other generalized crocodylids, but its closest known relative is another extinct species, Crocodylus anthropophagus from the Pleistocene of Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132398/traditions-beliefs-and-indigenous-technologies-in-connection-with-the-edible-longhorn-grasshopper-ruspolia-differens-serville-1838-in-tanzania
#20
Mercy W Mmari, John N Kinyuru, Henry S Laswai, Judith K Okoth
BACKGROUND: Edible insects are an important source of food to many African populations. The longhorn grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Serville 1838), commonly known as senene in Tanzania is one of the most appreciated edible insects by societies around Lake Victoria crescent. Senene is primarily an essential treat for the tribes around the lake, e.g., the Haya of Tanzania, Luo of Kenya and Baganda of Uganda. Despite its importance as a food item and appreciation as a delicacy, there are few studies dealing with culture, beliefs and indigenous technology in connection with the senene...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
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